Tafsir ibn Kathir, is a classic Sunni Islam Tafsir (commentary of the Qur'an) by Imad ud Din Ibn Kathir. It is considered to be a summary of the earlier Tafsir al-Tabari. It is popular because it uses Hadith to explain each verse and chapter of the Qur'an…'Imad Ad-Din, Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir, was born in 1301 in Busra, Syria and was taught by Ibn Taymiyya, Al-Mizzi, Ibn Al Firkah, ‘Isa bin Al-Mutim, Ahmed bin Abi-Talib, Ibn Al-Hajjar, Baha Ad-Din Al-Qasim bin Muzaffar bin ‘Asakir, Ibn Ash-Shirazi, Ishaq bin Yahya Al-Ammuddi, Zahriyyah Shaykh, and Muhammad bin Zarrad.
Surah Al Baqarah
Tafsir Of Ayah
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
Allah hears the Servant's Supplication
وَإِذَا سَأَلَكَ عِبَادِي عَنِّي فَإِنِّي قَرِيبٌ أُجِيبُ دَعْوَةَ الدَّاعِ إِذَا دَعَانِ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُواْ لِي وَلْيُؤْمِنُواْ بِي لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْشُدُونَ ﴿١٨٦﴾
And when My servants ask you (O Muhammad concerning Me, then answer them), I am indeed near (to them by My knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor). So let them obey Me and believe in Me, so that they may be led aright.
Imam Ahmad reported that Abu Musa Al-Ashari said,
"We were in the company of Allah's Messenger during a battle. Whenever we climbed a high place, went up a hill or went down a valley, we used to say, `Allah is the Most Great,' raising our voices.
The Prophet came by us and said:
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، ارْبَعُوا عَلى أَنْفُسِكُمْ، فَإِنَّكُمْ لَا تَدْعُونَ أَصَمَّ ولَا غَائِبًا، إنَّمَا تَدْعُونَ سَمِيعًا بَصِيرًا، إنَّ الَّذي تَدْعُونَ أَقْربُ إِلَى أَحَدِكُمْ مِنْ عُنُقِ رَاحِلَتِهِ، يا عَبْدَاللهِ بْنَ قَيْسٍ، أَلَا أُعَلِّمُكَ كَلِمَةً مِنْ كُنُوزِ الْجَنَّةِ؟ لَا حَوْلَ وَلَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِالله
O people! Be merciful to yourselves (i.e., don't raise your voices), for you are not calling a deaf or an absent one, but One Who is All-Hearer, All-Seer. The One Whom you call is closer to one of you than the neck of his animal.
O Abdullah bin Qais (Abu Musa's name) should I teach you a statement that is a treasure of Paradise: `La hawla wa la quwwata illa billah (there is no power or strength except from Allah).'
This Hadith was also recorded in the Two Sahihs, and Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah recorded similar wordings.
Furthermore, Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that the Prophet said:
يَقُولُ اللهُ تَعَالى أَنَا عِنْدَ ظَنِّ عَبْدِي بِي وَأَنَا مَعَهُ إِذَا دَعَانِي
"Allah the Exalted said, `I am as My servant thinks of Me, and I am with him whenever he invokes Me.'
Allah accepts the Invocation
Imam Ahmad also recorded Abu Sa`id saying that the Prophet said:
مَا مِنْ مُسْلِمٍ يَدْعُو اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِدَعْوَةٍ لَيْسَ فِيها إِثْمٌ ولَا قَطِيعَةُ رَحِمٍ، إلَّا أَعْطَاهُ اللهُ بِهَا إِحْدَى ثَلَاثِ خِصَالٍ: إِمَّا أَنْ يُعَجِّل لَهُ دَعْوَتَهُ، وَإِمَّا أَنْ يَدَّخِرَهَا لَهُ فِي الأُخْرَى، وَإِمَّا أَنْ يَصْرِفَ عَنْهُ مِنَ السُّوءِ مِثْلَهَا
No Muslim supplicates to Allah with a Du`a that does not involve sin or cutting the relations of the womb, but Allah will grant him one of the three things.
They said, "What if we were to recite more (Du`a).''
He said, اللهُ أَكْثَر There is more with Allah.
Abdullah the son of Imam Ahmad recorded Ubaydah bin As-Samit saying that the Prophet said:
مَا عَلى ظَهْرِ الأَرْضِ مِنْ رَجُلٍ مُسْلِمٍ يَدْعُو اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بَدَعْوَةٍ إِلَّا آتَاهُ اللهُ إيَّاهَا، أَوْ كَفَّ عَنْهُ مِنَ السُّوءِ مِثْلَهَا مَا لَمْ يَدْعُ بِإِثْمٍ أَوْ قَطِيعَةِ رَحِم
There is no Muslim man on the face of the earth who supplicates to Allah but Allah would either grant it to him, or avert harm from him of equal proportions, as long as his supplication does not involve sin or cutting the relations of the womb.
At-Tirmidhi recorded this Hadith.
Imam Malik recorded that Abu Hurayrah narrated that Allah's Messenger said:
يُسْتَجَابُ لأَحَدِكُمْ مَالَمْ يَعْجَلْ، يَقُولُ: دَعَوْتُ فَلَمْ يُسْتَجَبْ لِي
One's supplication will be accepted as long as he does not get hasty and say, `I have supplicated but it has not been accepted from me.''
This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs from Malik, and this is the wording of Al-Bukhari.
Muslim recorded that the Prophet said:
لا يَزَالُ يُسْتَجابُ لِلْعَبْدِ مَا لَمْ يَدْعُ بِإِثْم أَوْ قَطِيعَةِ رَحِمٍ مَا لَمْ يَسْتَعْجِل
The supplication of the servant will be accepted as long as he does not supplicate for what includes sin, or cutting the relations of the womb, and as long as he does not become hasty.
He was asked, "O Messenger of Allah! How does one become hasty?''
قَدْ دَعَوْتُ وقَدْ دَعَوْتُ، فَلَمْ أَرَ يُسْتَجَابُ لِي، فَيَسْتَحْسِرُ عِنْدَ ذلِكَ وَيَدَعُ الدُّعَاء
He says, `I supplicated and supplicated, but I do not see that my supplication is being accepted from me.' He thus looses interest and abandons supplicating (to Allah).
Three Persons Whose Supplication will not be rejected
In the Musnad of Imam Ahmad and the Sunans of At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah it is recorded that;
Abu Hurayrah narrated that Allah's Messenger said:
ثَلاَثةٌ لَا تُرَدُّ دَعْوَتُهُمْ: الْإمَامُ الْعَادِلُ، وَالصَّائِمُ حَتَّى يُفْطِرَ، وَدَعْوَةُ الْمَظْلُومِ، يَرْفَعُهَا اللهُ دُونَ الْغَمَامِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ، وَتُفْتَحُ لَهَا أَبْوَابُ السَّمَاءِ، يَقُولُ: بِعِزَّتِي لَأَنْصُرَنَّكَ وَلَوْ بَعْدَ حِين
Three persons will not have their supplication rejected:
for Allah raises it above the clouds on the Day of Resurrection, and the doors of heaven will be opened for it, and Allah says, `By My grace! I will certainly grant it for you, even if after a while.'
Eating, Drinking and Sexual Intercourse are allowed during the Nights of Ramadan
أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ الصِّيَامِ الرَّفَثُ إِلَى نِسَآئِكُمْ ...
It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of As-Siyam (fasting).
These Ayat contain a relief from Allah for the Muslims by ending the practice that was observed in the early years of Islam. At that time, Muslims were allowed to eat, drink and have sexual intercourse only until the `Isha' (Night) prayer, unless one sleeps before the `Isha' prayer. Those who slept before `Isha' or offered the `Isha' prayer, were not allowed to drink, eat or sexual intercourse sex until the next night. The Muslims found that to be difficult for them.
According to Ibn Abbas, Ata and Mujahid,
the Ayat used the word `Rafath' to indicate sexual intercourse,
Similar Tafsir was offered by Sa`id bin Jubayr, Tawus, Salim bin Abdullah, Amr bin Dinar, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Az-Zuhri, Ad-Dahhak, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, As-Suddi, Ata Al-Khurasani and Muqatil bin Hayyan.
... هُنَّ لِبَاسٌ لَّكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لِبَاسٌ لَّهُنَّ ...
They are Libas (i.e., body-cover, or screen) for you and you are Libas for them.
Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Muqatil bin Hayyan said that this Ayah means,
"Your wives are a resort for you and you for them.''
Ar-Rabi bin Anas said,
"They are your cover and you are their cover.''
In short, the wife and the husband are intimate and have sexual intercourse with each other, and this is why they were permitted to have sexual activity during the nights of Ramadan, so that matters are made easier for them.
Abu Ishaq reported that Al-Bara bin Azib said,
"When the Companions of Allah's Messenger observed fast but would sleep before breaking their fast, they would continue fasting until the following night.
Qays bin Sirmah Al-Ansari was fasting one day and was working in his land. When the time to break the fast came, he went to his wife and said, `Do you have food?'
She said, `No. But I could try to get you some.'
His eyes then were overcome by sleep and when his wife came back, she found him asleep. She said, `Woe unto you! Did you sleep?'
In the middle of the next day, he lost consciousness and mentioned what had happened to the Prophet.
Then, this Ayah was revealed: أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ الصِّيَامِ الرَّفَثُ إِلَى نِسَآئِكُمْ (It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of As-Siyam (fasting)) until... وَكُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ (and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your fast till the nightfall).
Consequently, they were very delighted.''
Al-Bukhari reported this Hadith by Abu Ishaq who related that he heard Al-Bara say,
"When fasting Ramadan was ordained, Muslims used to refrain from sleeping with their wives the entire month, but some men used to deceive themselves.
Allah revealed: عَلِمَ اللّهُ أَنَّكُمْ كُنتُمْ تَخْتانُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَعَفَا عَنكُمْ (Allah knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He turned to you (accepted your repentance) and forgave you)."
Ali bin Abu Talhah narrated that Ibn Abbas said,
"During the month of Ramadan, after Muslims would pray `Isha', they would not touch their women and food until the next night. Then some Muslims, including Umar bin Al-Khattab, touched (had sex with) their wives and had some food during Ramadan after `Isha'. They complained to Allah's Messenger. Then Allah sent down: عَلِمَ اللّهُ أَنَّكُمْ كُنتُمْ تَخْتانُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَعَفَا عَنكُمْ فَالآنَ بَاشِرُوهُنَّ (Allah knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He turned to you (accepted your repentance) and forgave you. So now have sexual relations with them).''
This is the same narration that Al-Awfi related from Ibn Abbas.
... وَابْتَغُواْ مَا كَتَبَ اللّهُ لَكُمْ ...
...and seek that which Allah has ordained for you (offspring),
Abu Hurayrah, Ibn Abbas, Anas, Shurayh Al-Qadi, Mujahid, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ata, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, As-Suddi, Zayd bin Aslam, Hakam bin Utbah, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, and others said that;
this Ayah refers to having offspring.
Qatadah said that the Ayah means,
"Seek the permission that Allah has allowed for you.''
Sa`id narrated that Qatadah said, وَابْتَغُواْ مَا كَتَبَ اللّهُ لَكُمْ (and seek that which Allah has ordained for you).
Time for Suhur
... وَكُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّواْ الصِّيَامَ إِلَى الَّليْلِ ...
...and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your fast till the nightfall.
Allah has allowed eating and drinking, along with having sexual intercourse, as we have stated, during any part of the night until the light of dawn is distinguished from the darkness of the night.
Allah has described that time as `distinguishing the white thread from the black thread.' He then made it clearer when He said: مِنَ الْفَجْرِ (of dawn).
As stated in a Hadith that Imam Abu Abdullah Al-Bukhari recorded, Sahl bin Sa`d said,
"When the following verse was revealed:
وَكُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الأَسْوَدِ (Eat and drink until the white thread appears to you, distinct from the black thread), and (of dawn) was not revealed, some people who intended to fast, tied black and white threads to their legs and went on eating till they differentiated between the two.
Allah then revealed the words, (of dawn), and it became clear to them that it meant (the darkness of) night and (the light of) day.''
Al-Bukhari recorded that Ash-Sha`bi said that Adi said,
"I took two strings, one black and the other white and kept them under my pillow and went on looking at them throughout the night, but could not make any distinction between the two.
So, the next morning I went to Allah's Messenger and told him the whole story. He said:
إِنَّ وِسَادَكَ إِذًا لَعَرِيضٌ، أَنْ كَانَ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ وَالْأَسْوَدُ تَحْتَ وِسَادَتِك
Your pillow is very wide if the white and black threads are under it!
Some wordings for this Hadith read,
إِنَّكَ لَعَرِيضُ الْقَفَا
Your Qafa (back side of your neck) is wide!
Some people said that these words meant that Adi was not smart. This is a weak opinion.
The narration that Al-Bukhari collected explains this part of the Hadith.
Al-Bukhari recorded that Adi bin Hatim narrated:
I said, "O Messenger of Allah! What is the white thread from the black thread? Are they actual threads?''
إنَّكَ لَعَرِيضُ الْقَفَا أَنْ أَبْصَرْتَ الْخَيْطَيْنِ، ثُمَّ قَالَ: لَا بَلْ هُوَ سَوَادُ اللَّيْلِ وَبَيَاضُ النَّهَار
Your Qafa is wide if you see the two threads. Rather, they are the blackness of the night and the whiteness of the daylight.
Suhur is Recommended
Allah allowed eating and drinking until dawn, it represents proof that Suhur is encouraged, since it is a Rukhsah (concession or allowance) and Allah likes that the Rukhsah is accepted and implemented.
The authentic Sunnah indicates that eating the Suhur is encouraged.
It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Anas narrated that Allah's Messenger said:
تَسَحَّرُوا فَإِنَّ فِي السَّحُورِ بَرَكَة
Eat the Suhur, for there is a blessing in Suhur.
Muslim reported that Amr bin Al-As narrated that Allah's Messenger said:
إِنَّ فَصْلَ مَا بَيْنَ صِيَامِنَا وصِيَامِ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ أَكْلَةُ السَّحَر
The distinction between our fast and the fast of the People of the Book is the meal of Suhur.
Imam Ahmad reported that Abu Sa`id narrated that Allah's Messenger said:
السَّحُورُ أَكْلُهُ بَرَكَةٌ فَلَا تَدَعُوهُ، وَلَوْ أَنَّ أَحَدَكُمْ تَجْرَعُ جُرْعَةَ مَاءٍ، فَإِنَّ اللهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّون عَلَى الْمُتَسَحِّرِين
Suhur is a blessed meal. Hence, do not abandon it, even if one just takes a sip of water. Indeed, Allah and His angels send Salah (blessings) upon those who eat Suhur.
There are several other Hadiths that encourage taking the Suhur, even if it only consists of a sip of water.
It is preferred that Suhur be delayed until the time of dawn.
It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Anas bin Malik narrated that Zayd bin Thabit said,
"We had Suhur with Allah's Messenger and then went on to pray.''
Anas asked, "How much time was there between the Adhan (call to prayer) and the Suhur?''
He said, "The time that fifty Ayat take (to recite).''
Imam Ahmad recorded Abu Dharr saying that Allah's Messenger said:
لَا تَزَالُ أُمَّتِي بِخَيْرٍ مَا عَجَّلُوا الْإِفْطَارَ وَأَخَّرُوا السُّحُور
My Ummah will always retain goodness as long as they hasten in breaking the fast and delay the Suhur.
There are several Hadiths that narrate that,
the Prophet called Suhur "the blessed meal.''
There are narrations from several of the Salaf that;
they allowed the Suhur to be eaten later until close to Fajr.
This is reported from Abu Bakr, Umar, Ali, Ibn Mas`ud, Hudhayfah, Abu Hurayrah, Ibn Umar, Ibn Abbas and Zayd bin Thabit.
It is also reported from many of the Tabi`in, such as Muhammad bin Ali bin Husayn, Abu Mijlaz, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Abu Ad-Duha, Abu Wa'il and other companions of Ibn Mas`ud.
This is also the opinion of Ata, Al-Hasan, Hakam bin Uyainah, Mujahid, Urwah bin Az-Zubayr, Abu Shatha Jabir bin Zayd, Al- Amash and Ma`mar bin Rashid.
We have mentioned the chains of narrations for their statements in our (Ibn Kathir's) book about Siyam (Fasting), and all praise is due to Allah.
It is also recorded in the Two Sahihs that Al-Qasim said that Aishah narrated that Allah's Messenger said:
لَا يَمْنَعُكُمْ أَذَانُ بِلَالٍ عَنْ سَحُورِكُمْ، فَإِنَّهُ يُنَادِي بِلَيْلٍ، فَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّى تَسْمَعُوا أَذَانَ ابْنِ أُمِّ مَكْتُومٍ، فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يُؤَذِّنُ حَتَّى يَطْلُعَ الْفَجْر
The Adhan pronounced by Bilal should not stop you from taking Suhur, for he pronounces the Adhan at night. Hence, eat and drink until you hear the Adhan by Ibn Umm Maktum, for he does not call the Adhan until dawn.
This is the wording collected by Al-Bukhari.
Imam Ahmad reported that Qays bin Talq quoted from his father that Allah's Messenger said:
لَيْسَ الْفَجْرُ الْمُسْتَطِيلَ فِي الْأُفُقِ وَلَكِنِ الْمُعْتَرِضُ الْأَحْمَر
Dawn is not the (ascending) glow of white light of the horizon. Rather, it is the red (radiating) light.
Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi also recorded this Hadith, but their wording is:
كُلُوا واشْرَبُوا، وَلَا يَهِيدَنَّكُمُ السَّاطِعُ الْمُصْعِدُ، فَكُلُوا واشْرَبُوا حَتَّى يَعْتَرِضَ لَكُمُ الْأَحْمَر
Eat and drink and do not be rushed by the ascending (white) light. Eat and drink until the redness (of the dawn) appears.
Ibn Jarir (At-Tabari) recorded that Samurah bin Jundub narrated that Allah's Messenger said:
لَا يَغُرَّنَّكُمْ أَذَانُ بِلَالٍ وَلَا هَذَا الْبَيَاضُ لِعَمُودِ الصُّبْحِ حَتَّى يَسْتَطِير
Do not be stopped by Bilal's Adhan or the (ascending) whiteness, until it spreads.
Muslim also recorded this Hadith.
There is no Harm in beginning the Fast while Junub (a state of major ritual impurity)
Among the benefits of allowing sexual activity, eating and drinking until dawn for those who are fasting, is that it is allowed to start the fast while Junub (in the state of impurity after sexual discharge), and there is no harm in this case if one takes a bath any time in the morning after waking up, and completes the fast.
This is the opinion of the Four Imams and the majority of the scholars.
Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that Aishah and Umm Salamah said that;
Allah's Messenger used to wake up while Junub from sexual intercourse, not wet dreams, and he would take a bath and fast.
Umm Salamah added that he would not break his fast or make up for that day.
Muslim recorded that Aishah said that a man asked:
"O Messenger of Allah! The (Dawn) prayer time starts while I am Junub, should I fast?''
Allah's Messenger replied,
وَأَنَا تُدْرِكُنِي الصَّلاةُ وَأَنَا جُنُبٌ فَأَصُوم
And I, the prayer time starts while I am Junub and I fast.
He said, "You are not like us, O Messenger of Allah! Allah has forgiven your previous and latter sins.''
Allah's Messenger said:
وَاللهِ إِنَّي لَأَرْجُو أَنْ أَكُونَ أَخْشَاكُمْ للهِ وَأَعْلَمَكُمْ بِمَا أَتَّقِي
By Allah! I hope that I have the most fear from Allah among you and the best knowledge of what Taqwa is.
Fasting ends at Sunset
... ثُمَّ أَتِمُّواْ الصِّيَامَ إِلَى الَّليْلِ ...
...then complete your fast till the nightfall.
This Ayah orders breaking the fast at sunset.
It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Umar bin Al-Khattab said that Allah's Messenger said:
إِذَا أَقْبَلَ اللَّيْلُ مِنْ ههُنَا، وَأَدْبَرَ النَّهَارُ مِنْ ههُنَا فَقَدْ أَفْطَرَ الصَّائِم
If the night comes from this direction (the east), and the day departs from that direction (the west), then the fasting person breaks his fast.
It is reported that Sahl bin Sa`d As-Sa`idi narrated that Allah's Messenger said:
لَا يَزَالُ النَّاسُ بِخَيْرٍ مَا عَجَّلُوا الْفِطْر
The people will retain goodness as long as they hasten in breaking the fast.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet said:
يَقُولُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: إِنَّ أَحَبَّ عِبَادِي إِلَيَّ أَعْجَلُهُمْ فِطْرًا
Allah the Exalted said, `the dearest among My servants to Me are those who hasten in breaking the fast the most.'
At-Tirmidhi recorded this Hadith and said that this Hadith is Hasan Gharib.
Prohibition of Uninterrupted Fasting (Wisal)
There are several authentic Hadiths that prohibit Al-Wisal, which means continuing the fast through the night to the next night, without eating.
Imam Ahmad recorded Abu Hurayrah saying that Allah's Messenger said:
Do not practice Al-Wisal in fasting.
So, they said to him, "But you practice Al-Wisal, O Allah's Messenger!''
The Prophet replied,
فَإِنِّي لَسْتُ مِثْلَكُمْ إِنِّي أَبِيتُ يُطْعِمُنِي رَبِّي وَيَسْقِينِي
"I am not like you, I am given food and drink during my sleep by my Lord."
