Tafsir Ibn Kathir (English)

Surah An'am

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بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

 The Virtue of Surah Al-An`am and When it Was Revealed

Al-Awfi, Ikrimah and Ata said that Ibn Abbas said,

"Surah Al-An`am was revealed in Makkah.''

At-Tabarani recorded that Ibn Abbas said,

"All of Surah Al-An`am was revealed in Makkah at night, accompanied by seventy thousand angels, raising their voices in glorification of Allah.''

As-Suddi said that Murrah said that Abdullah said,

"Surah Al-An`am was revealed in the company of seventy thousand angels.''

 

 

بِسْمِ اللّهِ الرَّحْمـَنِ الرَّحِيم

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

الْحَمْدُ للَّهِ الَّذِى خَلَقَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ وَجَعَلَ الظُّلُمَـتِ وَالنُّورَ ثْمَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِرَبِّهِمْ يَعْدِلُونَ

6:1 All praise be to Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, and originated the darkness and the light, yet those who disbelieve hold others as equal with their Lord.

هُوَ الَّذِى خَلَقَكُمْ مِّن طِينٍ ثُمَّ قَضَى أَجَلاً وَأَجَلٌ مُّسمًّى عِندَهُ ثُمَّ أَنتُمْ تَمْتَرُونَ

6:2 He it is Who has created you from clay, and then has decreed a stated term. And there is with Him another determined term, yet you doubt.

وَهُوَ اللَّهُ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَفِى الاٌّرْضِ يَعْلَمُ سِرَّكُمْ وَجَهْرَكُمْ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا تَكْسِبُونَ

6:3 And He is Allah, in the heavens and the earth, He knows what you conceal and what you reveal, and He knows what you earn.

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 All Praise is Due to Allah for His Glorious Ability and Great Power

Allah praises Himself;

الْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ وَجَعَلَ الظُّلُمَاتِ وَالنُّورَ... 

All praise be to Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, and originated the darkness and the light,

Allah praises and glorifies His Most Honorable Self for creating the heavens and earth, as a dwelling for His servants, and for making the darkness and the light to benefit them in the night and the day.

In this Ayah, Allah describes darkness in the plural, Zulumat (where Zulmah is singular for darkness), while describing the light in the singular, An-Nur, because An-Nur is more honored.

In other Ayat, Allah said,

ظِلَـلُهُ عَنِ الْيَمِينِ

To the right and to the lefts. (16:48)

Near the end of this Surah, Allah also said;

وَأَنَّ هَـذَا صِرَاطِي مُسْتَقِيمًا فَاتَّبِعُوهُ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعُواْ السُّبُلَ فَتَفَرَّقَ بِكُمْ عَن سَبِيلِهِ

And verily, this is my straight path, so follow it, and follow no (other) ways, for they will separate you away from His way. (6:153)

Allah said next,

... ثُمَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِرَبِّهِم يَعْدِلُونَ ﴿١﴾

Yet those who disbelieve hold others as equal with their Lord.

meaning, in spite of all this, some of Allah's servants disbelieve in Him and hold others as partners and rivals with Him. Some of Allah's servants claimed a wife and a son for Allah, hallowed be He far above what they attribute to Him.

Allah's statement,

هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن طِينٍ ... 

He it is Who has created you from clay,

refers to the father of mankind, Adam, from whom mankind originated, multiplied in numbers and spread about, east and west.

Allah said,

... ثُمَّ قَضَى أَجَلاً وَأَجَلٌ مُّسمًّى عِندَهُ ...

Then has decreed a stated term. And there is with Him another determined term...

His saying;  ثُمَّ قَضَى أَجَلاً (Then has decreed a stated term),

refers to death,

while, وَأَجَلٌ مُّسمًّى عِندَهُ  (And there is with Him another determined term...),

refers to the Hereafter,

according to Sa`id bin Jubayr who reported this from Ibn Abbas.

Similar statements were narrated from Mujahid, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Zayd bin Aslam, Atiyah, As-Suddi, Muqatil bin Hayyan and others.

