Shaih Bukhari Sharif

Imam Muhammad Bin Ismail Bukhari

(Statements made under) Coercion

Ahadith 13

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful


Allah said:

مَنْ كَفَرَ بِاللَّهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ إِيمَانِهِ ... وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

Anyone who, after accepting faith in Allah, utters unbelief, except under compulsion,

his heart remaining firm in faith but such as open their breast to unbelief,

on them is Wrath from Allah, and theirs will be a dreadful Penalty.(16:106)

And he said in Surah Nisa:

وَدُّوا لَوْ تَكْفُرُونَ كَمَا كَفَرُوا فَتَكُونُونَ سَوَاءً ۖ... وَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا مِنْهُمْ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا

They but wish that ye should reject faith, as they do, and thus be on the same footing(as they):

but take not friends from their ranks until they flee in the way of Allah(from what is forbidden).

But if they turn renegades, seize them and slay them wherever ye find them?

and(in any case)take no friends or helpers from their ranks. (4:89)

And he said in Surah Nisa:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَفَّاهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ ... قَالُوا أَلَمْ تَكُنْ أَرْضُ اللَّهِ وَاسِعَةً فَتُهَاجِرُوا فِيهَا ۚ

When angels take the souls of those who die in sin against their souls,

they say: "In what(plight)were ye?"

They reply: "Weak and oppressed were we in the earth."

They say: "Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to move yourselves away(from evil)?" (4:97)

Imam Bukhari, said about this verse, Allah Almighty has disabled those weak people from not carrying out the commandments of Allah, and whoever is forced to do so is also weak, because what Allah Almighty has forbidden is that he forced to do.

And Imam Hasan Basri said that the justification of piety is for the Day of Resurrection.

And the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said that actions are based on intentions.

Hadith # 6940

Narrated Abi Huraira:

The Prophet (pbuh) used to invoke Allah in his prayer,

"O Allah! Save `Aiyash bin Abi Rabi`a and Salama bin Hisham and Al-Walid bin Al-Walid;

O Allah! Save the weak among the believers;

O Allah! Be hard upon the tribe of Mudar

and inflict years (of famine) upon them like the (famine) years of Joseph."

Whoever preferred to be beaten killed and humiliated rather than to revert to Kufr

Hadith # 6941

Narrated Anas:

Allah's Messenger (pbuh) said, "Whoever possesses the (following) three qualities will have the sweetness of faith

- The one to whom Allah and His Apostle becomes dearer than anything else;

- Who loves a person and he loves him only for Allah's Sake;

- who hates to revert to atheism (disbelief) as he hates to be thrown into the Fire."

Hadith # 6942

Narrated Qais:

I heard Sa`id bin Zaid saying,

"I have seen myself tied and forced by `Umar to leave Islam (Before `Umar himself embraced Islam). And if the mountain of Uhud were to collapse for the evil which you people had done to `Uthman, then Uhud would have the right to do so."

Hadith # 6943

Narrated Khabbab bin Al-Art:

We complained to Allah's Messenger (pbuh) (about our state) while he was leaning against his sheet cloak in the shade of the Ka`ba. We said, "Will you ask Allah to help us? Will you invoke Allah for us?"

He said,

"Among those who were before you a (believer) used to be seized and, a pit used to be dug for him and then he used to be placed in it. Then a saw used to be brought and put on his head which would be split into two halves.

His flesh might be combed with iron combs and removed from his bones, yet, all that did not cause him to revert from his religion.

By Allah! This religion (Islam) will be completed (and triumph) till a rider (traveler) goes from San`a' (the capital of Yemen) to Hadramout fearing nobody except Allah and the wolf lest it should trouble his sheep, but you are impatient."

Selling under coercion or other circumstances to repay a debt

Hadith # 6944

Narrated Abu Huraira:

While we were in the mosque, Allah's Messenger (pbuh) came out to us and said, "Let us proceed to the Jews." So we went along with him till we reached Bait-al-Midras (a place where the Torah used to be recited and all the Jews of the town used to gather).

The Prophet (pbuh) stood up and addressed them, "O Assembly of Jews! Embrace Islam and you will be safe!"