So, when the people refused to stop Al-Wisal, the Prophet fasted two days and two nights (along with those who practiced Wisal) and then they saw the crescent moon (of the month of Shawwal). The Prophet said to them (angrily):
لَوْ تَأَخَّرَ الْهِلَالُ لَزِدْتُكُم
If the crescent had not appeared, I would have made you fast for a longer period.
That was as a punishment for them (when they refused to stop practicing Al-Wisal).
This Hadith is also recorded in the Sahihayn.
The prohibition of Al-Wisal was also mentioned in a number of other narrations. It is a fact that practicing Al-Wisal was one of the special qualities of the Prophet, for he was capable and assisted in his practice of it. It is obvious that the food and drink that the Prophet used to get while practicing Al-Wisal was spiritual and not material, otherwise he would not be practicing Al-Wisal.
We should mention that it is allowed to refrain from breaking the fast from sunset until before dawn (Suhur).
A Hadith narrated by Abu Sa`id Khudri states that Allah's Messenger said:
لَا تُوَاصِلُوا فَأَيُّكُمْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يُوَاصِلَ فَلْيُوَاصِلْ إِلَى السَّحَر
Do not practice Al-Wisal, but whoever wishes is allowed to practice it until the Suhur.
They said, "You practice Al-Wisal, O Messenger of Allah!''
إِنِّي لَسْتُ كَهَيْئَتِكُمْ، إِنِّي أَبِيتُ لِي مُطْعِمٌ يُطْعِمُنِي وَسَاقٍ يَسْقِينِي
I am not similar to you, for I have One Who makes me eat and drink during the night.
This Hadith is also collected in the Two Sahihs.
The Rulings of Itikaf
... وَلاَ تُبَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ ...
And do not have sexual relations with them (your wives) while you are in Itikaf in the Masjids.
Ali bin Abu Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said,
"This Ayah is about the man who stays in Itikaf at the mosque during Ramadan or other months, Allah prohibited him from touching (having sexual intercourse with) women, during the night or day, until he finishes his Itikaf.''
"Formerly, the man who practiced Itikaf would go out of the mosque and, if he wished, would have sexual intercourse (with his wife). Allah then said: وَلاَ تُبَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ (And do not have sexual relations with them (your wives) while you are in Itikaf in the Masjids.
meaning, `Do not touch your wives as long as you are in Itikaf, whether you were in the mosque or outside of it'.''
It is also the opinion of Mujahid, Qatadah and several other scholars, that;
the Muslims used to have sexual intercourse with the wife while in Itikaf if they departed the mosque until the Ayah was revealed.
Ibn Abu Hatim commented, "It was reported that Ibn Mas`ud, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Mujahid, Ata Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and Muqatil said that the Ayah means,
`Do not touch the wife while in Itikaf.'''
What Ibn Abu Hatim reported from these people is the agreed upon practice among the scholars.
Those who are in Itikaf are not allowed to have sexual intercourse as long as they are still in Itikaf in the mosque. If one has to leave the mosque to attend to a need, such as to relieve the call of nature or to eat, he is not allowed to kiss or embrace his wife or to busy himself with other than his Itikaf. He is not even allowed to visit ailing persons, but he can merely ask about their condition while passing by.
Itikaf has several other rulings that are explained in the books (of Fiqh), and we have mentioned several of these rulings at the end of our book on Siyam (Fasting), all praise is due to Allah.
Furthermore, the scholars of Fiqh used to follow their explanation of the rules for fasting with the explanation of the rules for Itikaf, as this is the way these acts of worship were mentioned in the Qur'an.
By mentioning Itikaf after fasting, Allah draws attention to practicing Itikaf during the month of the fast, especially the last part of the month. The Sunnah of Allah's Messenger is that he used to perform Itikaf during the last ten nights of the month of Ramadan until he died.
Afterwards, the Prophet's wives used to perform Itikaf as the Two Sahihs recorded from Aishah the Mother of the believers.
It is reported in the Two Sahihs that;
Safiyyah, the daughter of Huyai, went to Allah's Messenger to visit him in the mosque while he was in Itikaf.
She had a talk with him for a while, then she got up in order to return home. The Prophet accompanied her back home, as it was night. Her house was at Usamah bin Zayd's house on the edge of Al-Madinah.
While they were walking, two Ansari men met them and passed by them in a hurry, for they were shy to bother the Prophet while he was walking with his wife. He told them:
عَلى رِسْلِكُمَا، إِنَّهَا صَفِيَّةُ بِنْتُ حُيَي
Do not run away! She is (my wife) Safiyyah bint Huyai.
Both of them said, "All praise is due to Allah, How dare we think of any evil? O Allah's Messenger!''
The Prophet said (to them):
إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ يَجْرِي مِنِ ابْنِ آدَمَ مَجْرَى الدَّمِ، وَإِنِّي خَشِيتُ أَنْ يَقْذِفَ فِي قُلُوبِكُمَا شَيْئًا، أَوْ قَالَ: شَرًّا
Shaytan reaches everywhere in the human body, that the blood reaches. I was afraid lest Shaytan might suggest an evil thought in your minds.
Imam Ash-Shafii commented,
"Allah's Messenger sought to teach his Ummah to instantly eliminate any evil thought, so that they do not fall into the prohibited. They (the two Ansari men) had more fear of Allah than to think evil of the Prophet. Allah knows best.''
The Ayah (2:187) prohibits sexual intercourse and anything like kissing or embracing that might lead to it during Itikaf. As for having the wife helping the husband, it is allowed.
It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Aishah said,
"Allah's Messenger would bring his head near me (in her room) and I would comb his hair, while I was on my menses. He would enter the room only to attend to what a man needs.''
... تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللّهِ ...
These are the limits (set) by Allah,
means, `This is what We have explained, ordained, specified, allowed and prohibited for fasting. We also mentioned the fast's objectives, what is permitted during it, and what is required of it. These are the set limits that Allah has legislated and explained, so do not come near them or transgress them.'
... َلاَ تَقْرَبُوهَا ...
so approach them not.
Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said,
"Allah's set limits mentioned in the Ayah mean these four limits (and he then recited): أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ الصِّيَامِ الرَّفَثُ إِلَى نِسَآئِكُمْ (It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of As-Siyam (fasting).) and he recited up to: ثُمَّ أَتِمُّواْ الصِّيَامَ إِلَى الَّليْلِ (then complete your Sawm (fast) till the nightfall).
My father and other's used to say similarly and recite the same Ayah to us.''
... كَذَلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللّهُ آيَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ ...
Thus does Allah make clear His Ayat to mankind,
meaning, `Just as He explains the fast and its rulings, He also explains the other rulings by the words of His servant and Messenger, Muhammad.'
... لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ ﴿١٨٧﴾
to mankind that they may attain Taqwa.
meaning, `So that they know how to acquire the true guidance and how to worship (Allah).'
Similarly, Allah said:
هُوَ الَّذِى يُنَزِّلُ عَلَى عَبْدِهِ ءَايَـتٍ بَيِّنَـتٍ لِّيُخْرِجَكُمْ مِّنَ الظُّلُمَـتِ إِلَى النُّورِ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُمْ لَرَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ
It is He Who sends down manifest Ayat to His servant (Muhammad) that He may bring you out from (types of) darkness into the light. And verily, Allah is to you full of kindness, Most Merciful. (57:9)
Bribery is prohibited and is a Sin
وَلاَ تَأْكُلُواْ أَمْوَالَكُم بَيْنَكُم بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتُدْلُواْ بِهَا إِلَى الْحُكَّامِ لِتَأْكُلُواْ فَرِيقًا مِّنْ أَمْوَالِ النَّاسِ بِالإِثْمِ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿١٨٨﴾
And eat up not one another's property unjustly (in any illegal way, e.g., stealing, robbing, deceiving), nor give bribery to the rulers (judges before presenting your cases) that you may knowingly eat up a part of the property of others sinfully.
Ali bin Abu Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said,
"This Ayah is about the indebted person when there is no evidence of the loan. So he denies taking the loan and the case goes to the authorities, even though he knows that it is not his money and that he is a sinner, consuming what is not allowed for him.''
This opinion was also reported from Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Muqatil bin Hayyan and Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. They all stated,
"Do not dispute when you know that you are being unjust.''
The Judge's Ruling does not allow the Prohibited or prohibit the Lawful
It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Umm Salamah narrated that Allah's Messenger said:
أَلَا إِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ، وَإِنَّمَا يَأْتِينِي الْخَصْمُ، فَلَعَلَّ بَعْضَكُمْ أَنْ يَكُونَ أَلْحَنَ بِحُجَّتِهِ مِنْ بَعْضٍ فَأَقْضِيَ لَهُ، فَمَنْ قَضَيْتُ لَهُ بِحَقِّ مُسْلِمٍ فَإِنَّمَا هِيَ قِطْعَةٌ مِنْ نَارٍ، فَلْيَحْمِلْهَا أَوْ لِيَذَرْهَا
I am only human! You people present your cases to me, and as some of you may be more eloquent and persuasive in presenting his argument, I might issue a judgment in his benefit. So, if I give a Muslim's right to another, I am really giving him a piece of fire; so he should not take it.
The Ayah and the Hadith prove that the judgment of the authorities in any case does not change the reality of the truth. Hence, the ruling does not allow what is in fact prohibited or prohibit what is in fact allowed. It is only applicable in that case. So if the ruling agrees with the truth, then there is no harm in this case. Otherwise, the judge will acquire his reward, while the cheater will acquire the evil burden. This is why Allah said:
وَلاَ تَأْكُلُواْ أَمْوَالَكُم بَيْنَكُم بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتُدْلُواْ بِهَا إِلَى الْحُكَّامِ لِتَأْكُلُواْ فَرِيقًا مِّنْ أَمْوَالِ النَّاسِ بِالإِثْمِ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
And eat up not one another's property unjustly, nor give bribery to the rulers (judges before presenting your cases) that you may knowingly eat up a part of the property of others sinfully.
meaning, `While you know the falsehood of what you claim.'
"O son of Adam! Know that the judge's ruling does not allow you what is prohibited or prohibit you from what is allowed. The judge only rules according to his best judgment and according to the testimony of the witnesses. The judge is only human and is bound to make mistakes.
Know that if the judge erroneously rules in some one's favor, then that person will still encounter the dispute when the disputing parties meet Allah on the Day of Resurrection. Then, the unjust person will be judged swiftly and precisely with that which will surpass whatever he acquired by the erroneous judgment he received in the life of this world.''
The Crescent Moons
يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الأهِلَّةِ قُلْ هِيَ مَوَاقِيتُ لِلنَّاسِ وَالْحَجِّ ...
They ask you (O Muhammad) about the crescents. Say: "These are signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind and for the pilgrimage.''
Al-Awfi related that Ibn Abbas said,
"The people asked Allah's Messenger about the crescent moons. Thereafter, this Ayah was revealed, so that they mark their acts of worship, the Iddah (the period of time a divorced woman or a widow is required to wait before remarrying) of their women and the time of their Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah).''
Abdur-Razzaq reported that Ibn Umar narrated that Allah's Messenger said:
جَعَلَ اللهُ الْأَهِلَّةَ مَوَاقِيتَ لِلنَّاسِ، فَصُومُوا لِرُؤْيَتِهِ، وَأَفْطِرُوا لِرُؤْيَتِهِ، فَإِنْ غُمَّ عَلَيْكُمْ فَعُدُّوا ثَلَاثِينَ يَوْمًا
Allah has made the crescents signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind. Hence, fast on seeing it (the crescent for Ramadan) and break the fast on seeing it (the crescent for Shawwal). If it (the crescent) was obscure to you then count thirty days (mark that month as thirty days).
This Hadith was also collected by Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, and he said, "The chain is Sahih, and they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not recorded it."
Righteousness comes from Taqwa
... وَلَيْسَ الْبِرُّ بِأَنْ تَأْتُوْاْ الْبُيُوتَ مِن ظُهُورِهَا وَلَـكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنِ اتَّقَى وَأْتُواْ الْبُيُوتَ مِنْ أَبْوَابِهَا ...
It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, etc.) that you enter the houses from the back, but Al-Birr is from Taqwa. So enter houses through their proper doors.
Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara said,
"During the time of Jahiliyyah, they used to enter the house from the back upon assuming the Ihram. Thereafter, Allah revealed (the following Ayah: وَلَيْسَ الْبِرُّ بِأَنْ تَأْتُوْاْ الْبُيُوتَ مِن ظُهُورِهَا وَلَـكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنِ اتَّقَى وَأْتُواْ الْبُيُوتَ مِنْ أَبْوَابِهَا (It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, etc.) that you enter the houses from the back but Al-Birr is from Taqwa. So enter houses through their proper doors)."
Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded the same Hadith from Al-Bara but with the wording;
"The Ansar used to enter their houses from the back when returning from a journey. Thereafter, this Ayah (2:189 above) was revealed...''
"When some people during the time of Jahiliyyah would leave home to travel, and then decide not to travel, they would not enter the house from its door. Rather, they would climb over the back wall. Allah the Exalted said: وَلَيْسَ الْبِرُّ بِأَنْ تَأْتُوْاْ الْبُيُوتَ مِن ظُهُورِهَا (It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness) that you enter the houses from the back).''
... وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ ﴿١٨٩﴾
...and have Taqwa of Allah that you may be successful.
Have Taqwa of Allah, means to do what He has commanded you and refrain from what He has forbidden for you, لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ (that you may be successful), tomorrow when you stand before Him and He thus rewards you perfectly.
The Command to fight Those Who fight Muslims and killing Them wherever They are found
وَقَاتِلُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ وَلاَ تَعْتَدُواْ إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يُحِبِّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ ﴿١٩٠﴾
And fight in the way of Allah those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allah likes not the transgressors.
Abu Jafar Ar-Razi said that Ar-Rabi bin Anas said that Abu Al-Aliyah commented on what Allah said: وَقَاتِلُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ (And fight in the way of Allah those who fight you),
"This was the first Ayah about fighting that was revealed in Al-Madinah. Ever since it was revealed, Allah's Messenger used to fight only those who fought him and avoid non-combatants. Later, Surah Bara'h was revealed.''
Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said similarly, then he said that;
this was later abrogated by the Ayah: فَاقْتُلُواْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمْ (then kill them wherever you find them), (9:5).
However, this statement is not plausible, because Allah's statement: الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ (...those who fight you) applies only to fighting the enemies who are engaged in fighting Islam and its people. So the Ayah means,
`Fight those who fight you', just as Allah said in another Ayah: وَقَاتِلُواْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ كَآفَّةً كَمَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ كَآفَّةً (...and fight against the Mushrikin collectively as they fight against you collectively), (9:36).
This is why Allah said later in the Ayah: وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ وَأَخْرِجُوهُم مِّنْ حَيْثُ أَخْرَجُوكُمْ (And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out),
meaning, `Your energy should be spent on fighting them, just as their energy is spent on fighting you, and on expelling them from the areas from which they have expelled you, as a law of equality in punishment.'
The Prohibition of mutilating the Dead and stealing from the captured Goods
... وَلاَ تَعْتَدُواْ إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يُحِبِّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ
but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allah likes not the transgressors.
This Ayah means,
`Fight for the sake of Allah and do not be transgressors,' such as, by committing prohibitions.
Al-Hasan Al-Basri stated that transgression (indicated by the Ayah),
"includes mutilating the dead, theft (from the captured goods), killing women, children and old people who do not participate in warfare, killing priests and residents of houses of worship, burning down trees and killing animals without real benefit.''
This is also the opinion of Ibn Abbas, Umar bin Abdul-Aziz, Muqatil bin Hayyan and others.
Muslim recorded in his Sahih that Buraydah narrated that Allah's Messenger said:
اغْزُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ، قَاتِلُوا مَنْ كَفَرَ بِاللهِ، اغْزُوا وَلَا تَغُلُّوا وَلَا تَغْدِرُوا وَلَا تَمْثُلُوا وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا وَلِيدًا وَلَا أَصْحَابَ الصَّوَامِع
Fight for the sake of Allah and fight those who disbelieve in Allah. Fight, but do not steal (from the captured goods), commit treachery, mutilate (the dead), or kill a child, or those who reside in houses of worship.
It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Ibn Umar said,
"A woman was found dead during one of the Prophet's battles and the Prophet then forbade killing women and children.''
There are many other Hadiths on this subject.
Shirk is worse than Killing
وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ وَأَخْرِجُوهُم مِّنْ حَيْثُ أَخْرَجُوكُمْ وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَشَدُّ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ ...
And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out. And Al-Fitnah is worse than killing.
Since Jihad involves killing and shedding the blood of men, Allah indicated that these men are committing disbelief in Allah, associating with Him (in the worship) and hindering from His path, and this is a much greater evil and more disastrous than killing.
Abu Malik commented about what Allah said: وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَشَدُّ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ (And Al-Fitnah is worse than killing),
"meaning what you (disbelievers) are committing is much worse than killing.''
Abu Al-Aliyah, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and Ar-Rabi bin Anas said that what Allah said: وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَشَدُّ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ (And Al-Fitnah is worse than killing),
"Shirk (polytheism) is worse than killing.''
Fighting in the Sacred Area is prohibited, except in Self-Defense
... وَلاَ تُقَاتِلُوهُمْ عِندَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ...
And fight not with them at Al-Masjid Al-Haram (the sanctuary at Makkah).
It is reported in the Two Sahihs that the Prophet said:
إنَّ هَذَا الْبَلَدَ حَرَّمَهُ اللهُ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ السَّموَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ، فَهُوَ حَرَامٌ بِحُرْمَةِ اللهِ إِلى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ،
Allah has made this city a sanctuary since the day He created the heavens and the earth. So, it is a sanctuary by Allah's decree till the Day of Resurrection.
وَلَمْ يَحِلَّ لِي إِلَّا سَاعَةً مِنْ نَهَارٍ، وَإِنَّهَا سَاعَتِي هذِهِ حَرامٌ بحُرْمَةِ اللهِ إِلى يَوْمِ الْقِيامَةِ،
Fighting in it was made legal for me only for an hour in the daytime. So, it (i.e., Makkah) is a sanctuary, by Allah's decree, from now on until the Day of Resurrection.
لا يُعْضَدُ شَجَرُهُ، وَلَا يُخْتَلىَ خَلَاهُ،
Its trees should not be cut, and its grass should not be uprooted.
فَإِنْ أَحَدٌ تَرَخَّصَ بِقِتَالِ رَسُولِ اللهِصلى الله عليه وسلّم، فَقُولُوا: إنَّ اللهَ أَذِنَ لِرَسُولِهِ وَلَمْ يَأْذَنْ لَكُم
If anyone mentions the fighting in it that occurred by Allah's Messenger, then say that Allah allowed His Messenger, but did not allow you.
In this Hadith, Allah's Messenger mentions fighting the people of Makkah when he conquered it by force, leading to some deaths among the polytheists in the area of the Khandamah. This occurred after the Prophet proclaimed:
مَنْ أَغْلَقَ بَابَهُ فهُوَ آمِنٌ،وَمَنْ دَخَلَ الْمَسْجِدَ فَهُو آمِنٌ، ومَنْ دَخَلَ دَارَ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ فَهُوَ آمِن
Whoever closed his door is safe. Whoever entered the (Sacred) Mosque is safe. Whoever entered the house of Abu Sufyan is also safe.
... حَتَّى يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِيهِ فَإِن قَاتَلُوكُمْ فَاقْتُلُوهُمْ كَذَلِكَ جَزَاء الْكَافِرِينَ ﴿١٩١﴾
...unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers.
`Do not fight them in the area of the Sacred Mosque unless they start fighting you in it. In this case, you are allowed to fight them and kill them to stop their aggression.'
Hence, Allah's Messenger took the pledge from his Companions under the tree (in the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah) to fight (the polytheists), after the tribes of Quraysh and their allies, Thaqif and other groups, collaborated against the Muslims (to stop them from entering Makkah to visit the Sacred House). Then, Allah stopped the fighting before it started between them and said:
وَهُوَ الَّذِى كَفَّ أَيْدِيَهُمْ عَنكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ عَنْهُم بِبَطْنِ مَكَّةَ مِن بَعْدِ أَنْ أَظْفَرَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ
And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah, after He had made you victors over them. (48:24)
وَلَوْلاَ رِجَالٌ مُّؤْمِنُونَ وَنِسَآءٌ مُّؤْمِنَـتٌ لَّمْ تَعْلَمُوهُمْ أَن تَطَئُوهُمْ فَتُصِيبَكمْ مِّنْهُمْ مَّعَرَّةٌ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ لِّيُدْخِلَ اللَّهُ فِى رَحْمَتِهِ مَن يَشَآءُ لَوْ تَزَيَّلُواْ لَعَذَّبْنَا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنْهُمْ عَذَاباً أَلِيماً
Had there not been believing men and believing women whom you did not know, that you may kill them and on whose account a sin would have been committed by you without (your) knowledge, that Allah might bring into His mercy whom He wills ـ if they (the believers and the disbelievers) had been apart, We verily, would have punished those of them who disbelieved with painful torment. (48:25)
فَإِنِ انتَهَوْاْ فَإِنَّ اللّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ ﴿١٩٢﴾
But if they cease, then Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
which means, `If they (polytheists) cease fighting you in the Sacred Area, and come to Islam and repent, then Allah will forgive them their sins, even if they had before killed Muslims in Allah's Sacred Area.'