Ibn Abbas and Mujahid said that,  ثُمَّ قَضَى أَجَلاً (And then has decreed a stated term),

is the term of this earthly life,

while, وَأَجَلٌ مُّسمًّى عِندَهُ   (And there is with Him another determined term),

refers to man's extent of life until he dies as mentioned in Allah's statement;

وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَتَوَفَّاكُم بِاللَّيْلِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا جَرَحْتُم بِالنَّهَارِ

It is He, Who takes your souls by night (when you are asleep), and has knowledge of all that you have done by day, then He raises (wakes) you up again that a term appointed (life) be fulfilled. (6:60)

The meaning of Allah's statement, عِندَهُ  (With Him), is that;

none but Him knows when it will occur.

Allah said in other Ayat,

إِنَّمَا عِلْمُهَا عِنْدَ رَبِّي لاَ يُجَلِّيهَا لِوَقْتِهَآ إِلاَّ هُوَ

The knowledge thereof is with my Lord. None can reveal its time but He. (7:187)

and,

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ السَّاعَةِ أَيَّانَ مُرْسَـهَا

فِيمَ أَنتَ مِن ذِكْرَاهَا

إِلَى رَبِّكَ مُنتَهَـهَآ

They ask you about the Hour -- when will be its appointed time! You have no knowledge to say anything about it. To your Lord belongs (the knowledge of) the term thereof. (79:42-44)

Allah said,

... ثُمَّ أَنتُمْ تَمْتَرُونَ ﴿٢﴾

Yet you doubt.

According to As-Suddi,

the coming of the (last) Hour.

Allah said next,

وَهُوَ اللّهُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَفِي الأَرْضِ يَعْلَمُ سِرَّكُمْ وَجَهرَكُمْ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا تَكْسِبُونَ ﴿٣

And He is Allah in the heavens and the earth, He knows what you conceal and what you reveal, and He knows what you earn.

Meaning, it is He Who is called Allah, throughout the heavens and the earth, that is, it is He who is worshipped, singled out, whose divinity is believed in by the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth. They call Him Allah, and they supplicate to Him in fear and hope, except those who disbelieve among the Jinns and mankind.

In another Ayah, Allah said;

وَهُوَ الَّذِى فِى السَّمآءِ إِلَـهٌ وَفِى الاٌّرْضِ إِلَـهٌ

It is He Who is God in the heavens and the earth. (43:84)

meaning, He is the God of those in heaven and those on earth, and He knows all affairs, public and secret.

... وَيَعْلَمُ مَا تَكْسِبُونَ

And He knows what you earn.

all the good and bad deeds that you perform.

 

 

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وَمَا تَأْتِيهِم مِّنْ ءَايَةٍ مِّنْ ءَايَـتِ رَبِّهِمْ إِلاَّ كَانُواْ عَنْهَا مُعْرِضِينَ

6:4 And never an Ayah comes to them from the Ayat of their Lord, but that they have been turning away from it.

فَقَدْ كَذَّبُواْ بِالْحَقِّ لَمَّا جَآءَهُمْ فَسَوْفَ يَأْتِيهِمْ أَنْبَاءُ مَا كَانُواْ بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِءُونَ

6:5 Indeed, they rejected the truth when it came to them, but there will come to them the news of that which they used to mock at.

أَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ كَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا مِن قَبْلِهِم مِّن قَرْنٍ مَّكَّنَّـهُمْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ مَا لَمْ نُمَكِّن لَّكُمْ

6:6 Have they not seen how many a generation before them We have destroyed whom We had established on the earth such as We have not established you!

وَأَرْسَلْنَا السَّمَآءَ عَلَيْهِم مَّدْرَاراً وَجَعَلْنَا الاٌّنْهَـرَ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهِمْ

And We poured out on them rain from the sky in abundance, and made the rivers flow under them.

فَأَهْلَكْنَـهُمْ بِذُنُوبِهِمْ وَأَنْشَأْنَا مِن بَعْدِهِمْ قَرْناً ءَاخَرِينَ

Yet We destroyed them for their sins, and created after them other generations.

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 Threatening the Idolators for their Stubbornness

Allah says;

وَمَا تَأْتِيهِم مِّنْ آيَةٍ مِّنْ آيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ إِلاَّ كَانُواْ عَنْهَا مُعْرِضِينَ ﴿٤  

And never an Ayah comes to them from the Ayat of their Lord, but that they have been turning away from it.

Allah states that the rebellious, stubborn polytheists will turn away from every Ayah, meaning, sign, miracle and proof that is evidence of Allah's Uniqueness and the truth of His honorable Messengers. They will not contemplate about these Ayat or care about them.