The Jews replied, "O Aba-l-Qasim! You have conveyed Allah's message to us."

The Prophet (pbuh) said, "That is what I want (from you)."

He repeated his first statement for the second time, and they said, "You have conveyed Allah's message, O Aba-l- Qasim."

Then he said it for the third time and added,

"You should Know that the earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle, and I want to exile you fro,,, this land, so whoever among you owns some property, can sell it, otherwise you should know that the Earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle."

Marriage under coercion is invalid

Hadith # 6945

Narrated Khansa' bint Khidam Al-Ansariya:

That her father gave her in marriage when she was a matron and she disliked that marriage. So she came and (complained) to the Prophets and he declared that marriage invalid.

Hadith # 6946

Narrated `Aisha:

I asked the Prophet, "O Allah's Messenger (pbuh)! Should the women be asked for their consent to their marriage?" He said, "Yes."

I said, "A virgin, if asked, feels shy and keeps quiet." He said, "Her silence means her consent."

If someone gives a slave as a present or sold him under coercion, his deed is invalid

Hadith # 6947

Narrated Jabir:

A man from the Ansar made his slave, a Mudabbar. And apart from that slave he did not have any other property. This news reached Allah's Messenger (pbuh) and he said, "Who will buy that slave from me?" So Nu'aim bin An-Nahham bought him for 800 Dirham.

Jabir added: It was a coptic (Egyptian) slave who died that year.


Hadith # 6948

Narrated Ibn `Abbas:

Regarding the Qur'anic Verse:

يَأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لا يَحِلُّ لَكُمْ أَنْ تَرِثُوا النِّسَاءَ كَرْهًا

'O you who believe! You are forbidden to inherit women against their will.' (4.19)

The custom (in the Pre-Islamic Period) was that

if a man died, his relatives used to have the right to inherit his wife,

and if one of them wished, he could marry her, or they could marry her to somebody else,

or prevent her from marrying if they wished, for they had more right to dispose of her than her own relatives.

Therefore this Verse was revealed concerning this matter.

If a woman is compelled to commit illegal sexual intercourse against her will

Hadith # 6949

And Safiyya bint 'Ubaid said:

"A governmental male-slave tried to seduce a slave-girl from the Khumus of the war booty till he deflowered her by force against her will; therefore 'Umar flogged him according to the law, and exiled him, but he did not flog the female slave because the male-slave had committed illegal sexual intercourse by force, against her will."

Az-Zuhri said regarding a virgin slave-girl raped by a free man:

The judge has to fine the adulterer as much money as is equal to the price of the female slave and the adulterer has to be flogged (according to the Islamic Law); but if the slave woman is a matron, then, according to the verdict of the Imam, the adulterer is not fined but he has to receive the legal punishment (according to the Islamic Law).

Hadith # 6950

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah's Messenger (pbuh) said,

"The Prophet) Abraham migrated with his wife Sarah till he reached a town where there was a king or a tyrant who sent a message, to Abraham, ordering him to send Sarah to him. So when Abraham had sent Sarah, the tyrant got up, intending to do evil with her, but she got up and performed ablution and prayed and said,

'O Allah! If I have believed in You and in Your Apostle, then do not empower this oppressor over me.'

So he (the king) had an epileptic fit and started moving his legs violently. "

The oath of a man that his companion is his brother when he fears

Hadith # 6951

Narrated `Abdullah bin `Umar:

Allah's Messenger (pbuh) said,

"A Muslim is a brother of another Muslim. So he should neither oppress him nor hand him over to an oppressor. And whoever fulfilled the needs of his brother, Allah will fulfill his needs."

Hadith # 6952

Narrated Anas:

Allah's Messenger (pbuh) said,

"Help your brother whether he is an oppressor or an oppressed,"

A man said, "O Allah's Messenger (pbuh)! I will help him if he is oppressed, but if he is an oppressor, how shall I help him?"

The Prophet (pbuh) said, "By preventing him from oppressing (others), for that is how to help him."

Copy Rights:

Zahid Javed Rana, Abid Javed Rana,

Lahore, Pakistan


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