Indeed, Allah's forgiveness encompasses every sin, whatever its enormity, when the sinner repents it.
The Order to fight until there is no more Fitnah
Allah then commanded fighting the disbelievers when He said:
وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّى لاَ تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ ...
And fight them until there is no more Fitnah,
This is the opinion of Ibn Abbas, Abu Al-Aliyah, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi, Muqatil bin Hayyan, As-Suddi and Zayd bin Aslam.
... وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ لِلّهِ ...
...and the religion (all and every kind of worship) is for Allah (Alone).
means, `So that the religion of Allah becomes dominant above all other religions.'
It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Abu Musa Al-Ashari said:
"The Prophet was asked, `O Allah's Messenger! A man fights out of bravery, and another fights to show off, which of them fights in the cause of Allah?'
The Prophet said:
مَنْ قَاتَلَ لِتَكُونَ كَلِمَةُ اللهِ هِيَ الْعُلْيا فَهُوَ فِي سَبِيلِ الله
He who fights so that Allah's Word is superior, then he fights in Allah's cause.
In addition, it is reported in the Two Sahihs:
أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أُقَاتِلَ النَّاسَ حَتَّى يَقُولُوا لَا إِلهَ إلَّا اللهُ، فَإِذَا قَالُوهَا عَصَمُوا مِنِّي دِمَاءَهُم وَأَمْوَالَهُمْ إلَّا بِحَقِّهَا وَحِسَابُهُمْ عَلَى الله
I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight the people until they proclaim, `None has the right to be worshipped but Allah'. Whoever said it, then he will save his life and property from me, except for cases of the law, and their account will be with Allah.
... فَإِنِ انتَهَواْ فَلاَ عُدْوَانَ إِلاَّ عَلَى الظَّالِمِينَ ﴿١٩٣﴾
But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against the wrongdoers.
indicates that, `If they stop their Shirk and fighting the believers, then cease warfare against them. Whoever fights them afterwards will be committing an injustice. Verily aggression can only be started against the unjust.'
This is the meaning of Mujahid's statement that only combatants should be fought.
Or, the meaning of the Ayah indicates that,
`If they abandon their injustice, which is Shirk in this case, then do not start aggression against them afterwards.'
The aggression here means retaliating and fighting them, just as Allah said:
فَمَنِ اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكُمْ فَاعْتَدُواْ عَلَيْهِ بِمِثْلِ مَا اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكُمْ
Then whoever transgresses against you, you transgress likewise against him. (2:194)
Similarly, Allah said:
وَجَزَآءُ سَيِّئَةٍ سَيِّئَةٌ مِّثْلُهَا
The recompense for an evil is an evil like thereof. (42:40)
وَإِنْ عَاقَبْتُمْ فَعَاقِبُواْ بِمِثْلِ مَا عُوقِبْتُمْ بِهِ
And if you punish them, then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted. (16:126)
Ikrimah and Qatadah stated,
"The unjust person is he who refuses to proclaim, `There is no God worthy of worship except Allah'.''
Under Allah's statement: وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّى لاَ تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ (And fight them until there is no more Fitnah, Al-Bukhari recorded that Nafi said that;
two men came to Ibn Umar during the conflict of Ibn Az-Zubayr and said to him, "The people have fallen into shortcomings and you are the son of Umar and the Prophet's Companion. Hence, what prevents you from going out?''
He said, "What prevents me is that Allah has for bidden shedding the blood of my (Muslim) brother.''
They said, "Did not Allah say: وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّى لاَ تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ (And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allah)!''
He said, "We did fight until there was no more Fitnah and the religion became for Allah Alone. You want to fight until there is Fitnah and the religion becomes for other than Allah!''
Uthman bin Salih added that;
a man came to Ibn Umar and asked him, "O Abu Abdur-Rahman! What made you perform Hajj one year and Umrah another year and abandon Jihad in the cause of Allah, although you know how much He has encouraged performing it!''
He said, "O my nephew! Islam is built on five (pillars):
They said, "O Abu Abdur-Rahman! Did you not hear what Allah said in His Book:
وَإِن طَآئِفَتَانِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ اقْتَتَلُواْ فَأَصْلِحُواْ بَيْنَهُمَا فَإِن بَغَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا عَلَى الأُخْرَى فَقَـتِلُواْ الَّتِى تَبْغِى حَتَّى تَفِىءَ إِلَى أَمْرِ اللَّهِ
And if two parties (or groups) among the believers fall to fighting, then make peace between them both. But if one of them outrages against the other, then fight you (all) against the one that which outrages till it complies with the command of Allah. (49:9)
and, وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّى لاَ تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ (And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief).
He said, "That we did during the time of Allah's Messenger when Islam was still weak and (the Muslim) man used to face trials in his religion, such as killing or torture. When Islam became stronger (and apparent), there was no more Fitnah.''
He asked, "What do you say about Ali and Uthman?''
He said, "As for Uthman, Allah has forgiven him. However, you hated the fact that Allah had forgiven him!
As for Ali, he is the cousin of Allah's Messenger and his son-in-law.''
He then pointed with his hand, saying, "This is where his house is located (meaning, `so close to the Prophet's house just as Ali was so close to the Prophet himself'.''
Fighting during the Sacred Months is prohibited, except in Self-Defense
الشَّهْرُ الْحَرَامُ بِالشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْحُرُمَاتُ قِصَاصٌ ...
The sacred month is for the sacred month, and for the prohibited things, there is the Law of equality (Qisas).
Ibn Abbas, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi, Qatadah, Miqsam, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and Ata said,
"Allah's Messenger went for Umrah on the sixth year of Hijrah. Then, the idolators prevented him from entering the Sacred House (the Ka`bah in Makkah) along with the Muslims who came with him. This incident occurred during the sacred month of Dhul-Qadah. The idolators agreed to allow them to enter the House the next year. Hence, the Prophet entered the House the following year, along with the Muslims who accompanied him, and Allah permitted him to avenge the idolators' treatment of him, when He said: الشَّهْرُ الْحَرَامُ بِالشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْحُرُمَاتُ قِصَاصٌ (The sacred month is for the sacred month, and for the prohibited things, there is the Law of equality (Qisas).
Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir bin Abdullah said,
"Allah's Messenger would not engage in warfare during the Sacred Month unless he was first attacked, then he would march forth. He would otherwise remain idle until the end of the Sacred Months.''
This Hadith has an authentic chain of narrators.
Hence, when the Prophet was told that Uthman was killed (in Makkah) when he was camped at the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah, after he had sent Uthman as his emissary to the polytheists, he accepted the pledge from his Companions under the tree to fight the polytheists. They were one thousand and four hundred then. When the Prophet was informed that Uthman was not killed, he abandoned the fight and reverted to peace.
When the Prophet finished fighting with (the tribes of) Hawazin during the battle of Hunayn and Hawazin took refuge in (the city of) At-Ta'if, he laid siege to that city. Then, the (sacred) month of Dhul-Qadah started, while At-Ta'if was still under siege. The siege went on for the rest of the forty days (rather, from the day the battle of Hunayn started until the Prophet went back to Al-Madinah from Al-Jiranah, were forty days), as reported in the Two Sahihs and narrated by Anas.
When the Companions suffered mounting casualties (during the siege), the Prophet ended the siege before conquering At-Ta'if. He then went back to Makkah, performed Umrah from Al-Jiranah, where he divided the war booty of Hunayn. This Umrah occurred during Dhul-Qadah of the eighth year of Al-Hijrah.
... فَمَنِ اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكُمْ فَاعْتَدُواْ عَلَيْهِ بِمِثْلِ مَا اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكُمْ ...
...whoever transgresses against you, you transgress likewise against him.
ordains justice even with the polytheists.
Allah also said in another Ayah:
وَإِنْ عَاقَبْتُمْ فَعَاقِبُواْ بِمِثْلِ مَا عُوقِبْتُمْ بِهِ
And if you punish, then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted. (16:126)
... وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ ﴿١٩٤﴾
And fear Allah, and know that Allah is with Al-Muttaqin (the pious).
commands that Allah be obeyed and feared out of Taqwa.
The Ayah informs us that Allah is with those who have Taqwa by His aid and support in this life and the Hereafter.
The Command to spend in the Cause of Allah
وَأَنفِقُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَلاَ تُلْقُواْ بِأَيْدِيكُمْ إِلَى التَّهْلُكَةِ ...
And spend in the cause of Allah and do not throw yourselves into destruction,
Al-Bukhari recorded that Hudhayfah said:
"It was revealed about spending.''
Ibn Abu Hatim reported him saying similarly.
He then commented,
"Similar is reported from Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ata, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Muqatil bin Hayyan.''
Aslam Abu Imran said,
"A man from among the Ansar broke enemy (Byzantine) lines in Constantinople (Istanbul). Abu Ayub Al-Ansari was with us then. So some people said, `He is throwing himself to destruction.'
Abu Ayub said, `We know this Ayah (2:195) better, for it was revealed about us, the Companions of Allah's Messenger who participated in Jihad with him and aided and supported him.
When Islam became strong, we, the Ansar, met and said to each other, `Allah has honored us by being the Companions of His Prophet and in supporting him until Islam became victorious and its following increased.
We had before ignored the needs of our families, estates and children. Warfare has ceased, so let us go back to our families and children and attend to them.' So this Ayah was revealed about us: وَأَنفِقُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَلاَ تُلْقُواْ بِأَيْدِيكُمْ إِلَى التَّهْلُكَةِ (And spend in the cause of Allah and do not throw yourselves into destruction),
the destruction refers to staying with our families and estates and abandoning Jihad'.''
This was recorded by Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i, Abd bin Humayd in his Tafsir, Ibn Abu Hatim, Ibn Jarir, Ibn Marduwyah, Al-Hafiz Abu Ya`la in his Musnad, Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim.
At-Tirmidhi said; "Hasan, Sahih, Gharib."
Al-Hakim said, "It meets the criteria of the Two Sheikhs (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) but they did not record it."
Abu Dawud's version mentions that Aslam Abu Imran said,
"We were at (the siege of) Constantinople. Then, Uqbah bin Amr was leading the Egyptian forces, while the Syrian forces were led by Fadalah bin Ubayd. Later on, a huge column of Roman (Byzantine) soldiers departed the city, and we stood in lines against them.
A Muslim man raided the Roman lines until he broke through them and came back to us. The people shouted, `All praise is due to Allah! He is sending himself to certain demise.'
Abu Ayub said, `O people! You explain this Ayah the wrong way. It was revealed about us, the Ansar when Allah gave victory to His religion and its following increased. We said to each other, `It would be better for us now if we return to our estates and attend to them.' Then Allah revealed this Ayah (2:195)'.''
Abu Bakr bin Aiyash reported that Abu Ishaq As-Subai`y related that;
a man said to Al-Bara bin Azib, "If I raided the enemy lines alone and they kill me, would I be throwing myself to certain demise?''
He said, "No. Allah said to His Messenger: فَقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ لاَ تُكَلَّفُ إِلاَّ نَفْسَكَ (Then fight (O Muhammad) in the cause of Allah, you are not tasked (held responsible) except for yourself. (4:84)
That Ayah (2:195) is about (refraining from) spending.''
Ibn Marduwyah reported this Hadith, as well as Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak who said; "It meets the criteria of the Two Sheikhs (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) but they did not record it."
Ath-Thawri and Qays bin Ar-Rabi related it from Al-Bara. but added:
لاَ تُكَلَّفُ إِلاَّ نَفْسَكَ (You are not tasked (held responsible) except for yourself. (4:84)
"Destruction refers to the man who sins and refrains from repenting, thus throwing himself to destruction.''
Ibn Abbas said: وَأَنفِقُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَلاَ تُلْقُواْ بِأَيْدِيكُمْ إِلَى التَّهْلُكَةِ (And spend in the cause of Allah and do not throw yourselves into destruction),
"This is not about fighting. But about refraining from spending for the sake of Allah, in which case, one will be throwing his self into destruction."
The Ayah (2:195) includes the order to spend in Allah's cause, in the various areas and ways that involve obedience and drawing closer to Allah. It especially applies to spending in fighting the enemies and on what strengthens the Muslims against the enemy.
Allah states that those who refrain from spending in this regard will face utter and certain demise and destruction, meaning those who acquire this habit.
Allah commands that one should acquire Ihsan (excellence in the religion), as it is the highest part of the acts of obedience.
... وَأَحْسِنُوَاْ إِنَّ اللّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ ﴿١٩٥﴾
and do good. Truly, Allah loves Al-Muhsinin (those who do good).
The Command to complete Hajj and Umrah
وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّهِ ...
And complete Hajj and Umrah for Allah.
After Allah mentioned the rulings for fasting and Jihad, he explained the rituals by commanding the Muslims to complete Hajj and Umrah,
meaning, to finish the rituals of Hajj and Umrah after one starts them.
This is why Allah said afterwards:
... فَإِنْ أُحْصِرْتُمْ ...
But if you are prevented,
meaning, if your way to the House is obstructed, and you are prevented from finishing it.
This is why the scholars agree that starting the acts of Hajj and Umrah requires one to finish them.
As for Makhul, he said,
"Complete, means to start them from the Miqat (areas the Prophet designated to assume Ihram from).''
Abdur-Razzaq said that Az-Zuhri said:
"We were told that Umar commented on: وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّهِ (And complete Hajj and Umrah for Allah),
"Complete Hajj and Umrah means performing each of them separately, and to perform Umrah outside of the months of Hajj, for Allah the Exalted says: الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَّعْلُومَاتٌ (The Hajj (pilgrimage) is (in) the well-known (lunar year) months),'' (2:197).
As-Suddi said, وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّهِ (And complete Hajj and Umrah for Allah) means,
"Maintain the performance of Hajj and Umrah.''
Ibn Abbas was reported to have said,
"Hajj is Arafat, while Umrah is Tawaf.''
Al-Amash related that Ibrahim said that Alqamah commented on Allah's statement: وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّهِ (And complete Hajj and Umrah for Allah),
"Abdullah (Ibn Mas`ud) recited it this way:
`Complete Hajj and Umrah to the House, so that one does not exceed the area of the House during the Umrah'.''
Ibrahim then said, "I mentioned this statement to Sa`id bin Jubayr and he said;
`Ibn Abbas also said that.'''
Sufyan reported that Ibrahim said that Alqamah said regarding the Ayah,
"Perform the Hajj and Umrah to the House.''
Ath-Thawri reported that Ibrahim read (the Ayah),
"Perform the Hajj and Umrah to the House.''
If One is prevented while in Route, He slaughters the Sacrifice, shaves his Head and ends Ihram
... فَإِنْ أُحْصِرْتُمْ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ ...
But if you are prevented, sacrifice a Hady (animals for sacrifice) such as you can afford,
was revealed in the sixth year of Hijrah, the year of the treaty of Al-Hudaybiyyah when the polytheists prevented Allah's Messenger from reaching the House.
Allah revealed Surah Al-Fath then, and allowed the Muslims to slaughter any Hady (animals for sacrifice) they had. They had seventy camels with them for that purpose.
They were also permitted to shave their heads and end their Ihram.
When the Prophet commanded them to shave their heads and end the state of Ihram, they did not obey him, as they were awaiting that order to be abrogated. When they saw that the Prophet went out after shaving his head, they imitated him. Some of them did not shave, but only shortened their hair. This is why the Prophet said:
رَحِمَ اللهُ الْمُحَلِّقِين
May Allah award His mercy to those who shaved.
They said, "What about those who shortened the hair?''
He said in the third time, "And to those who shortened.''
Every seven among them shared one camel for their sacrifice. They were one thousand and four hundred Companions and were camping in the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah, outside the Sacred Area. It was also reported that they were within the boundaries of the Sacred Area. Allah knows best.
Being prevented from the House (Hasr) includes more than just being sick, fearing an enemy or getting lost on the way to Makkah.
Imam Ahmad reported that Al-Hajjaj bin Amr Al-Ansari said that he heard Allah's Messenger saying:
مَنْ كُسِرَ أَوْ عَرِجَ فَقَدْ حَلَّ وَعَلَيْهِ حَجَّةٌ أُخْرَى
Whoever suffered a broken bone or a limb, will have ended his Ihram and has to perform Hajj again.
He said, "I mentioned that to Ibn Abbas and Abu Hurayrah and they both said, `He (Al-Hajjaj) has said the truth'.''
This Hadith is also reported in the Four Collections.
In the version of Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah, the Prophet said,
"Whoever limped, had a broken bone or became ill...''
Ibn Abu Hatim also recorded it and said,
"It was reported that Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn Az-Zubayr, Alqamah, Sa`id bin Musayyib, Urwah bin Az-Zubayr, Mujahid, An-Nakhai, Ata and Muqatil bin Hayyan said that;
being prevented (Hasr) entails an enemy, an illness or a fracture.''
Ath-Thawri also said,
"Being prevented entails everything that harms the person.''
It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Aishah said that;
Allah's Messenger went to Dubaah bint Az-Zubayr bin Abdul-Muttalib who said, "O Messenger of Allah! I intend to perform Hajj but I am ill.''
He said, "Perform Hajj and make the condition: `My place is where You prevent (or halt) me.''
Muslim recorded similarly from Ibn Abbas.
So saying such a condition for Hajj is allowed is based on this Hadith.
Allah's statement: فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ (...sacrifice a Hady such as you can afford),
includes a sheep also, as Imam Malik reported that Ali bin Abu Talib used to say.
Ibn Abbas said,
"The Hady includes eight types of animals:
Abdur-Razzaq reported that Ibn Abbas said about what Allah said: فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ (...sacrifice a Hady such as you can afford),
"As much as one could afford.''
Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas said,
"If one can afford it, then camels, otherwise cows, or sheep.''
Hisham bin Urwah quoted his father: فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ (...sacrifice a Hady (animal, i.e., a sheep, a cow, or a camel),
such as you can afford, `Depending on the price.'
The proof that sacrificing only a sheep is allowed in the case of being prevented from continuing the rites, is that Allah has required sacrificing whatever is available as a Hady, and the Hady is any type of cattle; be it camels, cows or sheep. This is the opinion of Ibn Abbas the cousin of Allah's Messenger and the scholar of Tafsir.
It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Aishah, the Mother of the believers, said,
"The Prophet once offered some sheep as Hady.''
... وَلاَ تَحْلِقُواْ رُؤُوسَكُمْ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ الْهَدْيُ مَحِلَّهُ ...
...and do not shave your heads until the Hady reaches the place of sacrifice,
is a continuation of His statement: وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّهِ (And complete, the Hajj and Umrah for Allah.) and is not dependent upon: فَإِنْ أُحْصِرْتُمْ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ (But if you are prevented, then sacrifice a Hady) as Ibn Jarir has erroneously claimed.
When the Prophet and his Companions were prevented from entering the Sacred House during the Al-Hudaybiyyah year by the polytheists from Quraysh, they shaved their heads and sacrificed their Hady outside the Haram (Sacred) area.
In normal circumstances, and when one can safely reach the House, he is not allowed to shave his head until: حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ الْهَدْيُ مَحِلَّهُ (.. .and do not shave your heads until the Hady reaches the place of sacrifice), and then he ends the rituals of Hajj or Umrah, or both if he had assumed Ihram for both.
It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Hafsah said,
"O Allah's Messenger! What is wrong with the people, they have finished their Ihram for Umrah but you have not?'' The Prophet said,
إنِّي لَبَّدْتُ رَأْسِي وَقَلَّدْتُ هَدْيِي، فَلَا أَحِلُّ حَتَّى أَنْحَر
I matted my hair and I have garlanded my Hady (animals for sacrifice), so I will not finish my Ihram till I offer the sacrifice.
Whoever shaved his Head during Ihram, will have to pay the Fidyah
... فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضاً أَوْ بِهِ أَذًى مِّن رَّأْسِهِ فَفِدْيَةٌ مِّن صِيَامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُكٍ ...
And whosoever of you is ill or has an ailment on his scalp (necessitating shaving), he must pay a Fidyah.
Al-Bukhari reported that Abdur-Rahman bin Asbahani said that he heard Abdullah bin Ma`qil saying that;
he sat with Ka`b bin Ujrah in the mosque of Kufah (in Iraq). He then asked him about the Fidyah of the fasting.
Ka`b said, "This was revealed concerning my case especially, but it is also for you in general.
I was carried to Allah's Messenger and the lice were falling in great numbers on my face. The Prophet said:
مَا كُنْتُ أُرَى أَنَّ الْجَهْدَ بلَغَ بكَ هذَا، أمَا تَجِدُ شَاة
I never thought that your ailment (or struggle) had reached to such an extent as I see. Can you afford a sheep (for sacrifice)?'
I replied in the negative.
He then said:
صُمْ ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ أَوْ أَطْعِمْ سِتَّةَ مَسَاكِينَ، لِكُلِّ مِسْكِينٍ نِصْفُ صَاعٍ مِنْ طَعَامٍ، وَاحْلِقْ رَأْسَك
Fast for three days or feed six poor persons, each with half a Sa` of food (1 Sa` = 3 kilograms approx) and shave your head.
So this is a general judgment derived from a specific case.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Ka`b bin Ujrah said,
"Allah's Messenger came by while I was igniting the fire under a pot and while the lice were falling down my head or my eyelids. He said:
يُؤْذِيكَ هَوَامُّ رَأْسِك
Do these lice in your head bother you?
I said, `Yes.'
فَاحْلِقْهُ، وَصُمْ ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ، أَوْ أَطْعِمْ سِتَّةَ مَسَاكِينَ، أَوِ انْسُكْ نَسِيكَة
Shave it, then fast three days, or feed six poor people, or sacrifice an animal.