Allah said,

فَقَدْ كَذَّبُواْ بِالْحَقِّ لَمَّا جَاءهُمْ فَسَوْفَ يَأْتِيهِمْ أَنبَاء مَا كَانُواْ بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِؤُونَ ﴿٥

Indeed, they rejected the truth when it came to them, but there will come to them the news of that which they used to mock at.

This Ayah contains a warning and a stern threat for the disbelievers' rejection of the truth, stating that the disbelievers will surely know the truth of what they used to deny and taste the evil end of their behavior.

Allah advises and warns the disbelievers, that they should avoid the torments and afflictions of this life, similar to what befell their likes from previous nations, who were stronger, wealthier, had more offspring, and were more exploitive on the earth.

Allah said,

أَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ كَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا مِن قَبْلِهِم مِّن قَرْنٍ مَّكَّنَّاهُمْ فِي الأَرْضِ مَا لَمْ نُمَكِّن لَّكُمْ ...

Have they not seen how many a generation before them We have destroyed whom We had established on the earth such as We have not established you!

meaning, they had more wealth, children, buildings, abundant provision, riches and soldiers.

Allah said next,

... وَأَرْسَلْنَا السَّمَاء عَلَيْهِم مِّدْرَارًا ...

and We poured out on them rain from the sky in abundance,

in reference to rain that comes often,

... وَجَعَلْنَا الأَنْهَارَ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهِمْ ...

And made the rivers flow under them.

as rain was abundant and the springs were plentiful, so that We deceived them.

... فَأَهْلَكْنَاهُم بِذُنُوبِهِمْ ...

Yet We destroyed them for their sins,

meaning the mistakes and errors that they committed,

... وَأَنْشَأْنَا مِن بَعْدِهِمْ قَرْنًا آخَرِينَ ﴿٦﴾

and created after them other generations,

for, these generations of old perished and became as legends and stories, وَأَنْشَأْنَا مِن بَعْدِهِمْ قَرْنًا آخَرِينَ  (And created after them other generations), so that We test the new generations, as well. Yet, they committed similar errors and were destroyed, as their ancestors were destroyed. Therefore, beware of the same end that might befall you, for you are not dearer to Allah than these previous nations, but the Messenger whom you defied is dearer to Allah than the Messengers they defied. Thus, you are more liable than them to receive torment, if it was not for Allah's mercy and kindness.

 

 

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وَلَوْ نَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكَ كِتَـباً فِى قِرْطَاسٍ فَلَمَسُوهُ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ لَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ إِنْ هَـذَآ إِلاَّ سِحْرٌ مُّبِينٌ

6:7 And even if We had sent down unto you a Message written on paper so that they could touch it with their hands, the disbelievers would have said: "This is nothing but obvious magic!''

وَقَالُواْ لَوْلا أُنزِلَ عَلَيْهِ مَلَكٌ

6:8 And they say: "Why has not an angel been sent down to him!''

وَلَوْ أَنزَلْنَا مَلَكاً لَّقُضِىَ الاٌّمْرُ ثُمَّ لاَ يُنظَرُونَ

Had We sent down an angel, the matter would have been judged at once, and no respite would be granted to them.

وَلَوْ جَعَلْنَـهُ مَلَكاً لَّجَعَلْنَـهُ رَجُلاً وَلَلَبَسْنَا عَلَيْهِم مَّا يَلْبِسُونَ

6:9 And had We appointed him an angel, We indeed would have made him a man, and We would have certainly caused them confusion in a matter which they have already covered with confusion.

وَلَقَدِ اسْتُهْزِىءَ بِرُسُلٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَحَاقَ بِالَّذِينَ سَخِرُواْ مِنْهُمْ مَّا كَانُواْ بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِءُونَ

6:10 And indeed Messengers were mocked before you, but their scoffers were surrounded by the very thing that they used to mock at.

قُلْ سِيرُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ ثُمَّ انْظُرُواْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـقِبَةُ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ 

6:11 Say: "Travel in the land and see what was the end of those who rejected truth.''

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 Censuring the Rebellious and their Refusal to Accept Human Messengers

Allah describes the rebellion and stubbornness of the idolators in defying the truth and arguing against it,

وَلَوْ نَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكَ كِتَابًا فِي قِرْطَاسٍ فَلَمَسُوهُ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ ...