Ayub (one of the narrators of the Hadith) commented,
"I do not know which alternative was stated first.''
The wording of the Qur'an begins with the easiest then the more difficult options:
"Pay a Fidyah of fasting (three days), feeding (six poor persons) or sacrificing (an animal).''
Meanwhile, the Prophet advised Ka`b with the more rewarding option first, that is, sacrificing a sheep, then feeding six poor persons, then fasting three days.
Each Text is suitable in its place and context, all the thanks and praises are due to Allah.
Tamattu During Hajj
... فَإِذَا أَمِنتُمْ فَمَن تَمَتَّعَ بِالْعُمْرَةِ إِلَى الْحَجِّ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ ...
Then if you are in safety and whosoever performs the Umrah (in the months of Hajj), before (performing) the Hajj, he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford,
That is, when you are able to complete the rites, so whoever among you connects his Umrah with Hajj having the same Ihram for both, or,
first assuming Ihram for Umrah, and then assuming Ihram for Hajj when finished the Umrah, this is the more specific type of Tamattu which is well-known among the discussion of the scholars whereas in general there are two types of Tamattu, as the authentic Hadiths prove, since among the narrators are those who said, "Allah's Messenger performed Tamattu, and others who said, "Qarin" but there is no difference between them over the Hady.
So Allah said, فَإِذَا أَمِنتُمْ فَمَن تَمَتَّعَ بِالْعُمْرَةِ إِلَى الْحَجِّ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ (Then if you are in safety and whosoever performs the Umrah (in the months of Hajj), before (performing) the Hajj (i.e., Hajj At-Tamattu and Al-Qiran, he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford),
means let him sacrifice whatever Hady is available to him, the least of which is a sheep. One is also allowed to sacrifice a cow because the Prophet slaughtered cows on behalf of his wives.
Al-Awzai reported that Abu Hurayrah narrated that Allah's Messenger slaughtered cows on behalf of his wives when they were performing Tamattu.
This was reported by Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah.
This last Hadith proves that Tamattu is legislated.
It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Imran bin Husayn said,
"We performed Hajj At-Tamattu in the lifetime of Allah's Messenger and then the Qur'an was revealed (regarding Hajj At-Tamattu). Nothing was revealed to forbid it, nor did he (the Prophet) forbid it until he died. And somebody said what he wished (regarding Hajj At-Tamattu) according to his own opinion.''
Al-Bukhari said that Imran was talking about Umar.
It is reported in an authentic narration that;
Umar used to discourage the people from performing Tamattu.
He used to say, "If we refer to Allah's Book, we should complete it,''
meaning: فَمَن تَمَتَّعَ بِالْعُمْرَةِ إِلَى الْحَجِّ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ (...whosoever performs the Umrah (in the months of Hajj), before (performing) the Hajj, he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford.
However Umar did not say that Tamattu is unlawful. He only prevented them so that the people would increase their trips to the House for Hajj (during the months of Hajj) and Umrah (throughout the year), as he himself has stated.
Whoever performs Tamattu` should fast Ten Days if He does not have a Hady
... فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ وَسَبْعَةٍ إِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ تِلْكَ عَشَرَةٌ كَامِلَةٌ ...
...but if he cannot (afford it), he should fast three days during the Hajj and seven days after his return (to his home), making ten days in all.
This Ayah means:
"Those who do not find a Hady, let them fast three days during the Hajj season.''
Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas said,
"If one does not have a Hady, he should fast three days during Hajj, before Arafah day. If the day of Arafah was the third day, then his fast is complete. He should also fast seven days when he gets back home.''
Abu Ishaq reported from Wabarah from Ibn Umar who said,
"One fasts one day before the day of Tarwiyah, the day of Tarwiyah (eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah) and then Arafah day (the ninth day of the month of Dhul-Hijjah).''
The same statement was reported by Jafar bin Muhammad from his father from Ali.
If one did not fast these three days or at least some of them before `Id day (the tenth day of Dhul-Hijjah), he is allowed to fast during the Tashriq days (11-12-13th day of Dhul-Hijjah). `
Al-Bukhari has reported that Aishah and Ibn Umar said,
"Fasting the days of Tashriq was only allowed for those who did not find the Hady,''
Sufyan related that Jafar bin Muhammad narrated that his father said that Ali said,
"Whoever did not fast the three days during the Hajj, should fast them during the days of Tashriq.''
This is also the position taken by Ubayd bin Umayr Al-Laythi, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Urwah bin Az-Zubayr, referring to the general meaning of Allah's statement: فَصِيَامُ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ (...fast three days during the Hajj...).
As for what Muslim reported that Qutaybah Al-Hudhali said that Allah's Messenger said:
أَيَّامُ التَّشْرِيقِ أَيَّامُ أَكْلٍ وَشُرْبٍ، وَذِكْرِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَل
The days of Tashriq are days of eating and drinking and remembering Allah the Exalted.
This narration is general in meaning while what Aishah and Ibn Umar narrated is specific.
... وَسَبْعَةٍ إِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ ...
...and seven days after his return.
There are two opinions regarding the meaning of this Ayah.
Abdur-Razzaq reported that Salim narrated that he heard Ibn Umar saying:
فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ وَسَبْعَةٍ إِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ "(...but if he cannot (afford it), he should fast three days during the Hajj and seven days after his return), means when he goes back to his family.''
The same opinion was reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Al-Aliyah, Mujahid, Ata, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Imam Az-Zuhri and Ar-Rabi bin Anas.
Al-Bukhari reported that Salim bin Abdullah narrated that Ibn Umar said,
"During the Farewell Hajj of Allah's Messenger, he performed Tamattu with Umrah and Hajj. He drove a Hady along with him from Dhul-Hulayfah. Allah's Messenger started by assuming Ihram for Umrah, and then for Hajj. And the people, too, performed the Umrah and Hajj along with the Prophet.
Some of them brought the Hady and drove it along with them, while the others did not. So, when the Prophet arrived at Makkah, he said to the people:
مَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُم أَهْدَى فَإِنَّهُ لَا يَحِلُّ مِنْ شَيْءٍ حَرُمَ مِنْهُ حَتَّى يَقْضِيَ حَجَّهُ،
Whoever among you has driven the Hady, should not finish his Ihram till he completes his Hajj.
وَمَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ مِنْكُمْ أَهْدَى فَلْيَطُفْ بالْبَيْتِ وبالصَّفَا وَالْمَرْوَةِ وَلْيُقَصِّرْ وَلْيَحْلِلْ، ثُمَّ لْيُهِلَّ بِالْحَجِّ،
And whoever among you has not (driven) the Hady with him, he should perform Tawaf of the Ka`bah and between As-Safa and Al-Marwah. Then, he should shave or cut his hair short and finish his Ihram, and should later assume Ihram for Hajj; (but he must offer a Hady (sacrifice)).
فَمَنْ لَمْ يجَدْ هَدْيًا فَلْيَصُمْ ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ، وَسَبْعةً إِذَا رَجَعَ إِلى أَهْلِه
And if anyone cannot afford a Hady, he should fast for three days during the Hajj and seven days when he returns home.
He then mentioned the rest of the Hadith, which is reported in the Two Sahihs.
... تِلْكَ عَشَرَةٌ كَامِلَةٌ ...
...making ten days in all.
to emphasize the ruling we mentioned above.
This method is common in the Arabic language, for they would say, `I have seen with my eyes, heard with my ears and written with my hand,' to emphasize such facts.
Similarly, Allah said:
وَلاَ طَائِرٍ يَطِيرُ بِجَنَاحَيْهِ
...nor a bird that flies with its two wings. (6:38)
وَلاَ تَخُطُّهُ بِيَمِينِكَ
...nor did you write any book (whatsoever) with your right hand. (29:48)
وَوَعَدْنَا مُوسَى ثَلَـثِينَ لَيْلَةً وَأَتْمَمْنَاهَا بِعَشْرٍ فَتَمَّ مِيقَـتُ رَبِّهِ أَرْبَعِينَ لَيْلَةً
And We appointed for Musa thirty nights and added (to the period) ten (more), and he completed the term, appointed by his Lord, of forty nights. (7:142)
It was also said that;
the meaning of "ten days in all'' emphasizes the order to fast for ten days, not less than that.
The Residents of Makkah do not perform Tamattu"
... ذَلِكَ لِمَن لَّمْ يَكُنْ أَهْلُهُ حَاضِرِي الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ...
This is for him whose family is not present at Al-Masjid Al-Haram (i.e., non-resident of Makkah).
This Ayah concerns the residents of the area of the Haram, for they do not perform Tamattu.
Abdur-Razzaq reported that Tawus said,
"Tamattu is for the people, those whose families are not residing in the Haram area (Makkah), not for the residents of Makkah. Hence Allah's Statement: ذَلِكَ لِمَن لَّمْ يَكُنْ أَهْلُهُ حَاضِرِي الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ (This is for him whose family is not present at Al-Masjid Al-Haram (i.e., non-resident of Makkah).
Abdur-Razzaq then said,
"I was also told that Ibn Abbas said similar to Tawus.''
... وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ ...
...and fear Allah,
meaning, in what He has commanded you and what He prohibited for you.
He then said:
... وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ ﴿١٩٦﴾
...and know that Allah is severe in punishment.
for those who defy His command and commit what He has prohibited.
When does Ihram for Hajj start
الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَّعْلُومَاتٌ ...
The Hajj is (in) the well-known months.
This Ayah indicates that Ihram for Hajj only occurs during the months of Hajj. This was reported from Ibn Abbas, Jabir, Ata, Tawus and Mujahid.
The proof for this is Allah's statement that Hajj occurs during known, specific months, which indicates that Hajj is not allowed before that, just as the prayer has a fixed time (before which one's prayer is not accepted).
Ash-Shafii recorded that Ibn Abbas said,
"No person should assume Ihram for Hajj before the months of the Hajj, for Allah said: الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَّعْلُومَاتٌ (The Hajj is (in) the well-known months).
Ibn Khuzaymah reported that Ibn Abbas said,
"No Ihram for Hajj should be assumed, except during the months of Hajj, for among the Sunnah of Hajj is that one assume Ihram for it during the Hajj months.''
This is an authentic narration and the Companion's statement that such and such is among the Sunnah is considered as a Hadith of the Prophet, according to the majority of the scholars. This is especially the case when it is Ibn Abbas who issued this statement, as he is the Tarjuman (translator, interpreter, explainer) of the Qur'an.
There is a Hadith about this subject too.
Ibn Marduwyah related that Jabir narrated that the Prophet said:
لَا يَنْبَغِي لِأَحَدٍ أَنْ يُحْرِمَ بِالْحَجِّ إِلَّا فِي أَشْهُرِ الْحَج
No one should assume Ihram for Hajj, but during the months of Hajj.
The chain of narrators for this Hadith is reasonable.
Ash-Shafii and Al-Bayhaqi recorded this Hadith from Ibn Jurayj who related that Abu Az-Zubayr said that he heard Jabir bin Abdullah being asked,
"Does one assume Ihram for Hajj before the months of the Hajj?''
He said, "No.''
This narration is more reliable than the narration that we mentioned from the Prophet.
In short, this statement is the opinion of the Companion, supported by Ibn Abbas statement that it is a part of the Sunnah not to assume Ihram for Hajj before the months of the Hajj.
Allah knows best.
The Months of Hajj
... أَشْهُرٌ مَّعْلُومَاتٌ ...
...the well-known months.
Al-Bukhari said that Ibn Umar said that;
these are Shawwal, Dhul-Qadah and the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah.
This narration for which Al-Bukhari did not mention the chain of narrators, was collected by a continuous chain of narrators that Ibn Jarir rendered authentic, leading to Ibn Umar, who said: الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَّعْلُومَاتٌ (The Hajj (pilgrimage) is (in) the well-known (lunar year) months),
"which are Shawwal, Dhul-Qadah and the (first) ten days of Dhul-Hijjah.''
Its chain is Sahih.
Al-Hakim also recorded it in his Mustadrak, and he said, "It meets the criteria of the Two Sheikhs."
This statement is also reported from Umar, Ali, Ibn Mas`ud, Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr, Ibn Abbas, Ata, Tawus, Mujahid, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Imam Ash-Sha`bi, Al-Hasan, Ibn Sirin, Makhul, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and Muqatil bin Hayyan.
This opinion was preferred by Ibn Jarir who said,
"It is a common practice to call two months and a part of the third month as `months'. This is similar to the Arab's saying, `I visited such and such person this year or this day.' He only visited him during a part of the year and a part of the day.
Allah said: فَمَن تَعَجَّلَ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ فَلاَ إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ (But whosoever hastens to leave in two days, there is no sin on him), (2:203).
In this case, one will only be hastening for one and a half days.''
Allah then said:
... فَمَن فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ ...
So whosoever intends (Farada) to perform Hajj therein (by assuming Ihram),
meaning that one's assuming the Ihram requires a Hajj, for the person is required to complete the rituals of Hajj after assuming Ihram.
Ibn Jarir said that Al-Awfi said,
"The scholars agree that (Farada) `intends' mentioned in the Ayah means it is a requirement and an obligation.''
Ali bin Abu Talhah said that Ibn Abbas said:
"فَمَن فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ (So whosoever intends to perform Hajj therein (by assuming Ihram)), refers to those who assume Ihram for Hajj and Umrah.''
"'Intends', means, assumes the Ihram.''
Similar statements were attributed to Ibrahim, Ad-Dahhak and others.
Prohibition of Rafath (Sexual Intercourse) during Hajj
... فَلاَ رَفَثَ ...
He should not have Rafath,
This Ayah means that those who assume the Ihram for Hajj or Umrah are required to avoid the Rafath, meaning, sexual intercourse.
Allah's statement here is similar to His statement:
أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ الصِّيَامِ الرَّفَثُ إِلَى نِسَآئِكُمْ
It is made lawful for you to have Rafath (sexual relations) with your wives on the night of the fast. (2:187)
Whatever might lead to sexual intercourse, such as embracing, kissing and talking to women about similar subjects, is not allowed.
Ibn Jarir reported that Nafi narrated that Abdullah bin Umar said,
"Rafath means sexual intercourse or mentioning this subject with the tongue, by either men or women.''
Ata bin Abu Rabah said that,
Rafath means sexual intercourse and foul speech.
This is also the opinion of Amr bin Dinar.
Ata also said that they used to even prevent talking (or hinting) about this subject.
Tawus said that Rafath includes one's saying,
"When I end the Ihram I will have sex with you.''
This is also the same explanation offered by Abu Al-Aliyah regarding Rafath.
Ali bin Abu Talhah said that Ibn Abbas said,
"Rafath means having sex with the wife, kissing, fondling and saying foul words to her, and similar acts.''
Ibn Abbas and Ibn Umar said that;
Rafath means to have sex with women.
This is also the opinion of Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ikrimah, Mujahid, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Abu Al-Aliyah who narrated it from Ata and Makhul, Ata Al-Khurasani, Ata' bin Yasar, Atiyah, Ibrahim, Ar-Rabi, Az-Zuhri, As-Suddi, Malik bin Anas, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Abdul-Karim bin Malik, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak, and others.
The Prohibition of Fusuq during Hajj
... وَلاَ فُسُوقَ ...
...nor commit sin,
Miqsam and several other scholars related that Ibn Abbas said,
"It is disobedience."
This is also the opinion of Ata, Mujahid, Tawus, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Az-Zuhri, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Ata bin Yasar, Ata Al-Khurasani and Muqatil bin Hayyan.
Ibn Wahb reported that Nafi` narrated that Abdullah bin Umar said,
"Fusuq (or sin mentioned in the Ayah (2:197)) refers to committing what Allah has forbidden in the Sacred Area.''
Several others said that;
Fusuq means cursing others, they based this on the authentic Hadith:
سِبَابُ الْمُسْلِمِ فُسُوقٌ وَقِتَالُهُ كُفْر
Cursing the Muslim is Fusuq, while fighting him is Kufr.
Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said;
Fusuq here means slaughtering animals for the idols, as Allah said:
أَوْ فِسْقًا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ
...or impious (Fisq) meat (of an animal) which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah. (6:145)
Ad-Dahhak said that;
Fusuq is insulting one another with bad nicknames.
Those who said that the Fusuq means all types of disobedience are correct. Allah has also prohibited committing injustice during the months of Hajj in specific, although injustice is prohibited throughout the year. This is why Allah said:
مِنْهَآ أَرْبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ ذلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ فَلاَ تَظْلِمُواْ فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ
...of them four are sacred. That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein. (9:36)
Allah said about the Sacred Area:
وَمَن يُرِدْ فِيهِ بِإِلْحَادٍ بِظُلْمٍ نُّذِقْهُ مِنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ
...and whoever inclines to evil actions therein or to do wrong, him We shall cause to taste from a painful torment. (22:25)
It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abu Hurayrah narrated that Allah's Messenger said:
مَنْ حَجَّ هَذَا الْبَيْتَ، فَلَمْ يَرْفُثْ وَلَمْ يَفْسُقْ خَرَجَ مِنْ ذُنُوبِهِ كَيَوْمَ وَلَدَتْهُ أُمُّه
Whoever performed Hajj to this (Sacred) House and did not commit Rafath or Fusuq, will return sinless, just as the day his mother gave birth to him.
The Prohibition of arguing during Hajj
... وَلاَ جِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ ...
nor should there be Jidal during Hajj,
meaning, disputes and arguments.
Ibn Jarir related that Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that;
what Allah said: وَلاَ جِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ (...nor dispute unjustly during the Hajj) means to argue with your companion (or fellow) until you make him angry.
This is similar to the the opinion that Miqsam and Ad-Dahhak related to Ibn Abbas.
This is also the same meaning reported from Abu Al-Aliyah, Ata, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ikrimah, Jabir bin Zayd, Ata Al-Khurasani, Makhul, As-Suddi, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Amr bin Dinar, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Ata bin Yasar, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Az-Zuhri.
The Encouragement for Righteous Deeds and to bring Provisions for Hajj
... وَمَا تَفْعَلُواْ مِنْ خَيْرٍ يَعْلَمْهُ اللّهُ ...
And whatever good you do, Allah knows it.
After Allah prohibited evil in deed and tongue, He encouraged righteous, good deeds, stating that He is knowledgeable of the good that they do, and He will reward them with the best awards on the Day of Resurrection.
Allah said next:
... وَتَزَوَّدُواْ فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَى ...
And take provisions (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness).
Al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud reported that Ibn Abbas said,
"The people of Yemen used to go to Hajj without taking enough supplies with them. They used to say, `We are those who have Tawakkul (reliance on Allah).'
Allah revealed this Ayah: وَتَزَوَّدُواْ فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَى (And take provisions (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness)).
Ibn Jarir and Ibn Marduwyah narrated that Ibn Umar said,
"When people assumed Ihram, they would throw away whatever provisions they had and would acquire other types of provisions. Allah revealed: وَتَزَوَّدُواْ فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَى (And take a provisions (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness)).
Allah forbade them from this practice and required them to take flour and Sawiq (a type of food usually eaten with dates) with them.''
The Provisions of the Hereafter
... فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَى ...
...but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness).
When Allah required mankind to supply themselves with what sustains them for the journeys of this life, He directed them to the necessary provisions for the Hereafter: Taqwa.
Allah said in another Ayah:
وَرِيشًا وَلِبَاسُ التَّقْوَى ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ
...and as an adornment; and the raiment of Taqwa, that is better. (7:26)
Allah mentioned the material covering and then He mentioned the spiritual covering, which includes humbleness, obedience and Taqwa. He also stated that the latter provision is better and more beneficial than the former.
... وَاتَّقُونِ يَا أُوْلِي الأَلْبَابِ ﴿١٩٧﴾
So fear Me, O men of understanding!
meaning: `Fear My torment, punishment, and affliction for those who defy Me and do not adhere to My commands, O people of reason and understanding.'
Commercial Transactions during Hajj
لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَبْتَغُواْ فَضْلاً مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ ...
There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord.
Al-Bukhari reported that Ibn Abbas said,
"Ukaz, Mijannah and Dhul-Majaz were trading posts during the time of Jahiliyyah. During that era, they did not like the idea of conducting business transactions during the Hajj season. Later, this Ayah was revealed: لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَبْتَغُواْ فَضْلاً مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ (There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord), during the Hajj season.''
Abu Dawud and others recorded that Ibn Abbas said,
"They used to avoid conducting business transactions during the Hajj season, saying that these are the days of Dhikr. Allah revealed: لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَبْتَغُواْ فَضْلاً مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ (There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord (during pilgrimage by trading))."
This is also the explanation of Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ikrimah, Mansur bin Al-Mutamir, Qatadah, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and others.
Ibn Jarir reported that Abu Umaymah said that;
when Ibn Umar was asked about conducting trade during the Hajj, he recited the Ayah: لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَبْتَغُواْ فَضْلاً مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ (There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord (during pilgrimage by trading)).
This Hadith is related to Ibn Umar with a strong chain of narrators.
This Hadith is also related to the Prophet, as Ahmad reported that Abu Umamah At-Taymi said,
"I asked Ibn Umar, `We buy (and sell during the Hajj), so do we still have a valid Hajj?'
He said, `Do you not perform Tawaf around the House, stand at Arafat, throw the pebbles and shave your heads?'
I said, `Yes.'
Ibn Umar said, `A man came to the Prophet and asked him about what you asked me, and the Prophet did not answer him until Jibril came down with this Ayah: لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَبْتَغُواْ فَضْلاً مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ (There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord (during pilgrimage by trading)).
The Prophet summoned the man and said: You are pilgrims.''
Ibn Jarir narrated that Abu Salih said to Umar,
"`O Leader of the faithful! Did you conduct trade transactions during the Hajj?''
He said, "Was their livelihood except during Hajj!''
Standing at Arafat
... فَإِذَا أَفَضْتُم مِّنْ عَرَفَاتٍ فَاذْكُرُواْ اللّهَ عِندَ الْمَشْعَرِ الْحَرَامِ ...
Then when you leave Arafat, remember Allah (by glorifying His praises, i.e., prayers and invocations) at the Mash`ar-il-Haram.
Arafat is the place where one stands during the Hajj and it is a pillar of the rituals of Hajj.
Imam Ahmad and the Sunan compilers recorded that Abdur-Rahman bin Yamar Ad-Diyli said that he heard Allah's Messenger saying:
الْحَجُّ عَرَفَاتٌ ثَلَاثًا فَمَنْ أَدْرَكَ عَرَفَةَ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَطْلُعَ الْفَجْرُ فَقَدْ أَدْرَكَ، وَأَيَّامُ مِنًى ثَلَاثَــةٌ، فَمَنْ تَعَجَّلَ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ، وَمَنْ تَأَخَّر فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيه
Hajj is Arafat, (thrice). Hence, those who have stood at Arafat before dawn will have performed (the rituals of the Hajj). The days of Mina are three, and there is no sin for those who move on after two days, or for those who stay.
The time to stand on Arafat starts from noon on the day of Arafah until dawn the next day, which is the day of the Sacrifice (the tenth day of Dhul-Hijjah).
The Prophet stood at Arafat during the Farewell Hajj, after he had offered the Zuhr (noon) prayer, until sunset. He said, "Learn your rituals from me.''
In this Hadith (i.e., in the previous paragraph) he said,
"Whoever stood at Arafat before dawn, will have performed (the rituals of Hajj).''
Urwah bin Mudarris bin Harithah bin Lam At-Ta'i said,
"I came to Allah's Messenger at Al-Muzdalifah when it was time to pray. I said, `O Messenger of Allah! I came from the two mountains of Tayy', and my animal became tired and I became tired. I have not left any mountain, but stood on it. Do I have a valid Hajj?'
Allah's Messenger said:
مَنْ شَهِدَ صَلَاتَنَا هذِهِ، فَوَقَفَ مَعَنَا حَتَّى نَدْفَعَ، وَقَدْ وَقَفَ بِعَرَفَةَ قَبْلَ ذلِكَ لَيْلًا أَوْ نَهارًا فَقَدْ تَمَّ حَجُّهُ وَقَضَى تَفَثَه
Whoever performed this prayer with us, stood with us until we moved forth, and had stood at Arafat before that, day or night, will have performed the Hajj and completed its rituals.''
This Hadith was collected by Imam Ahmad and the compilers of the Sunan, and At-Tirmidhi graded it Sahih.
It was reported that the mount was called Arafat because, as Abdur-Razzaq reported that Ali bin Abu Talib said,
"Allah sent Jibril to Prophet Ibrahim and he performed Hajj for him (to teach him its rituals).
When Ibrahim reached Arafat he said, `I have Araftu (I know this place).'
He had come to that area before. Thereafter, it was called Arafat.''
Ibn Al-Mubarak said that Ata said,
"It was called Arafat because Jibril used to teach Ibrahim the rituals of Hajj. Ibrahim would say, `I have Araftu, I have Araftu.' It was thereafter called Arafat.''
Similar statements were attributed to Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar and Abu Mijlaz.
Allah knows best.
Arafat is also called Al-Mash`ar Al-Haram, Al-Mash`ar Al-Aqsa and Ilal, while the mount that is in the middle of Arafat is called Jabal Ar-Rahmah (Mount of Mercy).
The Time to leave Arafat and Al-Muzdalifah
Ibn Abu Hatim reported that Ibn Abbas said,
"During the time of Jahiliyyah, the people used to stand at Arafat. When the sun would be on top of the mountains, just as the turban is on top of a man's head, they would move on. Allah's Messenger delayed moving from Arafat until sunset.''
Ibn Marduwyah related this Hadith and added,
"He then stood at Al-Muzdalifah and offered the Fajr (Dawn) prayer at an early time. When the light of dawn broke, he moved on.''
This Hadith has a Hasan chain of narrators.
The long Hadith that Jabir bin Abdullah narrated, which Muslim collected, stated,
"The Prophet kept standing there (meaning at Arafat) until sunset, when the yellow light had somewhat gone and the disc of the sun had disappeared. Then, the Prophet made Usamah sit behind him, and in order to keep her under control, pulled the nose string of Al-Qaswa' so hard, that its head touched the saddle. He gestured with his right hand and said, "Proceed calmly people, calmly!"
Whenever he happened to pass over an elevated tract of sand, he lightly loosened the nose string of his camel till she climbed up and this is how they reached Al-Muzdalifah.
There, he led the Maghrib (Evening) and Isha (Night) prayers with one Adhan and two Iqamah (which announces the imminent start of the acts of the prayer) and did not glorify Allah in between them (i.e., he did not perform voluntary Rak`ah).
Allah's Messenger then laid down till dawn and offered the Fajr (Dawn) prayer with Adhan and Iqamah, when the morning light was clear.
He again mounted Al-Qaswa', and when he came to Al-Mash`ar Al-Haram, he faced towards Qiblah, supplicated to Allah, glorifying Him and saying, La ilaha illallah, and he continued standing until the daylight was very clear. He then went quickly before the sun rose.''
It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Usamah bin Zayd was asked, "How was the Prophet's pace when he moved?''
He said, "Slow, unless he found space, then he would go a little faster.''
Abdur-Razzaq reported that Ibn Umar said that all of Al-Muzdalifah is Al-Mash`ar Al-Haram.
It was reported that Ibn Umar was asked about Allah's statement: فَاذْكُرُواْ اللّهَ عِندَ الْمَشْعَرِ الْحَرَامِ (...remember Allah (by glorifying His praises, i.e., prayers and invocations) at the Mash`ar-il-Haram), he said,
"It is the Mount and the surrounding area.''
It was reported that;
Al-Mash`ar Al-Haram is what is between the two Mounts (refer to the following Hadith), as Ibn Abbas, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ikrimah, Mujahid, As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Al-Hasan and Qatadah have stated.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Jubayr bin Mut`im narrated that the Prophet said:
Allah then said:
... وَاذْكُرُوهُ كَمَا هَدَاكُمْ ...
And remember Him (by invoking Allah for all good) as He has guided you.
This Ayah reminds Muslims of Allah's bounty on them that He has directed and taught them the rituals of Hajj according to the guidance of Prophet Ibrahim Al-Khalil.
This is why Allah said:
... وَإِن كُنتُم مِّن قَبْلِهِ لَمِنَ الضَّآلِّينَ ﴿١٩٨﴾
...and verily, you were, before, of those who were astray.
It was said that this Ayah refers to the condition before the guidance or the Qur'an or the Messenger, all of which are correct meanings.
The Order to stand on Arafat and to depart from it
ثُمَّ أَفِيضُواْ مِنْ حَيْثُ أَفَاضَ النَّاسُ ...
Then depart from the place whence all the people depart,
This Ayah contains Allah's order to those who stand at Arafat to also move on to Al-Muzdalifah, so that they remember Allah at Al-Mash`ar Al-Haram.
Allah commands the Muslim to stand with the rest of the pilgrims at Arafat, unlike Quraysh who (before Islam) used to remain in the sanctuary, near Al-Muzdalifah, saying that they are the people of Allah's Town and the servants of His House.
Al-Bukhari reported that Aishah said,
"Quraysh and their allies, who used to be called Al-Hums, used to stay in Al-Muzdalifah while the rest of the Arabs would stand at Arafat. When Islam came, Allah commanded His Prophet to stand at Arafat and then proceed from there. Hence Allah's statement: مِنْ حَيْثُ أَفَاضَ النَّاسُ (...from the place whence all the people depart)."
This was also said by Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ata, Qatadah and As-Suddi and others.
Ibn Jarir chose this opinion and said that there is Ijma (a consensus among the scholars) for it.
Imam Ahmad reported that Jubayr bin Mutim said,
"My camel was lost and I went out in search of it on the day of Arafah, and I saw the Prophet standing in Arafat. I said to myself, `By Allah he is from the Hums. What has brought him here!'''
This Hadith is also reported in the Sahihayn.
Al-Bukhari reported that Ibn Abbas said that;
`depart' mentioned in the Ayah refers to proceeding from Al-Muzdalifah to Mina to stone the pillars.
Allah knows best.
Asking Allah for His Forgiveness
... وَاسْتَغْفِرُواْ اللّهَ إِنَّ اللّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ ﴿١٩٩﴾
...and ask Allah for His forgiveness. Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful.
Allah frequently orders remembrance of Him after acts of worship are finished.
Muslim reported that; Allah's Messenger used to ask Allah for His forgiveness thrice after the prayer is finished. It is reported in the Two Sahihs that;
the Prophet encouraged Tasbih (saying Subhan Allah, i.e., Glorified is Allah), Tahmid (saying Al-Hamdu Lillah, i.e., praise be to Allah) and Takbir (saying Allahu Akbar, i.e., Allah is the Most Great) thirty-three times each (after prayer).
Ibn Marduwyah collected the Hadith that Al-Bukhari reported from Shaddad bin Aws, who stated that Allah's Messenger said:
سَيِّدُ الْاِسْتِغْفَارِ أَنْ يَقُولَ الْعَبْدُ:
The master of supplication for forgiveness, is for the servant to say:
مَنْ قَالَهَا فِي لَيْلَةٍ فَمَاتَ فِي لَيْلَتِهِ دَخَلَ الْجَنَّــةَ، وَمَنْ قَالَهَا فِي يَوْمِهِ فَمَاتَ دَخَلَ الْجَنَّــة
Whoever said these words at night and died that same night will enter Paradise.
Whoever said it during the day and died will enter Paradise.
Furthermore, it is reported in the Two Sahihs that Abdullah bin `Amr said that Abu Bakr said,
"O Messenger of Allah! Teach me an invocation so that I may invoke (Allah) with it in my prayer.
He told me to say:
There are many other Hadiths on this subject.
The Order for Remembrance of Allah and seeking Good in this Life and the Hereafter upon completing the Rites of Hajj
فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُم مَّنَاسِكَكُمْ فَاذْكُرُواْ اللّهَ كَذِكْرِكُمْ آبَاءكُمْ أَوْ أَشَدَّ ذِكْرًا ...
So when you have accomplished your Manasik, remember Allah as you remember your forefathers or with far more remembrance.
Allah commands that He be remembered after the rituals are performed.
كَذِكْرِكُمْ آبَاءكُمْ (...as you remember your forefathers),
Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Ibn Abbas said,
"During the time of Jahiliyyah, people used to stand during the (Hajj) season, and one of them would say, `My father used to feed (the poor), help others (end their disputes, with his money), pay the Diyah (i.e., blood money),' and so forth. The only Dhikr that they had was that they would remember the deeds of their fathers. Allah then revealed to Muhammad: فَاذْكُرُواْ اللّهَ كَذِكْرِكُمْ آبَاءكُمْ أَوْ أَشَدَّ ذِكْرًا (Remember Allah as you remember your forefathers or with far more remembrance)."
Therefore, remembering Allah the Exalted and Ever High is always encouraged. We should mention that when Allah used "or'' in the Ayah, He meant to encourage the people to remember Him more than they remember their forefathers, not that the word entails a doubt (as to which is larger or bigger). This statement is similar to the Ayat:
فَهِىَ كَالْحِجَارَةِ أَوْ أَشَدُّ قَسْوَةً
...as stones or even worse in hardness. (2:74)
يَخْشَوْنَ النَّاسَ كَخَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ أَوْ أَشَدَّ خَشْيَةً
...fear men as they fear Allah or even more, (4:77)
وَأَرْسَلْنَـهُ إِلَى مِاْئَةِ أَلْفٍ أَوْ يَزِيدُونَ
And We sent him to a hundred thousand (people) or even more. (37:147)
فَكَانَ قَابَ قَوْسَيْنِ أَوْ أَدْنَى
And was at a distance of two bows' length or (even) nearer. (53:9)
Allah encourages calling Him in supplication after remembering Him, because this will make it more likely that the supplication will be accepted.
Allah also criticizes those who only supplicate to Him about the affairs of this life, while ignoring the affairs of the Hereafter.
... فَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَمَا لَهُ فِي الآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلاَقٍ ﴿٢٠٠﴾
But of mankind there are some who say: "Our Lord! Give us (Your bounties) in this world!'' and for such there will be no portion in the Hereafter.
meaning, they have no share in the Hereafter. This criticism serves to discourage other people from imitating those mentioned.
Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Ibn Abbas said,
"Some Bedouins used to come to the standing area (Arafat) and supplicate saying, `O Allah! Make it a rainy year, a fertile year and a year of good child bearing.' They would not mention any of the affairs of the Hereafter. Thus, Allah revealed about them:
... فَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَمَا لَهُ فِي الآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلاَقٍ
But of mankind there are some who say: "Our Lord! Give us (Your bounties) in this world!'' and for such there will be no portion in the Hereafter."
Next, Allah tells:
وِمِنْهُم مَّن يَقُولُ ...
And of them there are some who say:
Next, Allah revealed:
أُولَـئِكَ لَهُمْ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا كَسَبُواْ وَاللّهُ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ ﴿٢٠٢﴾
For them there will be allotted a share for what they have earned. And Allah is swift at reckoning.
Hence, Allah praised those who ask for the affairs of both this life and the Hereafter. He said:
وِمِنْهُم مَّن يَقُولُ رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ
And of them there are some who say: "Our Lord! Give us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the torment of the Fire!''
The supplication mentioned and praised in the Ayah includes all good aspects of this life and seeks refuge from all types of evil. The good of this life concerns every material request of well-being, spacious dwelling, pleasing mates, sufficient provision, beneficial knowledge, good profession or deeds, comfortable means of transportation and good praise, all of which the scholars of Tafsir have mentioned regarding this subject. All of these are but a part of the good that is sought in this life. As for the good of the Hereafter, the best of this includes acquiring Paradise, which also means acquiring safety from the greatest horror at the gathering place. It also refers to being questioned lightly and the other favors in the Hereafter.
As for acquiring safety from the Fire, it includes being directed to what leads to this good end in this world, such as avoiding the prohibitions, sins of all kinds and doubtful matters.
Al-Qasim bin Abdur-Rahman said,
"Whoever is gifted with a grateful heart, a remembering tongue and a patient body, will have been endowed with a good deed in this life, a good deed in the Hereafter and saved from the torment of the Fire.''
This is why the Sunnah encourages reciting this Du`a (i.e., in the Ayah about gaining a good deed in this life and the Hereafter).
Al-Bukhari reported that Anas bin Malik narrated that the Prophet used to say:
Imam Ahmad reported that Anas said,
"Allah's Messenger visited a Muslim man who had become as weak as a sick small bird. Allah's Messenger said to him, `Were you asking or supplicating to Allah about something?'
He said, `Yes. I used to say: O Allah! Whatever punishment you saved for me in the Hereafter, give it to me in this life.'
Allah's Messenger said:
سُبْحَانَ اللهِ لَا تُطِيقُهُ أَوْ لَا تَسْتَطِيعُهُ، فَهَلَّا قُلْتَ:
All praise is due to Allah! You cannot bear it -or stand it-. You should have said:
رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ
Our Lord! Give us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the torment of the Fire!
The man began reciting this Du`a and he was cured.''
Muslim also recorded it.
Al-Hakim reported that Sa`id bin Jubayr said,
"A man came to Ibn Abbas and said, `I worked for some people and settled for a part of my compensation in return for their taking me to perform Hajj with them. Is this acceptable?'
Ibn Abbas said, `You are among those whom Allah described:
أُولَـئِكَ لَهُمْ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا كَسَبُواْ وَاللّهُ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ
For them there will be allotted a share for what they have earned. And Allah is swift at reckoning.
Al-Hakim then commented;
"This Hadith is authentic according to the criteria of the Two Sheikhs (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) although they did not record it."
Remembering Allah during the Days of Tashriq - Days of Eating and Drinking
وَاذْكُرُواْ اللّهَ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَّعْدُودَاتٍ ...
And remember Allah during the Appointed Days.
Ibn Abbas said,
`The Appointed Days are the Days of Tashriq (11-12-13th of Dhul-Hijjah) while the Known Days are the (first) ten (days of Dhul-Hijjah).''
Ikrimah said that: وَاذْكُرُواْ اللّهَ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَّعْدُودَاتٍ (And remember Allah during the Appointed Days),
means reciting the Takbir -- Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, during the days of Tashriq after the compulsory prayers.
Imam Ahmad reported that Uqbah bin Amr said that Allah's Messenger said:
يَوْمُ عَرَفَةَ، وَيَوْمُ النَّحْرِ، وَأَيَّامُ التَّشْرِيقِ، عِيدُنَا أَهْلَ الْإسْلَامِ، وَهِيَ أَيَّامُ أَكْلٍ وَشُرْب
The day of Arafah (9th of Dhul-Hijjah), the day of the Sacrifice (10th) and the days of the Tashriq (11-12-13th) are our `Id (festival) for we people of Islam. These are days of eating and drinking.
Imam Ahmad reported that Nubayshah Al-Hudhali said that Allah's Messenger said:
أَيَّامُ التَّشْرِيقِ أَيَّامُ أَكْلٍ وشُرْبٍ وَذِكْرِ الله
The days of Tashriq are days of eating, drinking and Dhikr (remembering) of Allah.)
Muslim also recorded this Hadith.
We also mentioned the Hadith of Jubayr bin Mut`im:
عَرَفَةُ كُلُّهَا مَوْقِفٌ، وَأيَّامُ التَّشْرِيقِ كُلُّهَا ذَبْح
All of Arafat is a standing place and all of the days of Tashriq are days of Sacrifice.
We also mentioned the Hadith by Abdur-Rahman bin Ya`mar Ad-Diyli:
وَأَيَّامُ مِنىً ثَلَاثَةٌ فَمَنْ تَعَجَّلَ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ فَلَا إثْمَ عَلَيْهِ وَمَنْ تَأَخَّرَ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْه
The days of Mina (Tashriq) are three.
Those who hasten in two days then there is no sin in it, and those who delay (i.e., remain in Mina for a third day) then there is no sin in it.)
Ibn Jarir reported that Abu Hurayrah narrated that Allah's Messenger said:
أَيَّامُ التَّشْرِيقِ أيَّامُ طُعْمٍ وَذِكْرِ الله
The days of Tashriq are days of eating and remembering Allah.
Ibn Jarir reported that Abu Hurayrah narrated that;
Allah's Messenger sent Abdullah bin Hudhayfah to Mina proclaiming:
لَا تَصُومُوا هذِه الْأَيَّامَ، فَإنَّهَا أَيَّامُ أَكْلٍ وَشُرْبٍ وَذِكْرِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَل
Do not fast these days (i.e., Tashriq days), for they are days of eating, drinking and remembering Allah the Exalted and Most Honored.
The Appointed Days
Miqsam said that Ibn Abbas said that;
the Appointed Days are the days of Tashriq, four days: the day of the Sacrifice (10th of Dhul-Hijjah) and three days after that.
This opinion was also reported of Ibn Umar, Ibn Az-Zubayr, Abu Musa, Ata, Mujahid, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Malik, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Yahya bin Abu Kathir, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Az-Zuhri, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Ad-Dahhak, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Ata Al-Khurasani, Malik bin Anas, and others.
In addition, the apparent meaning of the following Ayah supports this opinion: فَمَن تَعَجَّلَ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ فَلاَ إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ وَمَن تَأَخَّرَ فَلا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ (But whosoever hastens to leave in two days, there is no sin on him and whosoever stays on, there is no sin on him).
So the Ayah hints to the three days after the day of Sacrifice.
وَاذْكُرُواْ اللّهَ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَّعْدُودَاتٍ
And remember Allah during the Appointed Days,
directs remembering Allah upon slaughtering the animals, after the prayers, and by Dhikr (supplication) in general.
It also includes Takbir and remembering Allah while throwing the pebbles every day during the Tashriq days.
A Hadith that Abu Dawud and several others collected states:
Tawaf around the House, Sa`i between As-Safa and Al-Marwah and throwing the pebbles were legislated so that Allah is remembered in Dhikr.
...فَمَن تَعَجَّلَ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ فَلاَ إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ وَمَن تَأَخَّرَ فَلا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ لِمَنِ اتَّقَى ...
But whosoever hastens to leave in two days, there is no sin on him and whosoever stays on, there is no sin on him, if his aim is to do good
When mentioning the first procession (refer to 2:199) and the second procession of the people upon the end of the Hajj season, when they start to return to their areas, after they had gathered during the rituals and at the standing places, Allah said,
... وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ ﴿٢٠٣﴾
and obey Allah (fear Him), and know that you will surely be gathered unto Him.
Similarly, Allah said:
وَهُوَ الَّذِى ذَرَأَكُمْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَإِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ
And it is He Who has created you on the earth, and to Him you shall be gathered back. (23:79)
The Characteristics of the Hypocrites
وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يُعْجِبُكَ قَوْلُهُ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَيُشْهِدُ اللّهَ عَلَى مَا فِي قَلْبِهِ ...