And even if We had sent down unto you a Message written on paper so that they could touch it with their hands,

meaning, if they saw this Message's descent and were eye-witnesses to that,

... لَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ إِنْ هَـذَا إِلاَّ سِحْرٌ مُّبِينٌ ﴿٧﴾

the disbelievers would have said: "This is nothing but obvious magic!''

This is similar to Allah's description of the disbelievers' defiance of facts and truth,

وَلَوْ فَتَحْنَا عَلَيْهِم بَاباً مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ فَظَلُّواْ فِيهِ يَعْرُجُونَ

لَقَالُواْ إِنَّمَا سُكِّرَتْ أَبْصَـرُنَا بَلْ نَحْنُ قَوْمٌ مَّسْحُورُونَ

And even if We opened to them a gate from the heaven and they were to continue ascending thereto. They would surely say: "Our eyes have been (as if) dazzled. Nay, we are a people bewitched.'' (15:14-15)

and,

وَإِن يَرَوْاْ كِسْفاً مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ سَـقِطاً يَقُولُواْ سَحَـبٌ مَّرْكُومٌ

And if they were to see a piece of the heaven falling down, they would say, "Clouds gathered in heaps!'' (52:44)

وَقَالُواْ لَوْلا أُنزِلَ عَلَيْهِ مَلَكٌ ...

And they say: "Why has not an angel been sent down to him!''

to convey the Message with admonition along with him.

Allah replied,

... وَلَوْ أَنزَلْنَا مَلَكًا لَّقُضِيَ الأمْرُ ثُمَّ لاَ يُنظَرُونَ ﴿٨﴾

Had We sent down an angel, the matter would have been judged at once, and no respite would be granted to them.

Consequently, even if the angels descend, while the disbelievers still had the same attitude, then the torment will surely befall them from Allah as a consequence.

Allah said in other Ayat,

مَا نُنَزِّلُ الْمَلَـئِكَةَ إِلاَّ بِالحَقِّ وَمَا كَانُواْ إِذًا مُّنظَرِينَ

We send not the angels down except with the truth (i.e. for torment, etc.), and in that case, they (the disbelievers) would have no respite! (15:8)

and,

يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ الْمَلَـئِكَةَ لاَ بُشْرَى يَوْمَئِذٍ لِّلْمُجْرِمِينَ

On the Day they will see the angels, no glad tidings will there be for the criminals that day. (25:22)

Allah's statement,

وَلَوْ جَعَلْنَاهُ مَلَكًا لَّجَعَلْنَاهُ رَجُلاً وَلَلَبَسْنَا عَلَيْهِم مَّا يَلْبِسُونَ ﴿٩

And had We appointed him an angel, We indeed would have made him a man, and We would have certainly caused them confusion in a matter which they have already covered with confusion.

meaning, if We send an angel along with the human Messenger, or if We send an angel as a Messenger to mankind, he would be in the shape of a man so that they would be able to speak to him and benefit from his teachings. In this case, the angel (in the shape of a human) will also cause confusion for them, just as the confusion they caused themselves over accepting humans as Messengers!

Allah said,

قُل لَوْ كَانَ فِى الاٌّرْضِ مَلَـئِكَةٌ يَمْشُونَ مُطْمَئِنِّينَ لَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ مَلَكًا رَّسُولاً

Say: "If there were on the earth, angels walking about in peace and security, We should certainly have sent down for them from the heaven an angel as a Messenger.'' (17:95)

It is a mercy from Allah to His creation that He sends every type of creation, Messengers from among their kind, so that they are able to call their people to Allah, and their people able to talk to them, ask them and benefit from them.

In another Ayah, Allah said;

لَقَدْ مَنَّ اللَّهُ عَلَى الْمُؤمِنِينَ إِذْ بَعَثَ فِيهِمْ رَسُولاً مِّنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ يَتْلُواْ عَلَيْهِمْ ءَايَـتِهِ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ

Indeed Allah conferred a great favor on the believers when He sent among them a Messenger from among themselves, reciting unto them His verses (the Qur'an), and purifying them. (3:164)

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn Abbas said about the Ayah (6:9),

"If an angel was sent to them, he would come in the shape of a man. This is because they will not be able to look at the angel due to light.''

... وَلَلَبَسْنَا عَلَيْهِم مَّا يَلْبِسُونَ

... and We would have certainly caused them confusion in a matter which they have already covered with confusion.

meaning, We would confuse them over their confusion.