And of mankind there is he whose speech may please you (O Muhammad), in this worldly life, and he calls Allah to witness as to that which is in his heart,
As-Suddi said that;
these Ayat were revealed about Al-Akhnas bin Shariq Ath-Thaqafi who came to Allah's Messenger and announced his Islam although his heart concealed otherwise.
Ibn Abbas narrated that;
these Ayat were revealed about some of the hypocrites who criticized Khubayb and his companions who were killed during the Raji` incident. Thereafter, Allah sent down His condemnation of the hypocrites and His praise for Khubayb and his companions:
النَّاسِ مَن يَشْرِي نَفْسَهُ ابْتِغَاء مَرْضَاتِ اللّهِ
And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the pleasure of Allah. (2:207)
It was also said that;
they refer to the hypocrites and the believers in general.
This is the opinion of Qatadah, Mujahid, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and several others, and it is correct.
Ibn Jarir related that Al-Qurazi said that;
Nawf Al-Bikali, who used to read (previous Divine) Books said, "I find the description of some members of this Ummah in the previously revealed Books of Allah:
they (hypocrites) are people who use the religion to gain material benefit. Their tongues are sweeter than honey, but their hearts are more bitter than Sabir (a bitter plant, aloe). They show the people the appearance of sheep while their hearts hide the viciousness of wolves. Allah said, `They dare challenge Me, but they are deceived by Me. I swear by Myself that I will send a Fitnah (trial, calamity) on them that will make the wise man bewildered.'
I contemplated about these statements and found them in the Qur'an describing the hypocrites:
وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يُعْجِبُكَ قَوْلُهُ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَيُشْهِدُ اللّهَ عَلَى مَا فِي قَلْبِهِ
And of mankind there is he whose speech may please you (O Muhammad), in this worldly life, and he calls Allah to witness as to that which is in his heart.
This statement by Al-Qurazi is Hasan Sahih.
... وَيُشْهِدُ اللّهَ عَلَى مَا فِي قَلْبِهِ ...
...and he calls Allah to witness as to that which is in his heart,
This Ayah indicates that such people pretend to be Muslims, but defy Allah by the disbelief and hypocrisy that their hearts conceal.
Similarly Allah said:
يَسْتَخْفُونَ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَلاَ يَسْتَخْفُونَ مِنَ اللَّهِ
They may hide (their crimes) from men, but they cannot hide (them) from Allah. (4:108)
This Tafsir was reported from Ibn Abbas by Ibn Ishaq.
It was also said that;
the Ayah means that when such people announce their Islam, they swear by Allah that what is in their hearts is the same of what their tongues are pronouncing.
This is also a correct meaning for the Ayah that was chosen by Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam.
It is also the choice of Ibn Jarir who related it to Ibn Abbas and Mujahid.
Allah knows best.
Allah knows best.
... وَهُوَ أَلَدُّ الْخِصَامِ ﴿٢٠٤﴾
Yet he is the most Aladd of the opponents.
The Ayah used the word Aladd here, which literally means `wicked' (here it means `quarrelsome').
A variation of the word Ludda was also used in another Ayah:
وَتُنْذِرَ بِهِ قَوْماً لُّدّاً
So that you (Muhammad) warn with it (the Qur'an) a Ludda people. (19:97)
Hence, a hypocrite lies, alters the truth when he quarrels and does not care for the truth. Rather, he deviates from the truth, deceives and becomes most quarrelsome.
It is reported in Sahih that Allah's Messenger said:
آيَةُ الْمُنَافِقِ ثَلاثٌ:
The signs of a hypocrite are three:
Imam Bukhari reported that Aishah narrated that the Prophet said:
إِنَّ أَبْغَضَ الرِّجَالِ إلَى اللهِ الْألَدُّ الْخَصِم
The most hated person to Allah is he who is Aladd and Khasim (meaning most quarrelsome).
Allah then said:
وَإِذَا تَوَلَّى سَعَى فِي الأَرْضِ لِيُفْسِدَ فِيِهَا وَيُهْلِكَ الْحَرْثَ وَالنَّسْلَ ...
And when he turns away (from you O Muhammad), he struggles in the land to make mischief therein and to destroy the crops and the cattle,
This Ayah indicates that such persons are deviant in the tongue, evil in the deeds, their words are fabricated, their belief is wicked and their works are immoral.
The Ayah used the (Arabic word) Sa`a (literally, `tries' or `intends').
This word was also used to describe Pharaoh:
ثُمَّ أَدْبَرَ يَسْعَى
فَقَالَ أَنَاْ رَبُّكُمُ الاٌّعْلَى
فَأَخَذَهُ اللَّهُ نَكَالَ الاٌّخِرَةِ وَالاٍّوْلَى
إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لَعِبْرَةً لِّمَن يَخْشَى
Then he turned his back, Yas`a (striving hard against Allah). Then he gathered (his people) and cried aloud saying, `I am your lord, most high.' So Allah, seized him with a punishing example for his last and first transgression. Verily, in this is an instructive admonition for whosoever fears Allah. (79:22-26)
Sa`a was also used in the Ayah):
يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِذَا نُودِىَ لِلصَّلَوةِ مِن يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَاسْعَوْاْ إِلَى ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ
O you who believe (Muslims)! When the call is proclaimed for the Salah (prayer) on the day of Friday (Jumuah prayer), As`aw come to the remembrance of Allah. (62:9)
This Ayah means, `(when the call to the Friday prayer is announced) intend and then proceed to attend the Friday prayer.'
We should mention that hastening to the mosque is condemned by the Sunnah (as this is another meaning for the word Sa`a):
إذَا أَتَيْتُمُ الصَّلَاةَ فَلَا تَأْتُوهَا وَأَنْتُمْ تَسْعَوْنَ، وَأْتُوهَا وَعَلَيْكُمُ السَّكِينَةُ والْوَقَار
When you come to attend the prayer, do not come in a Sa`i (haste). Rather, come to it while walking at ease and in peace (or grace).
The hypocrite has no motive in this life but to cause mischief and to destroy the crops and the offspring, including what the animals produce and what the people depend on for their livelihood.
"If the hypocrite strives for mischief in the land, Allah prevents the rain from falling and thus the crops and the offspring perish.''
The Ayah continues:
...وَاللّهُ لاَ يُحِبُّ الفَسَادَ ﴿٢٠٥﴾
...and Allah likes not mischief.
that is, Allah does not like those who possess these characteristics, or those who act like this.
Rejecting Advice is Characteristic of the Hypocrites
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُ اتَّقِ اللّهَ أَخَذَتْهُ الْعِزَّةُ بِالإِثْمِ ...
And when it is said to him, "Fear Allah'', he is led by arrogance to (more) crime.
This Ayah indicates that when the hypocrite, who deviates in his speech and deeds, is advised and commanded to fear Allah, refrain from his evil deeds and adhere to the truth, he refuses and becomes angry and outraged, as he is used to doing evil.
This Ayah is similar to what Allah said:
وَإِذَا تُتْلَى عَلَيْهِمْ ءَايَـتُنَا بَيِّنَـتٍ تَعْرِفُ فِى وُجُوهِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ الْمُنْكَرَ يَكَـدُونَ يَسْطُونَ بِالَّذِينَ يَتْلُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ ءَايَـتُنَا قُلْ أَفَأُنَبِّئُكُم بِشَرٍّ مِّن ذلِكُمُ النَّارُ وَعَدَهَا اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ
And when Our clear verses are recited to them, you will notice a denial on the faces of the disbelievers! They are nearly ready to attack with violence those who recite Our verses to them. Say: "Shall I tell you of something worse than that The Fire (of Hell) which Allah has promised to those who disbelieved, and worst indeed is that destination! (22:72)
This is why in this Ayah, Allah said:
... فَحَسْبُهُ جَهَنَّمُ وَلَبِئْسَ الْمِهَادُ ﴿٢٠٦﴾
So enough for him is Hell, and worst indeed is that place to rest.
meaning, the Fire is enough punishment for the hypocrite.
The Sincere Believer prefers pleasing Allah
After Allah described the evil characteristics of the hypocrites, He mentioned the good qualities of the believers. Allah said:
وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَشْرِي نَفْسَهُ ابْتِغَاء مَرْضَاتِ اللّهِ ...
And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the pleasure of Allah.
Ibn Abbas, Anas, Sa`id bin Musayyib, Abu Uthman An-Nahdi, Ikrimah and several other scholars said that;
this Ayah was revealed about Suhayb bin Sinan Ar-Rumi. When Suhayb became a Muslim in Makkah and intended to migrate (to Al-Madinah), the people (Quraysh) prevented him from migrating with his money.
They said that if he forfeits his property, he is free to migrate. He abandoned his money and preferred to migrate, and Allah revealed this Ayah about him.
Umar bin Khattab and several other Companions met Suhayb close to the outskirts of Al-Madinah at Al-Harrah (flat lands with black stones). They said to him,
"The trade has indeed been successful.''
He answered them, "You too, may Allah never allow your trade to fail. What is the matter?''
Umar told him that Allah has revealed this Ayah (2:207) about him.
It was also reported that Allah's Messenger said,
"The trade has been successful, O Suhayb!''
The meaning of the Ayah (2:207) includes every Mujahid in the way of Allah.
Allah said in another Ayah:
إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرَى مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَلَهُمْ بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الّجَنَّةَ يُقَـتِلُونَ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالإِنجِيلِ وَالْقُرْءانِ وَمَنْ أَوْفَى بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللَّهِ فَاسْتَبْشِرُواْ بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِى بَايَعْتُمْ بِهِ وَذَلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ
Verily, Allah has purchased of the believers their lives and their properties for (the price) that theirs shall be the Paradise. They fight in Allah's cause, so they kill (others) and are killed. It is a promise in truth which is binding on Him in the Tawrah and the Injil and the Qur'an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah Then rejoice in the bargain which you have concluded. That is the supreme success. (9:111)
When Hisham bin Amr penetrated the lines of the enemy, some people criticized him. Umar bin Al-Khattab and Abu Hurayrah refuted them and recited this Ayah:
وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَشْرِي نَفْسَهُ ابْتِغَاء مَرْضَاتِ اللّهِ وَاللّهُ رَؤُوفٌ بِالْعِبَادِ ﴿٢٠٧﴾
And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the pleasure of Allah. And Allah is full of kindness to (His) servants.
Entering Islam in its Entirety is obligated
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ ادْخُلُواْ فِي السِّلْمِ كَآفَّةً ...
O you who believe! Enter Silm perfectly,
Allah commands His servants who believe in Him and have faith in His Messenger to implement all of Islam's legislation and law, to adhere to all of its commandments, as much as they can, and to refrain from all of its prohibitions.
Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas said, and also Mujahid, Tawus, Ad-Dahhak, Ikrimah, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd said that Allah's statement:
ادْخُلُواْ فِي السِّلْمِ (Enter Silm), means Islam.
Allah's statement: كَآفَّةً (...perfectly) means,
in its entirety.
This is the Tafsir of Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Abu Al-Aliyah, Ikrimah, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, As-Suddi, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak.
Mujahid said that the Ayah means,
`Perform all the good works and the various pious deeds, this is especially addressed to those from among the People of the Scripture who embraced the faith.'
Ibn Abu Hatim reported that Ibn Abbas said that: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ ادْخُلُواْ فِي السِّلْمِ كَآفَّةً (O you who believe! Enter Silm perfectly),
refers to the believers among the People of the Scripture. This is because they believed in Allah; some of them still followed some parts of the Tawrah and the previous revelations. So Allah said: ادْخُلُواْ فِي السِّلْمِ كَآفَّةً (Enter Islam perfectly). Allah thus commanded them to embrace the legislation of the religion of Muhammad in its entirety and to avoid abandoning any part of it. They should no longer adhere to the Tawrah.
Allah then said:
... وَلاَ تَتَّبِعُواْ خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ ...
...and follow not the footsteps of Shaytan,
meaning, perform the acts of worship and avoid what Satan commands you to do. This is because:
إِنَّمَا يَأْمُرُكُم بِالسُّوءِ وَالْفَحْشَآءِ وَأَن تَقُولُواْ عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ
He (Shaytan) commands you only what is evil and Fahishah (sinful), and that you should say about Allah what you know not. (2:169)
إِنَّمَا يَدْعُو حِزْبَهُ لِيَكُونُواْ مِنْ أَصْحَـبِ السَّعِيرِ
He only invites his Hizb (followers) that they may become the dwellers of the blazing Fire. (35:6)
Hence, Allah said:
... إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ ﴿٢٠٨﴾
Verily, he is to you an open enemy.
فَإِن زَلَلْتُمْ مِّن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءتْكُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ ...
Then if you slide back after the clear signs have come to you,
meaning, if you deviate from the Truth after clear proofs have been established against you.
... فَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللّهَ عَزِيزٌ ...
...then know that Allah is All-Mighty,
in His punishment, and no one can escape His vengeance or defeat Him.
... حَكِيمٌ ﴿٢٠٩﴾
in His decisions, actions and rulings.
Hence Abu Al-Aliyah, Qatadah and Ar-Rabi bin Anas said,
"He is Mighty in His vengeance, Wise in His decision.''
Do not delay embracing the Faith
هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلاَّ أَن يَأْتِيَهُمُ اللّهُ فِي ظُلَلٍ مِّنَ الْغَمَامِ وَالْمَلآئِكَةُ ...
Do they then wait for anything other than that Allah should come to them over the shadows of the clouds and the angels,
on the Day of Resurrection to judge the early and the latter creations.
Allah shall then reward each according to his or her deeds; and whoever does good shall see it, and whoever does evil shall see it.
This is why Allah said:
... وَقُضِيَ الأَمْرُ وَإِلَى اللّهِ تُرْجَعُ الأمُورُ ﴿٢١٠﴾
(Then) the case would be already judged. And to Allah return all matters (for decision).
Similarly, Allah said:
كَلاَّ إِذَا دُكَّتِ الاٌّرْضُ دَكّاً دَكّاً
وَجَآءَ رَبُّكَ وَالْمَلَكُ صَفّاً صَفّاً
وَجِىءَ يَوْمَئِذٍ بِجَهَنَّمَ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَتَذَكَّرُ الإِنسَـنُ وَأَنَّى لَهُ الذِّكْرَى
Nay! When the earth is ground to powder. And your Lord comes with the angels in rows. And Hell will be brought near that Day. On that Day will man remember, but how will that remembrance (then) avail him! (89:21-23)
هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلاَ أَن تَأْتِيهُمُ الْمَلَـئِكَةُ أَوْ يَأْتِىَ رَبُّكَ أَوْ يَأْتِىَ بَعْضُ ءَايَـتِ رَبِّكَ
Do they then wait for anything other than that the angels should come to them, or that your Lord (Allah) should come, or that some of the signs of your Lord should come (i. e., portents of the Hour, e.g., rising of the sun from the west)! (6:158)
Abu Jafar Razi reported that Abu Al-Aliyah narrated that: هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلاَّ أَن يَأْتِيَهُمُ اللّهُ فِي ظُلَلٍ مِّنَ الْغَمَامِ وَالْمَلآئِكَةُ (Do they then wait for anything other than that Allah should come to them over the shadows of the clouds and the angels) means,
the angels will descend on the shadows of clouds, while Allah comes as He wills.
Some of the reciters read it,
هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلاَّ أَن يَأْتِيَهُمُ اللّهُوَ الْمَلآئِكَةُ فِي ظُلَلٍ مِّنَ الْغَمَامِ
Do they then wait for anything other than that Allah should come to them and also the angels over the shadows of the clouds.
This is similar to Allah's other statement:
وَيَوْمَ تَشَقَّقُ السَّمَآءُ بِالْغَمَـمِ وَنُزِّلَ الْمَلَـئِكَةُ تَنزِيلاً
And (remember) the Day when the heaven shall be rent asunder with clouds, and the angels will be sent down, with a grand descending. (25:25)
The Punishment for changing Allah's Favor and mocking the Believers
سَلْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ كَمْ آتَيْنَاهُم مِّنْ آيَةٍ بَيِّنَةٍ ...
Ask the Children of Israel how many clear Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) We gave them.
Allah mentioned that the Children of Israel, were witnesses to many clear signs that attest to the truth of Moses regarding what he was sent with for them. They witnessed;
These signs attested to the existence of the Creator and the truth of Moses by whose hand these signs appeared. Yet, so many among them changed Allah's favor, by preferring disbelief to faith and by ignoring Allah's favors,
... وَمَن يُبَدِّلْ نِعْمَةَ اللّهِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءتْهُ فَإِنَّ اللّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ ﴿٢١١﴾
And whoever changes Allah's favor after it had come to him, then surely, Allah is severe in punishment.
Similarly, Allah said about the disbelievers of Quraysh:
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ بَدَّلُواْ نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ كُفْرًا وَأَحَلُّواْ قَوْمَهُمْ دَارَ الْبَوَارِ
جَهَنَّمَ يَصْلَوْنَهَا وَبِئْسَ الْقَرَارُ
Have you not seen those who have changed the blessings of Allah into disbelief, and caused their people to dwell in the house of destruction Hell, in which they will burn, ـ and what an evil place to settle in! (14:28-29)
Then Allah said;
زُيِّنَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا وَيَسْخَرُونَ مِنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّقَواْ فَوْقَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ...
Beautified is the life of this world for those who disbelieve, and they mock at those who believe. But those who have Taqwa, will be above them on the Day of Resurrection. And Allah gives (of His bounty, blessings, favors, and honors on the Day of Resurrection) to whom He wills without limit.
Allah states that He has made the life of this world beautiful for the disbelievers who are satisfied with it, who collect wealth, but refrain from spending it on what they have been commanded, which could earn them Allah's pleasure.
Instead, they ridicule the believers who ignore this life and who spend whatever they earn on what pleases their Lord. The believers spend seeking Allah's Face, and this is why they have gained the ultimate happiness and the best share on the Day of the Return. Therefore, they will be exalted above the disbelievers at the Gathering Place, when they are gathered, during the resurrection and in their final destination. The believers will reside in the highest grades in the utmost highs, while the disbelievers will reside in the lowest of lows (in the Fire).
This is why Allah said:
... وَاللّهُ يَرْزُقُ مَن يَشَاء بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ ﴿٢١٢﴾
And Allah gives to whom He wills without limit.
This Ayah indicates that Allah gives sustenance to whomever He wills of His servants without count or limit in this and the Hereafter.
A Hadith has stated (that Allah said):
ابْنَ آدَمَ أَنْفِقْ أُنْفِقْ عَلَيْك
O son of Adam! Spend (in Allah's cause) and I (Allah) will spend on you.
The Prophet said:
أَنْفِقْ بِلَالُ وَلَا تَخْشَ مِنْ ذِي الْعَرْشِ إِقْلَالًا
O Bilal! Spend and do not fear deprivation from the Owner of the Throne.
وَمَآ أَنفَقْتُمْ مِّن شَىْءٍ فَهُوَ يُخْلِفُهُ
...and whatsoever you spend of anything (in Allah's cause), He will replace it. (34:39)
In addition, it is reported in the Sahih that the Prophet said:
أَنَّ مَلَكَيْنِ يَنْزِلَانِ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ صَبِيحَةَ كُلِّ يَوْمٍ فَيَقُولُ أحَدُهُمَا:اللَّهُمَّ أَعْطِ مُنْفِقًا خَلَفًا، وَيَقُولُ الآخَرُ: اللَّهُمَّ أعْطِ مُمْسِكًا تَلَفًا
Every day two angels come down from heavens and one of them says, `O Allah! Compensate every person who spends in Your cause,' and the other (angel) says, `O Allah! Destroy every miser.'
Also in the Sahih:
يَقُولُ ابْنُ آدَمَ: مَالِي مَالِي.
وَهَلْ لَكَ مِنْ مَالِكَ إِلَّا مَا أَكَلْتَ فَأَفْنَيْتَ، وَمَا لَبِسْتَ فَأَبْلَيْتَ، وَمَا تَصَدَّقْتَ فَأَمْضَيْتَ، وَمَا سِوَى ذلِكَ فَذَاهِبٌ وَتَارِكُهُ لِلنَّاس
The son of Adam says, `My money, my money!'
Yet, what is your money except that which you eat and use up, wear and tear, and spend in charity and thus keep (in your record). Other than that, it will go away and will be left for the people (the inheritors).
In addition, Imam Ahmad reported that the Prophet said:
الدُّنْيَا دَارُ مَنْ لَا دَارَ لَهُ، وَمَالُ مَنْ لَا مَالَ لَهُ، وَلَهَا يَجْمَعُ مَنْ لَا عَقْلَ لَه
The Dunya (life of this world) is the residence of those who have no residence, the wealth of those who have no wealth, and it is harvested by those who have no sense of reason.
Disputing, after the Clear Signs have come, indicates Deviation
كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَبَعَثَ اللّهُ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ ...
Mankind was one community and Allah sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings, and with them He sent down the Scripture in truth to judge between people in matters wherein they differed. And only those to whom (the Scripture) was given differed concerning it, after clear proofs had come unto them, through hatred, one to another.
Ibn Jarir reported that Ibn Abbas said,
"There were ten generations between Adam and Nuh, all of them on the religion of Truth. They later disputed so Allah sent the Prophets as warners and bringers of glad tidings.'' He then said that this is how Abdullah read the Ayah:
كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَاخْ تَلَفُوا
The people were one Ummah and they then disputed.