And Al-Walibi reported Ibn Abbas saying;

"We brought doubts around them.''

Allah's statement,

وَلَقَدِ اسْتُهْزِىءَ بِرُسُلٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَحَاقَ بِالَّذِينَ سَخِرُواْ مِنْهُم مَّا كَانُواْ بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِؤُونَ ﴿١٠

And indeed Messengers were mocked before you, but their scoffers were surrounded by the very thing that they used to mock at.

comforts the Messenger concerning the denial of him by his people. 'The Ayah also promises the Messenger, and his believers, of Allah's victory and the good end in this life and the Hereafter.

Allah said next,

قُلْ سِيرُواْ فِي الأَرْضِ ثُمَّ انظُرُواْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ ﴿١١

Say: "Travel in the land and see what was the end of those who rejected truth.''

meaning, contemplate about yourselves and think about the afflictions Allah struck the previous nations with, those who defied His Messengers and denied them. Allah sent torment, afflictions and punishment on them in this life, as well as the painful torment in the Hereafter, while saving His Messengers and believing servants.

 

 

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قُل لِّمَن مَّا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ

6:12 Say: "To whom belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth!''

قُل للَّهِ

Say: "To Allah.''

كَتَبَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ الرَّحْمَةَ

He has prescribed mercy for Himself.

لَيَجْمَعَنَّكُمْ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَـمَةِ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ

Indeed He will gather you together on the Day of Resurrection, about which there is no doubt.

الَّذِينَ خَسِرُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ فَهُمْ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Those who destroy themselves will not believe.

وَلَهُ مَا سَكَنَ فِى الَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

6:13 And to Him belongs whatsoever exists in the night and the day, and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.''

قُلْ أَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَتَّخِذُ وَلِيّاً فَاطِرِ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَهُوَ يُطْعِمُ وَلاَ يُطْعَمُ

6:14 Say: "Shall I take as a guardian any other than Allah, the Creator of the heavens and the earth! And it is He Who feeds but is not fed.''

قُلْ إِنِّى أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَكُونَ أَوَّلَ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَلاَ تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكَينَ

Say: "Verily, I am commanded to be the first of those who submit.'' And be not you of the idolators.

قُلْ إِنِّى أَخَافُ إِنْ عَصَيْتُ رَبِّى عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ

6:15 Say: "I fear, if I disobey my Lord, the torment of a Mighty Day.''

مَّن يُصْرَفْ عَنْهُ يَوْمَئِذٍ فَقَدْ رَحِمَهُ وَذَلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْمُبِينُ

6:16 Who is averted from (such a torment) on that Day; then He (Allah) has surely been Merciful to him. And that would be the obvious success.

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 Allah is the Creator and the Sustainer

Allah says;

قُل لِّمَن مَّا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ قُل لِلّهِ كَتَبَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ الرَّحْمَةَ ...

Say: "To whom belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth!''

Say: "To Allah.''

He has prescribed mercy for Himself.

Allah states that He is the King and Owner of the heavens and earth and all of what is in them, and that He has written mercy on His Most Honorable Self.

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs, that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,

إِنَّ اللهَ لَمَّا خَلَقَ الْخَلْقَ، كَتَبَ كِتَابًا عِنْدَهُ فَوْقَ الْعَرْشِ، إِنَّ رَحْمَتِي تَغْلِبُ غَضَبِي

When Allah created the creation, He wrote in a Book that He has with Him above the Throne; `My mercy overcomes My anger.'

Allah said;

... لَيَجْمَعَنَّكُمْ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ ...

Indeed He will gather you together on the Day of Resurrection, about which there is no doubt.

swearing by His Most Honored Self that He will gather His servants, إِلَى مِيقَاتِ يَوْمٍ مَّعْلُومٍ (For appointed meeting of a known Day), (56:50), the Day of Resurrection that will certainly occur, and there is no doubt for His believing servants in this fact. As for those who deny and refuse, they are in confusion and disarray.

Allah's statement,

... الَّذِينَ خَسِرُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ ...

Those who destroy themselves,

on the Day of Resurrection,

... فَهُمْ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿١٢﴾

will not believe. 

in the Return and thus do not fear the repercussions of that Day.