Al-Hakim recorded this in his Mustadrak and said, "Its chain of narrators is Sahih, but they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not record it.''
Abu Jafar Razi reported that Abu Al-Aliyah said that Ubayy bin Ka`b read the Ayah as:
كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَاخْتَلَفُوا فَبَعَثَ اللّهُ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ
The people were one Ummah and they then disputed and Allah sent the Prophets as warners and bringers of glad tidings.
Abdur-Razzaq said that Ma`mar said that Qatadah said that;
Allah's statement: كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً (Mankind was one community) means; "They all had the guidance. Then: فَاخْتَلَفُوا فَبَعَثَ اللّهُ النَّبِيِّينَ (They disputed and Allah sent Prophets). The first to be sent was Nuh."
Abdur-Razzaq reported that Abu Hurayrah commented on: فَهَدَى اللّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لِمَا اخْتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِ (Then Allah by His leave guided those who believed to the truth of that wherein they differed), saying that the Prophet said:
نَحْنُ الآخِرُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ، نَحْنُ أَوَّلُ النَّاسِ دُخُولًا الْجَنَّــةَ، بَيْدَ أَنَّهُم أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِنْ قَبْلِنا وأُوتِينَاهُ مِن بَعْدِهِمْ، فَهَداَنا اللهُ لِمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقَّ بِإِذْنِهِ، فَهَذَا الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ فَهَدَانَا اللهُ لَهُ، فَالنَّاسُ لَنَا فِيهِ تَبَعٌ، فَغدًا لِلْيَهُودِ، وَبَعْدَ غَدٍ لِلنَّصَارَى
We are the last (nation), but the first (foremost) on the Day of Resurrection. We are the first people to enter Paradise, although they (Jews and Christians) have been given the Book before us and we after them. Allah has guided us to the truth wherever they disputed over it. This is the day (Friday) that they disputed about, Allah guided us to it. So, the people follow us, as tomorrow is for the Jews and the day after is for the Christians.
Ibn Wahb related that Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said that his father said about the Ayah: فَهَدَى اللّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لِمَا اخْتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِ (Then Allah by His leave guided those who believed to the truth of that wherein they differed),
Allah then said:
... بِإِذْنِهِ ...
...by His leave,
According to Ibn Jarir meaning,
`By His knowledge of them and by what He has directed and guided them to.'
... وَاللّهُ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاء ...
And Allah guides whom He wills,
means from among His creation.
... إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ ﴿٢١٣﴾
...to the straight way.
meaning, He commands the decision and the clear proof.
Al-Bukhari and Muslim reported that Aishah narrated that;
when Allah's Messenger used to wake up at night to pray, he would say:
اللَّهُمَّ ربَّ جِبْرَائِيلَ وَمِيكَائِيلَ وَإِسْرَافِيلَ، فَاطِرَ السَّموَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ، عَالِمَ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ، أَنْتَ تَحْكُمُ بيْنَ عِبَادِكَ فِيمَا كَانُوا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ، اهْدِنِي لِمَا اخْتُلِفَ فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِكَ، إِنَّكَ تَهْدِي مَنْ تَشَاءُ إِلى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيم
O Allah, the Lord of (angels) Jibril, Mikhail and Israfil, Creator of the heavens and earth and Knower of the seen and the unseen. You judge between Your servants regarding what they have disputed in, so guide me to what have been the subject of dispute of the truth by Your leave. Indeed, You guide whom You will to the straight path.
A Du`a (supplication) reads:
Victory only comes after succeeding in the Trials
أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَن تَدْخُلُواْ الْجَنَّةَ ...
Or think you that you will enter Paradise,
before you are tested and tried just like the nations that came before you!
This is why Allah said:
... وَلَمَّا يَأْتِكُم مَّثَلُ الَّذِينَ خَلَوْاْ مِن قَبْلِكُم مَّسَّتْهُمُ الْبَأْسَاء وَالضَّرَّاء ...
...without such (trials) as came to those who passed away before you They were afflicted with severe poverty and ailments,
meaning, illnesses, pain, disasters and hardships.
Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn Abbas, Abu Al-Aliyah, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Murrah Al-Hamdani, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi, As-Suddi and Muqatil bin Hayyan said that;
الْبَأْسَاء (Al-Ba'sa') means poverty.
Ibn Abbas said that
وَالضَّرَّاء (...and Ad-Darra') means ailments.
... وَزُلْزِلُواْ ...
and were so shaken,
for fear of the enemy, and were tested, and put to a tremendous trial.
An authentic Hadith narrated that Khabbab bin Al-Aratt said,
"We said, `O Messenger of Allah! Why do you not invoke Allah to support us Why do you not supplicate to Allah for us' He said:
إِنَّ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ كَانَ أَحَدُهُمْ يُوضَعُ الْمِنْشَارُ عَلى مَفْرَقِ رَأْسِهِ فَيَخْلُصُ إِلى قَدَمَيْهِ لَا يَصْرِفُهُ ذَلِكَ عَنْ دِينِهِ، وَيُمْشَطُ بِأَمْشَاطِ الْحَدِيدِ مَا بَيْنَ لَحْمِهِ وَعَظْمِهِ، لَا يَصْرِفُهُ ذلِكَ عَنْ دِينِه
The saw would be placed on the middle of the head of one of those who were before you (believers) and he would be sawn until his feet, and he would be combed with iron combs between his skin and bones, yet that would not make him change his religion.
He then said:
وَاللهِ لَيُتِمَّنَّ اللهُ هَذَا الْأَمْرَ حَتَّى يَسِيرَ الرَّاكِبُ مِنْ صَنْعَاءَ إلى حَضْرَمَوْتَ، لَا يَخَافُ إِلَّا اللهَ وَالذِّئْبَ عَلى غَنَمِهِ، وَلَكِنَّــكُمْ قَوْمٌ تَسْتَعْجِلُون
By Allah! This matter (religion) will spread (or expand) by Allah until the traveler leaves San`a' to Hadramawt (both in Yemen, but at a great distance from each other) fearing only Allah and then the wolf for the sake of his sheep. You are just a hasty people.
And Allah said:
أَحَسِبَ النَّاسُ أَن يُتْرَكُوا أَن يَقُولُوا آمَنَّا وَهُمْ لَا يُفْتَنُونَ
وَلَقَدْ فَتَنَّا الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ فَلَيَعْلَمَنَّ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا وَلَيَعْلَمَنَّ الْكَاذِبِينَ
Alif-Lam-Mim. Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: "We believe,'' and will not be tested And We indeed tested those who were before them. And Allah will certainly make (it) known (the truth of) those who are true, and will certainly make (it) known (the falsehood of) those who are liars. (29:1-3)
The Companions experienced tremendous trials during the battle of Al-Ahzab (the Confederates).
إِذْ جَآءُوكُمْ مِّن فَوْقِكُمْ وَمِنْ أَسْفَلَ مِنكُمْ وَإِذْ زَاغَتِ الاٌّبْصَـرُ وَبَلَغَتِ الْقُلُوبُ الْحَنَاجِرَ وَتَظُنُّونَ بِاللَّهِ الظُّنُونَاْ
هُنَالِكَ ابْتُلِىَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَزُلْزِلُواْ زِلْزَالاً شَدِيداً
وَإِذْ يَقُولُ الْمُنَـفِقُونَ وَالَّذِينَ فِى قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ مَّا وَعَدَنَا اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ إِلاَّ غُرُوراً
When they came upon you from above you and from below you, and when the eyes grew wild and the hearts reached to the throats, and you were harboring doubts about Allah. There, the believers were tried and shaken with a mighty shaking. And when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease (of doubts) said: "Allah and His Messenger promised us nothing but delusion!'' (33:10-12)
When Heraclius asked Abu Sufyan, "Did you fight him (Prophet Muhammad)?'' He said, "Yes.''
Heraclius said, "What was the outcome of warfare between you?''
Abu Sufyan said, "Sometimes we lose and sometimes he loses.''
He said, "Such is the case with Prophets, they are tested, but the final victory is theirs.''
... مَّثَلُ الَّذِينَ خَلَوْاْ مِن قَبْلِكُم ...
...without (such) (trials) as came to those who passed away before you,
meaning, their way of life.
Similarly, Allah said:
فَأَهْلَكْنَآ أَشَدَّ مِنْهُم بَطْشاً وَمَضَى مَثَلُ الاٌّوَّلِينَ
Then We destroyed men stronger (in power) than these ـ and the example of the ancients has passed away (before them)) (43: 8)
... وَزُلْزِلُواْ حَتَّى يَقُولَ الرَّسُولُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ مَعَهُ مَتَى نَصْرُ اللّهِ ...
...were so shaken that even the Messenger and those who believed along with him said, "When (will come) the help of Allah.''
They pleaded (to Allah) for victory against their enemies and invoked Him for aid and deliverance from their hardships and trials. Allah said:
... أَلا إِنَّ نَصْرَ اللّهِ قَرِيبٌ ﴿٢١٤﴾
Yes! Certainly, the help of Allah is near!
فَإِنَّ مَعَ الْعُسْرِ يُسْراً
إِنَّ مَعَ الْعُسْرِ يُسْراً
Verily, along with every hardship is relief. Verily, along with every hardship is relief. (94:5-6)
So just as there is hardship, its equal of relief will soon arrive. This is why Allah said: أَلا إِنَّ نَصْرَ اللّهِ قَرِيبٌ (Yes! Certainly, the help of Allah is near)!
Who deserves the Nafaqah (Spending or Charity)
يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ ...
They ask you (O Muhammad) what they should spend.
Muqatil bin Hayyan said that;
this Ayah was revealed about the voluntary charity.
Ibn Abbas and Mujahid have stated that the Ayah means,
`They ask you (O Muhammad) how they should spend.'
So, Allah explained it for them, saying:
... قُلْ مَا أَنفَقْتُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ فَلِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالأَقْرَبِينَ وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ ...
Say: "Whatever you spend of good must be for parents and kindred and orphans and Al-Masakin and the wayfarer,''
meaning, spend it on these categories or areas.
Similarly, a Hadith states that;
those who deserve one's generosity the most, are:
أُمَّكَ وَأَبَاكَ وَأُخْتَكَ وَأَخَاكَ ثُمَّ أَدْنَاكَ أَدْنَاك
Your mother, father, sister, brother, the closest and then the farthest (relatives).
Maymun bin Mihran once recited this Ayah and commented,
"These are the areas of spending. Allah did not mention among them the drums, pipe, wooden pictures, or the curtains that cover the walls.''
Next, Allah said:
... وَمَا تَفْعَلُواْ مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللّهَ بِهِ عَلِيمٌ ﴿٢١٥﴾
...and whatever you do of good deeds, truly, Allah knows it well.
meaning, whatever you perform of good works, Allah knows them and He will reward you for them in the best manner, no one will be dealt with unjustly, even the weight of an atom.
Jihad is made Obligatory
كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِتَالُ ...
Fighting is ordained for you (Muslims),
In this Ayah, Allah made it obligatory for the Muslims to fight in Jihad against the evil of the enemy who transgress against Islam.
"Jihad is required from every person, whether he actually joins the fighting or remains behind. Whoever remains behind is required to give support, if support is warranted; to provide aid, if aid is needed; and to march forth, if he is commanded to do so. If he is not needed, then he remains behind.''
It is reported in the Sahih:
مَنْ مَاتَ وَلَمْ يَغْزُ وَلَمْ يُحَدِّثْ نَفْسَهُ بِالْغَزْوِ، مَاتَ مِيتَةً جَاهِلِيَّــة
Whoever dies but neither fought (i.e., in Allah's cause), nor sincerely considered fighting, will die a death of Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic era of ignorance).
On the day of Al-Fath (when he conquered Makkah), the Prophet said:
لَا هِجْرَةَ بَعْدَ الْفَتْحِ وَلكِنْ جِهَادٌ وَنِيَّةٌ، وَإِذَا اسْتُنْفِرْتُمْ فَانْفِرُوا
There is no Hijrah (migration from Makkah to Al-Madinah) after the victory, but only Jihad and good intention. If you were required to march forth, then march forth.
... وَهُوَ كُرْهٌ لَّكُمْ ...
...though you dislike it,
means, `Fighting is difficult and heavy on your hearts.'
Indeed, fighting is as the Ayah describes it, as it includes being killed, wounded, striving against the enemies and enduring the hardship of travel.
Allah then said:
... وَعَسَى أَن تَكْرَهُواْ شَيْئًا وَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ...
...and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you,
meaning, fighting is followed by victory, dominance over the enemy, taking over their lands, money and offspring.
... وَعَسَى أَن تُحِبُّواْ شَيْئًا وَهُوَ شَرٌّ لَّكُمْ ...
...and that you like a thing which is bad for you.
This Ayah is general in meaning.
Hence, one might covet something, yet in reality it is not good or beneficial for him, such as refraining from joining the Jihad, for it might lead to the enemy taking over the land and the government.
Then, Allah said:
... وَاللّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿٢١٦﴾
Allah knows, but you do not know.
meaning, He has better knowledge than you of how things will turn out to be in the end, and of what benefits you in this earthly life and the Hereafter. Hence, obey Him and adhere to His commands, so that you may acquire the true guidance.
The Nakhlah Military Maneuvers, and the Ruling on Fighting during the Sacred Months
يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ قِتَالٍ فِيهِ قُلْ قِتَالٌ فِيهِ كَبِيرٌ وَصَدٌّ عَن سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَكُفْرٌ بِهِ وَالْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَإِخْرَاجُ أَهْلِهِ مِنْهُ أَكْبَرُ عِندَ اللّهِ وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَكْبَرُ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ وَلاَ يَزَالُونَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ حَتَّىَ يَرُدُّوكُمْ عَن دِينِكُمْ إِنِ اسْتَطَاعُواْ وَمَن يَرْتَدِدْ مِنكُمْ عَن دِينِهِ فَيَمُتْ وَهُوَ كَافِرٌ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالآخِرَةِ وَأُوْلَـئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ ﴿٢١٧﴾
They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Months.
Say, "Fighting therein is a great (transgression) but a greater (transgression) with Allah is to prevent mankind from following the way of Allah, to disbelieve in Him, to prevent access to Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at Makkah), and to drive out its inhabitants, and Al-Fitnah is worse than killing.''
And they will never cease fighting you until they turn you back from your religion (Islamic Monotheism) if they can. And whosoever of you turns back from his religion and dies as a disbeliever, then his deeds will be lost in this life and in the Hereafter, and they will be the dwellers of the Fire. They will abide therein forever.
Ibn Abu Hatim reported that Jundub bin Abdullah said:
Allah's Messenger assembled a group of men under the command of Abu Ubaydah bin Jarrah. When he was about to march, he started crying for the thought of missing Allah's Messenger. Consequently, the Messenger relieved Abu Ubaydah from command, appointed Abdullah bin Jahsh instead, gave him some written instructions and commanded him not to read the instructions until he reached such and such area. He also said to Abdullah:
لَا تُكْرِهَنَّ أَحَدًا عَلَى السَّيْرِ مَعَكَ مِنْ أَصْحَابِك
Do not compel any of your men to continue marching with you thereafter.
When Abdullah read the instructions, he recited Istirja`
(saying, `Truly! to Allah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return'; (2:156)) and said, "I hear and obey Allah and His Messenger.''
He then told his companions the story and read the instructions to them, and two men went back while the rest remained.
Soon after, they found Ibn Hadrami (one of the disbelievers of Quraysh) and killed him not knowing that that day was in Rajab or Jumadi (where Rajab is the Sacred Month).
The polytheists said to the Muslims, "You have committed murder in the Sacred Month.''
Allah then revealed: يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ قِتَالٍ فِيهِ قُلْ قِتَالٌ فِيهِ كَبِيرٌ (They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Months. Say, "Fighting therein is a great (transgression)...'').
Abdul-Malik bin Hisham, who compiled the Sirah (life story of the Prophet), related that Ziyad bin Abdullah Bakka'i said that Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar Al-Madani wrote in his book on the Sirah,
"Allah's Messenger sent Abdullah bin Jahsh bin Riyab Al-Asadi in Rajab, after he (the Prophet) came back from the first battle of Badr. The Prophet sent eight people with him, all from among the Muhajirun and none from the Ansar.
He also gave him some written instructions and ordered him not to read them until he marched for two days. Abdullah should then read the instructions and march to implement them, but should not force any of those who were with him to accompany him.
The companions of Abdullah bin Jahsh were all from the Muhajirun,
When Abdullah bin Jahsh marched for two days, he opened and read the (Prophet's) instructions, "When you read these instructions, march until you set camp at Nakhlah between Makkah and At-Ta'if. There, watch the movements of the caravan of Quraysh and collect news about them for us.''
When Abdullah bin Jahsh read the document, he said, "I hear and obey.''
He then said to his companions, "Allah's Messenger has commanded me to march forth to Nakhlah to watch the movements of the caravan of Quraysh and to inform him about their news. He has prohibited me from forcing any of you (to go with me). So, those who seek martyrdom, they should march with me. Those who dislike the idea of martyrdom, let them turn back. Surely, I will implement the command of Allah's Messenger.''
He and his companions continued without any of them turning back.
Abdullah entered the Hijaz area (western Arabia) until he reached an area called Buhran, close to Furu. There, Sa`d bin Abu Waqqas and Utbah bin Ghazwan lost the camel that they were riding in turns, and they went back to search for it while Abdullah bin Jahsh and the rest of his companions continued until they reached Nakhlah.
Then, a caravan belonging to the Quraysh passed by carrying raisins, food stuff and some trade items for the Quraysh.
Amr bin Hadrami, whose name was Abdullah bin Abbad, was in the caravan, as well as Uthman bin Abdullah bin Al-Mughirah and his brother Nawfal bin Abdullah from the tribe of Makhzum, and Al-Hakam bin Kaysan, a freed slave of Hisham bin Al-Mughirah. When they saw the Companions they were frightened, but when they saw Ukkashah bin Mihsan their fears subsided, since his head was shaved. They said, "These people seek the Umrah, so there is no need to fear them.''
The Companions conferred among themselves. That day was the last day in the (sacred) month of Rajab. They said to each other, "By Allah! If you let them pass, they will soon enter the Sacred Area and take refuge in it from you. If you kill them, you will kill them during the Sacred Month.''
They at first hesitated and did not like to attack them. They then began encouraging themselves and decided to kill whomever they could among the disbelievers and to confiscate whatever they had.
Hence, Waqid bin Abdullah At-Tamimi shot an arrow at Amr bin Al-Hadrami and killed him. Uthman bin Abdullah and Al-Hakam bin Kaysan gave themselves up, while Nawfal bin Abdullah was able to outrun them in flight.
Later on, Abdullah bin Jahsh and his companions went back to Allah's Messenger in Al-Madinah with the caravan and the two prisoners.
Ibn Ishaq went on:
I was told that some members of the family of Abdullah bin Jahsh said that Abdullah said to his companions: "Allah's Messenger will have one-fifth of what we have confiscated.''
This occurred before Allah required one-fifth for His Messenger from the war booty. So, Abdullah designated one-fifth of the caravan for Allah's Messenger and divided the rest among his companions.
Ibn Ishaq also stated that at first, when the Sariyah came back to Allah's Messenger, he said to them:
مَا أَمَرْتُكُمْ بِقِتَالٍ فِي الشَّهْرِ الْحَرَام
I have not commanded you to conduct warfare during the Sacred Month.
He left the caravan and the two prisoners alone and did not take any share of the war booty.
When Allah's Messenger did that, the soldiers from the attack were concerned and felt that they were destroyed, and their Muslim brethren criticized them for what they did.
The Quraysh said that Muhammad and his Companions violated the sanctity of the Sacred Month and shed blood, confiscated property and took prisoners during it. Those who refuted them among the Muslims who remained in Makkah replied that the Muslims had done that during the month of Shaban (which is not a sacred month).
Meanwhile, the Jews were pleased about what happened to Allah's Messenger. They said, `Amr bin Hadrami was killed by Waqid bin Abdullah:
`Amr, means the war has started, Hadrami means the war has come, as for Waqid (bin Abdullah): the war has raged (using some of the literal meanings of these names to support their fortune-telling!).''
But, Allah made all that turn against them.
The people continued talking about this matter, then Allah revealed to His Messenger:
يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ قِتَالٍ فِيهِ قُلْ قِتَالٌ فِيهِ كَبِيرٌ وَصَدٌّ عَن سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَكُفْرٌ بِهِ وَالْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَإِخْرَاجُ أَهْلِهِ مِنْهُ أَكْبَرُ عِندَ اللّهِ وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَكْبَرُ مِنَ الْقَتْل...
They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Months.
Say, "Fighting therein is a great (transgression) but a greater (transgression) with Allah is to prevent mankind from following the way of Allah, to disbelieve in Him, to prevent access to Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at Makkah), and to drive out its inhabitants, and Al-Fitnah is worse than killing.
This Ayah means,
`If you had killed during the Sacred Month, they (disbelievers of Quraysh) have hindered you from the path of Allah and disbelieved in it. They also prevented you from entering the Sacred Mosque, and expelled you from it, while you are its people, أَكْبَرُ عِندَ اللّهِ (...a greater (transgression) with Allah) than killing whom you killed among them. Also: وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَكْبَرُ مِنَ الْقَتْل... (...and Al-Fitnah is worse than killing) means, trying to force the Muslims to revert from their religion and re-embrace Kufr after they had believed, is worse with Allah than killing.'
...ِ وَلاَ يَزَالُونَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ حَتَّىَ يَرُدُّوكُمْ عَن دِينِكُمْ إِنِ اسْتَطَاعُواْ ...
And they will never cease fighting you until they turn you back from your religion (Islamic Monotheism) if they can.
So, they will go on fighting you with unrelenting viciousness.
Ibn Ishaq went on:
When the Qur'an touched this subject and Allah brought relief to the Muslims instead of the sadness that had befallen them, Allah's Messenger took possession of the caravan and the two prisoners.
The Quraysh offered to ransom the two prisoners, Uthman bin Abdullah and Hakam bin Kaysan.
Allah's Messenger said:
لَا نَفْدِيكُمُوهُمَا حَتَّى يَقْدَمَ صَاحِبَانَا
We will not accept your ransom until our two companions return safely.
meaning Sa`d bin Abu Waqqas and Utbah bin Ghazwan, "For we fear for their safety with you. If you kill them, we will kill your people.''
Later on, Sa`d and Utbah returned safely and Allah's Messenger accepted the Quraysh's ransom for their prisoners.
As for Al-Hakam bin Kaysan, he became Muslim and his Islam strengthened. He remained with Allah's Messenger until he was martyred during the incident at Bir Ma`unah (when the Prophet sent seventy Companions to Najd to teach them Islam, but Banu Sulaim killed them all except two).
As for Uthman bin Abdullah, he went back to Makkah and died there as a disbeliever.
Ibn Ishaq went on:
When Abdullah bin Jahsh and his companions were relieved from their depressing thoughts after the Qur'an was revealed about this subject, they sought the reward of the fighters (in Allah's way). They said, "O Messenger of Allah! We wish that this incident be considered a battle for us, so that we gain the rewards of the Mujahidin.''
Then, Allah revealed:
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَالَّذِينَ هَاجَرُواْ وَجَاهَدُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ أُوْلَـئِكَ يَرْجُونَ رَحْمَتَ اللّهِ وَاللّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ ﴿٢١٨﴾
Verily, those who have believed, and those who have emigrated (for Allah's religion) and have striven hard in the way of Allah, all these hope for Allah's mercy. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Hence, Allah has greatly elevated their hopes of gaining what they had wished for.
The Gradual Prohibition of Khamr (Alcoholic Drink)
يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَإِثْمُهُمَآ أَكْبَرُ مِن نَّفْعِهِمَا ...
They ask you (O Muhammad) concerning alcoholic drink and gambling.
Say: "In them is a great sin, and (some) benefits for men, but the sin of them is greater than their benefit.''
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Maysarah said that;
Umar once said, "O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr!'' Allah sent down the Ayah of Surah Al-Baqarah: يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ (They ask you (O Muhammad) concerning alcoholic drink and gambling. Say: "In them is a great sin...). Umar was then summoned and the Ayah was recited to him.
Yet, he still said, "O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr.''
Then, this Ayah that is in Surah An-Nisa' was revealed: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَقْرَبُواْ الصَّلاَةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَارَى (O you who believe! Approach not As-Salah (the prayer) when you are in a drunken state), (4:43).
Then, when the prayer was called for, a person used to herald on behalf of Allah's Messenger, "No drunk person should attend the prayer.''
Umar was summoned again and the Ayah was recited to him. Yet, he still said, "O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr.''
Then, the Ayah (5:91) that is in Surah Al-Ma'idah was revealed, Umar was again summoned and the Ayah was recited to him. When he reached: فَهَلْ أَنتُم مُّنتَهُونَ (So, will you not then abstain) (5:91) he said, "We did abstain, we did abstain.''
This is also the narration that Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i collected in their books.
Ali bin Al-Madini and At-Tirmidhi said that the chain of narrators for this Hadith is sound and authentic. We will mention this Hadith again along with what Imam Ahmad collected by Abu Hurayrah Allah's saying in Surah Al-Ma'idah:
إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالأَنصَابُ وَالأَزْلاَمُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
Intoxicants and gambling, and Al-Ansab, and Al-Azlam are an abomination of Satan's handiwork. So avoid (strictly all) that (abomination) in order that you may be successful. (5:90)
يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ ...
They ask you (O Muhammad) concerning alcoholic drinks and gambling.
As for Al-Khamr, Umar bin Khattab, the Leader of the faithful, used to say, "It includes all what intoxicates the mind.''
We will also mention this statement in the explanation of Surah Al-Ma'idah, along with the topic of gambling.
... قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ ...
Say: In them is a great sin, and (some) benefits for men.
As for the harm that the Khamr and gambling cause, it effects the religion.
As for their benefit, it is material, including benefit for the body, digesting the food, getting rid of the excrements, sharpening the mind, bringing about a joyous sensation and financially benefiting from their sale.
Also, (their benefit includes) earnings through gambling that one uses to spend on his family and on himself. Yet, these benefits are outweighed by the clear harm that they cause which affects the mind and the religion.
This is why Allah said:
... وَإِثْمُهُمَآ أَكْبَرُ مِن نَّفْعِهِمَا ...
...but the sin of them is greater than their benefit.
This Ayah was the beginning of the process of prohibiting Khamr, not explicitly, but it only implied this meaning. So when this Ayah was recited to Umar, he still said, "O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr.''
Soon after, Allah sent down a clear prohibition of Khamr in Surah Al-Ma'idah:
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالاٌّنصَابُ وَالاٌّزْلاَمُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَـنِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَـنُ أَن يُوقِعَ بَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَآءَ فِى الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ وَيَصُدَّكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَعَنِ الصَّلَوةِ فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُّنتَهُونَ
O you who believe! Intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic drinks), and gambling, and Al-Ansab, and Al-Azlam are an abomination of Shaytan's handiwork. So avoid (strictly all) that (abomination) in order that you may be successful.
Shaytan wants only to excite enmity and hatred between you with intoxicants (alcoholic drinks) and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and from As-Salah (the prayer). So, will you not then abstain! (5:90-91)
We will mention this subject, by the will of Allah, when we explain Surah Al-Ma'idah.
Ibn Umar, Ash-Sha`bi, Mujahid, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and Abdur-Rahman bin Aslam stated that the first Ayah revealed about Khamr was:
يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ
They ask you about Khamr and gambling. Say: "In them there is great sin.''
Then, the Ayah in Surah An-Nisa was revealed (on this subject) and then the Ayah in Surah Al-Ma'idah which prohibited Khamr.
Spending whatever One could spare of his Money on Charity
... وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ قُلِ الْعَفْوَ ...
And they ask you what they ought to spend.
Say: "That which is (spare) beyond your needs.''
Al-Hakam said that Miqsam said that Ibn Abbas said that this Ayah means,
whatever you can spare above the needs of your family.
This is also the opinion of Ibn Umar, Mujahid, Ata, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Al-Qasim, Salim, Ata Al-Khurasani and Ar-Rabi bin Anas.
Ibn Jarir related that Abu Hurayrah said that a man said,
"O Messenger of Allah! I have a Dinar (a currency).''
The Prophet said:
أَنْفِقْهُ عَلى نَفْسِك
Spend it you on yourself.
He said, "I have another Dinar.''
أَنْفِقْهُ عَلى أَهْلِك
Spend it on your wife.
He said, "I have another Dinar.''
أَنْفِقْهُ عَلى وَلَدِك
Spend it on your offspring.
He said, "I have another Dinar.''
You have better knowledge (meaning how and where to spend it in charity).
Muslim also recorded this Hadith in his Sahih.
Muslim recorded that Jabir said that Allah's Messenger said to a man:
ابْدَأْ بِنَفْسِكَ فَتَصَدَّقْ عَلَيْهَا، فَإِنْ فَضَلَ شَيْءٌ فَلِأَهْلِكَ، فَإِنْ فَضَلَ شَيْءٌ عَنْ أَهْلِكَ فَلِذِي قَرَابَتِكَ، فَإِنْ فَضَلَ عَنْ ذِي قَرَابَتِكَ شَيْءٌ فَهكَذَا وَهكَذَا
Start with yourself and grant it some charity. If anything remains, then spend it on your family. If anything remains, then spend it on your relatives. If anything remains, then spend it like this and like that (i.e., on various charitable purposes).
A Hadith states:
ابْنَ آدَمَ إِنَّكَ أَنْ تَبْذُلَ الْفَضْلَ خَيْرٌ لَكَ، وَأَنْ تُمْسِكَهُ شَرٌّ لَكَ، وَلَا تُلَامُ عَلى كَفَاف
O son of Adam! If you spend whatever you can spare, it would be better for you; but if you keep it, it would be worse for you. You shall not be blamed for whatever is barely sufficient.
... كَذَلِكَ يُبيِّنُ اللّهُ لَكُمُ الآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَفَكَّرُونَ ﴿٢١٩﴾
فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالآخِرَةِ ...
Thus Allah makes clear to you His Ayat in order that you may give thought. In (to) this worldly life and in the Hereafter.
meaning, just as He stated and explained these commandments for you, He also explains the rest of His Ayat regarding the commandments and His promises and warnings, so that you might give thought in this life and the Hereafter.
Ali bin Abu Talhah said that Ibn Abbas commented,
"Meaning about the imminent demise and the brevity of this life, and the imminent commencement of the Hereafter and its continuity.''
Maintaining the Orphan's Property
... وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْيَتَامَى قُلْ إِصْلاَحٌ لَّهُمْ خَيْرٌ وَإِنْ تُخَالِطُوهُمْ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ وَاللّهُ يَعْلَمُ الْمُفْسِدَ مِنَ الْمُصْلِحِ وَلَوْ شَاء اللّهُ لأعْنَتَكُمْ ...
And they ask you concerning orphans.
Say: "The best thing is to work honestly in their property, and if you mix your affairs with theirs, then they are your brothers. And Allah knows him who means mischief (e.g., to swallow their property) from him who means good (e.g., to save their property). And if Allah had wished, He could have put you into difficulties.
Ibn Jarir reported that Ibn Abbas said,
"When the Ayat: وَلاَ تَقْرَبُواْ مَالَ الْيَتِيمِ إِلاَّ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ (And come not near to the orphan's property, except to improve it), (6:152) and إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَالَ الْيَتَامَى ظُلْمًا إِنَّمَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ نَارًا وَسَيَصْلَوْنَ سَعِيرًا (Verily, those who unjustly eat up the property of orphans, they eat up only fire into their bellies, and they will be burnt in the blazing Fire!) (4:10) were revealed, those who took care of some orphans, separated their food and drink from the orphans' food and drink. When some of the orphans' food and drink remained, they would keep it for them until they eat it or otherwise get spoiled.
This situation was difficult for them and they mentioned this subject to Allah's Messenger.
... وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْيَتَامَى قُلْ إِصْلاَحٌ لَّهُمْ خَيْرٌ وَإِنْ تُخَالِطُوهُمْ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ ...
And they ask you concerning orphans. Say: "The best thing is to work honestly in their property, and if you mix your affairs with theirs, then they are your brothers.
Hence, they joined their food and drink with the food and drink of the orphans.''
This Hadith was also collected by Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i and Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak.
Several others said similarly about the circumstances surrounding the revelation of the Ayah (2:220), including Mujahid, Ata, Ash-Sha`bi, Ibn Abu Layla, Qatadah and others among the Salaf and those after them.
Ibn Jarir reported that Aishah said,
"I dislike that an orphan's money be under my care, unless I mix my food with his food and my drink with his drink.''
... قُلْ إِصْلاَحٌ لَّهُمْ خَيْرٌ ...
Say: The best thing is to work honestly in their property.
meaning, on the one hand (i.e., this is required in any case).
Allah then said:
... وَإِنْ تُخَالِطُوهُمْ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ ...
...and if you mix your affairs with theirs, then they are your brothers.
meaning, there is no harm if you mix your food and drink with their food and drink, since they are your brothers in the religion.
This is why Allah said afterwards:
... وَاللّهُ يَعْلَمُ الْمُفْسِدَ مِنَ الْمُصْلِحِ ...
And Allah knows (the one) who means mischief (e.g., to swallow their property) from (the one) who means good (e.g., to save their property).
meaning, He knows those whose intent is to cause mischief or righteousness.
He also said:
... وَلَوْ شَاء اللّهُ لأعْنَتَكُمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ ﴿٢٢٠﴾
And if Allah had wished, He could have put you into difficulties. Truly, Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.
meaning, if Allah wills, He will make this matter difficult for you. But, He made it easy for you, and allowed you to mix your affairs with the orphans' affairs in a way that is better.
Similarly, Allah said:
وَلاَ تَقْرَبُواْ مَالَ الْيَتِيمِ إِلاَّ بِالَّتِى هِىَ أَحْسَنُ
And come not near to the orphan's property, except to improve it. (6:152)
Allah has thus allowed spending from the orphan's estate by its executor, in reasonable proportions, on the condition that he has the intention to compensate the orphan later on, when he can afford it. We will mention about it in detail in Surah An-Nisa by Allah's will.
The Prohibition of marrying Mushrik Men and Women
وَلاَ تَنكِحُواْ الْمُشْرِكَاتِ حَتَّى يُؤْمِنَّ ...
And do not marry Al-Mushrikat (idolatresses) till they believe (worship Allah Alone).
Allah prohibited the believers from marrying Mushrik women who worship idols.
Although the meaning is general and includes every Mushrik woman from among the idol worshippers and the People of the Scripture, Allah excluded the People of the Scripture from this ruling.
مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَـبَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ إِذَآ ءَاتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ مُحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحِينَ
(Lawful to you in marriage) are chaste women from those who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) before your time when you have given their due dowry, desiring chastity (i.e., taking them in legal wedlock) not committing illegal sexual intercourse. (5:5)
Ali bin Abu Talhah said that Ibn Abbas said about what Allah said: وَلاَ تَنكِحُواْ الْمُشْرِكَاتِ حَتَّى يُؤْمِنَّ (And do not marry Al-Mushrikat (female idolators) till they believe (worship Allah Alone).
"Allah has excluded the women of the People of the Scripture.'' This is also the explanation of Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Makhul, Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, Zayd bin Aslam and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and others.
Some scholars said that;
the Ayah is exclusively talking about idol worshippers and not the People of the Scripture, and this meaning is similar to the first meaning we mentioned.
Allah knows best.
Abu Jafar bin Jarir (At-Tabari) said, after mentioning that there is Ijma that marrying women from the People of the Scripture is allowed,
"Umar disliked this practice so that the Muslims do not refrain from marrying Muslim women, or for similar reasons.''
An authentic chain of narrators stated that Shaqiq said:
Once Hudhayfah married a Jewish woman and Umar wrote to him, "Divorce her.''
He wrote back, "Do you claim that she is not allowed for me so that I divorce her?''
He said, "No. But, I fear that you might marry the whores from among them.''
Ibn Jarir related that Zayd bin Wahb said that;
Umar bin Khattab said, "The Muslim man marries the Christian woman, but the Christian man does not marry the Muslim woman.''
This Hadith has a stronger, authentic chain of narrators than the previous Hadith.
Ibn Abu Hatim said that;
Ibn Umar disliked marrying the women from the People of the Scripture. He relied on his own explanation for the Ayah: وَلاَ تَنكِحُواْ الْمُشْرِكَاتِ حَتَّى يُؤْمِنَّ (And do not marry Al-Mushrikat (female idolators) till they believe (worship Allah Alone).
Al-Bukhari also reported that Ibn Umar said,
"I do not know of a bigger Shirk than her saying that Jesus is her Lord!''
... وَلأَمَةٌ مُّؤْمِنَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِّن مُّشْرِكَةٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ ...
And indeed a slave woman who believes is better than a (free) Mushrikah (female idolators), even though she pleases you.
It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet said:
تُنْـكَحُ الْمَرْأَةُ لِأَرْبَعٍ:
فَاظْفَرْ بِذَاتِ الدِّينِ، تَرِبَتْ يَدَاك
A woman is chosen for marriage for four reasons:
So, marry the religious woman, may your hands be filled with sand (a statement of encouragement).
Muslim reported this Hadith from Jabir.
Muslim also reported that Ibn Amr said that Allah's Messenger said:
الدُّنْيَا مَتَاعٌ، وَخَيْرُ مَتَاعِ الدُّنْيَا الْمَرْأَةُ الصَّالِحَة
The life of this world is but a delight, and the best of the delights of this earthly life is the righteous wife.
Allah then said:
... وَلاَ تُنكِحُواْ الْمُشِرِكِينَ حَتَّى يُؤْمِنُواْ ...
And give not (your daughters) in marriage to Al-Mushrikin till they believe (in Allah Alone).
meaning, do not marry Mushrik men to believing women.
This statement is similar to Allah's statement:
لاَ هُنَّ حِلٌّ لَّهُمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحِلُّونَ لَهُنَّ
They are not lawful (wives) for them, nor are they lawful (husbands) for them. (60:10)
Next, Allah said:
... وَلَعَبْدٌ مُّؤْمِنٌ خَيْرٌ مِّن مُّشْرِكٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَكُمْ ...
...and verily, a believing servant is better than a (free) Mushrik (idolator), even though he pleases you.
This Ayah indicates that a believing man, even an Abyssinian servant, is better than a Mushrik man, even if he was a rich master.
... أُوْلَـئِكَ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ ...
Those (Al-Mushrikun) invite you to the Fire,
meaning, associating and mingling with the disbelievers makes one love this life and prefer it over the Hereafter, leading to the severest repercussions.
... وَاللّهُ يَدْعُوَ إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَالْمَغْفِرَةِ بِإِذْنِهِ ...
...but Allah invites (you) to Paradise and forgiveness by His leave,
meaning, by His Law, commandments and prohibitions.
...and makes His Ayat clear to mankind that they may remember.
Sexual Intercourse with Menstruating Women is prohibited
وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْمَحِيضِ قُلْ هُوَ أَذًى فَاعْتَزِلُواْ النِّسَاء فِي الْمَحِيضِ وَلاَ تَقْرَبُوهُنَّ حَتَّىَ يَطْهُرْنَ ...
They ask you concerning menstruation.
Say: "That is an Adha, therefore, keep away from women during menses and go not in unto them till they are purified.''
Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that;
the Jews used to avoid their menstruating women, they would not eat, or even mingle with them in the house. The Companions of the Prophet asked about this matter and Allah revealed: وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْمَحِيضِ قُلْ هُوَ أَذًى فَاعْتَزِلُواْ النِّسَاء فِي الْمَحِيضِ وَلاَ تَقْرَبُوهُنَّ حَتَّىَ يَطْهُرْنَ (They ask you concerning menstruation. Say: "That is an Adha, therefore, keep away from women during menses and go not in unto them till they are purified).
Allah's Messenger said:
اصْنَعُوا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ إِلَّا النِّكَاح
`Do everything you wish, except having sexual intercourse.
When the Jews were told about the Prophet's statement, they said, "What is the matter with this man He would not hear of any of our practices, but would defy it.''
Then, Usayd bin Hudayr and Abbad bin Bishr came and said, "O Messenger of Allah! The Jews said this and that, should we have sex with our women (meaning, during the menstruation period)''
The face of Allah's Messenger changed color, until the Companions thought that he was angry with them. They left.
Soon after, some milk was brought to Allah's Messenger as a gift, and he sent some of it for them to drink. They knew then that Allah's Messenger was not angry with them.
Muslim also reported this Hadith.
... فَاعْتَزِلُواْ النِّسَاء فِي الْمَحِيضِ ...
...therefore, keep away from women during menses,
meaning, avoid the sexual organ.
The Prophet said:
اصْنَعُوا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ إِلَّا النِّكَاح
Do anything you wish except having sexual intercourse.)
This is why most of the scholars said that it is allowed to fondle the wife, except for having sexual intercourse (when she is having her menses).
Abu Dawud reported that Ikrimah related to one of the Prophet's wives that she said that;
whenever the Prophet wanted to fondle (one of his wives) during her menses, he would cover her sexual organ with something.
Abu Jafar bin Jarir related that;
Masruq went to Aishah and greeted her, and Aishah greeted him in return. Masruq said, "I wish to ask you about a matter, but I am shy.''
She replied, "I am your mother and you are my son.''
He said, "What can the man enjoy of his wife when she is having her menses?''
She said, "Everything except her sexual organ.''
This is also the opinion of Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Al-Hasan and Ikrimah.
One is Allowed to Sleep next to his Wife and to Eat with Her (when she is having her menses)
"Allah's Messenger used to ask me to wash his hair while I was having the menses. He would lay on my lap and read the Qur'an while I was having the period.''
It is also reported in the Sahih that Aishah said,
"While having the menses, I used to eat from a piece of meat and give it to the Prophet who would eat from the same place I ate from. I used to have sips of a drink and would then give the cup to the Prophet who would place his mouth where I placed my mouth.''
It is also reported in the Two Sahihs that Maymunah bint Al-Harith Al-Hilaliyah said,
"Whenever the Prophet wanted to fondle any of his wives during the periods (menses), he used to ask her to wear an Izar (a sheet covering the lower-half of the body).''
These are the wordings collected by Al-Bukhari.
Similar was reported from Aishah.
In addition, Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah reported that;
Abdullah bin Sa`d Al-Ansari asked Allah's Messenger, "What am I allowed of my wife while she is having her menses?''
He said, "What is above the Izar (a sheet covering the lower-half of the body).''
Hence, Allah's statement: وَلاَ تَقْرَبُوهُنَّ حَتَّىَ يَطْهُرْنَ (...and go not in unto them till they are purified) explains His statement: فَاعْتَزِلُواْ النِّسَاء فِي الْمَحِيضِ