Allah said next,

وَلَهُ مَا سَكَنَ فِي اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ ...

And to Him belongs whatsoever exists in the night and the day.

meaning, all creatures in the heavens and earth are Allah's servants and creatures, and they are all under His authority, power and will; there is no deity worthy of worship except Him,

... وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ ﴿١٣﴾

and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.

He hears the statements of His servants and knows their actions, secrets and what they conceal.

Allah then said to His servant and Messenger Muhammad, whom He sent with the pure Tawhid and the straight religion, commanding him to call the people to Allah's straight path;

قُلْ أَغَيْرَ اللّهِ أَتَّخِذُ وَلِيًّا فَاطِرِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ ...

Say: "Shall I take as a guardian any other than Allah, the Creator of the heavens and the earth!''

The meaning here is, I will not take a guardian except Allah, without partners, for He is the Creator of the heavens and earth Who originated them without precedent,

Similarly, Allah said,

قُلْ أَفَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ تَأْمُرُونِّى أَعْبُدُ أَيُّهَا الْجَـهِلُونَ

Say: "Do you order me to worship other than Allah, O you fools!'' (39:64)

... وَهُوَ يُطْعِمُ وَلاَ يُطْعَمُ ...

And it is He Who feeds but is not fed.

For He sustains His creatures without needing them.

Allah also said;

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالإِنسَ إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ

And I created not the Jinn and humans except that they should worship Me (Alone). (51:56)

Some scholars read it,

وَهُوَ يُطْعِمُ وَلاَ يَطْعَمُ

And it is He Who feeds but He does not eat.''

meaning, Allah does not eat.

Abu Hurayrah narrated,

"A man from Al-Ansar from the area of Quba' invited the Prophet to eat some food, and we went along with the Prophet. When the Prophet ate and washed his hands, he said,

الْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي يُطْعِمُ وَلَا يُطْعَمُ، وَمَنَّ عَلَيْنَا فَهَدَانَا وَأَطْعَمَنَا، وَسَقَانَا مِنَ الشَّرَابِ، وَكَسَانَا مِنَ العُرْيِ، وَكُلَّ بَلَاءٍ حَسَنٍ أَبْلَانَا،

الْحَمْدُ للهِ غَيْرَ مُوَدَّعٍ رَبِّي وَلَا مُكَافأً وَلَا مَكْفُورٍ، وَلَا مُسْتَغْنًى عَنْهُ،

الْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي أَطْعَمَنَا مِنَ الطَّعَامِ، وَسَقَانَا مِنَ الشَّرَابِ، وَكَسَانَا مِنَ الْعُرْيِ، وَهَدَانَا مِنَ الضَّلَالِ، وَبَصَّرَنَا مِنَ العَمَى، وَفَضَّلَنَا عَلَى كَثِيرٍ مِمَّنَ خَلَقَ تَفْضِيلًا،

الْحَمْدُ للهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِين

All praise is due to Allah, Who feeds but is never fed, He bestowed bounty unto us, Who gave us guidance and fed us, gave us something to drink, covered our nakedness; and for every favor He has given us.

All praise is due to Allah, praise that should not be neglected, my Lord, all the while affirming that we will never be able to duly thank Him; nor be appreciative enough of Him, nor be free of needing Him.

All thanks and praises are due to Allah Who fed us the food, gave us the drink, covered our nudity, guided us from misguidance, gave us sight from blindness, and honored us above many of His creatures.

All praise is due to Allah, Lord of all that exists.''

... قُلْ إِنِّيَ أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَكُونَ أَوَّلَ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ ...

Say: "Verily, I am commanded to be the first of those who submit themselves to Allah as (Muslims).''

from this Ummah,

... وَلاَ تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكَينَ ﴿١٤﴾

قُلْ إِنِّيَ أَخَافُ إِنْ عَصَيْتُ رَبِّي عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ ﴿١٥

And be not you of the idolaters.

Say: "I fear, if I disobey my Lord, the torment of a Mighty Day.''

the Day of Resurrection,

مَّن يُصْرَفْ عَنْهُ ...

Who is averted from,

such a torment,

.... يَوْمَئِذٍ فَقَدْ رَحِمَهُ ...

on that Day, He has surely been Merciful to him,

meaning, Allah will have been merciful to him,

... وَذَلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْمُبِينُ ﴿١٦﴾

And that would be the obvious success.

Allah also said,

فَمَن زُحْزِحَ عَنِ النَّارِ وَأُدْخِلَ الْجَنَّةَ فَقَدْ فَازَ

And whoever is moved away from the Fire and admitted to Paradise, he indeed is successful. (3:185)

success here indicates acquiring profit and negates loss.

 

 

Previous 12-16

وَإِن يَمْسَسْكَ اللَّهُ بِضُرٍّ فَلاَ كَـشِفَ لَهُ إِلاَّ هُوَ وَإِن يَمْسَسْكَ بِخَيْرٍ فَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدُيرٌ

6:17 And if Allah touches you with harm, none can remove it but He, and if He touches you with good, then He is able to do all things.

وَهُوَ الْقَاهِرُ فَوْقَ عِبَادِهِ وَهُوَ الْحَكِيمُ الْخَبِيرُ

6:18 And He is the Irresistible, above His servants, and He is the All-Wise, Well-Acquainted with all things.

قُلْ أَىُّ شَىْءٍ أَكْبَرُ شَهَـدةً

6:19 Say: "What thing is the most great in witness!''

قُلِ اللَّهِ شَهِيدٌ بِيْنِى وَبَيْنَكُمْ وَأُوحِىَ إِلَىَّ هَـذَا الْقُرْءَانُ لاٌّنذِرَكُمْ بِهِ وَمَن بَلَغَ أَئِنَّكُمْ

Say: "Allah is Witness between you and I; this Qur'an has been revealed to me that I may therewith warn you and whomsoever it may reach.

لَتَشْهَدُونَ أَنَّ مَعَ اللَّهِ ءَالِهَةً أُخْرَى

Can you verily bear witness that besides Allah there are other gods!''

قُل لاَّ أَشْهَدُ

Say "I bear no (such) witness!''

قُلْ إِنَّمَا هُوَ إِلَـهٌ وَحِدٌ وَإِنَّنِى بَرِىءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ

Say: "Only He is God, alone, and truly I am innocent of what you join in worship with Him.''

الَّذِينَ ءَاتَيْنَـهُمُ الْكِتَـبَ يَعْرِفُونَهُ كَمَا يَعْرِفُونَ أَبْنَآءَهُمُ

6:20 Those to whom We have given the Scripture recognize him, as they recognize their own children.

الَّذِينَ خَسِرُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ فَهُمْ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Those who have lost (destroyed) themselves will not believe.

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَى عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِباً أَوْ كَذَّبَ بِـَايَـتِهِ إِنَّهُ لاَ يُفْلِحُ الظَّـلِمُونَ

6:21 And who does more wrong than he who invents a lie against Allah or rejects His Ayat! Verily, the wrongdoers shall never be successful.

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 Allah is the Irresistible, Able to Bring Benefit and Protect from Harm

Allah states that He Alone brings benefit or harm, and that He does what He wills with His creatures, none can resist His judgment or prevent what He decrees,

وَإِن يَمْسَسْكَ اللّهُ بِضُرٍّ فَلاَ كَاشِفَ لَهُ إِلاَّ هُوَ وَإِن يَمْسَسْكَ بِخَيْرٍ فَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدُيرٌ ﴿١٧

And if Allah touches you with harm, none can remove it but He, and if He touches you with good, then He is able to do all things.

Similarly, Allah said,

مَّا يَفْتَحِ اللَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ مِن رَّحْمَةٍ فَلاَ مُمْسِكَ لَهَا وَمَا يُمْسِكْ فَلاَ مُرْسِلَ لَهُ مِن بَعْدِهِ

Whatever mercy, Allah may grant to mankind, none can withhold it, and whatever He may withhold, none can grant it thereafter. (35:2)

It is recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah used to supplicate,

اللَّهُمَّ لَا مَانِعَ لِمَا أَعْطَيْتَ وَلَا مُعْطِيَ لِمَا مَنَعْتَ، وَلَا يَنْفَعُ ذَا الْجَدِّ مِنْكَ الْجَد

O Allah, there is none Who can avert what You grant or give what You deprive, and no fortune ever helps the fortunate against You.

This is why Allah said,

وَهُوَ الْقَاهِرُ فَوْقَ عِبَادِهِ ...

And He is the Irresistible, above His servants,

meaning, to Him the necks are subservient, the tyrants humble before Him and He has complete control over all things. The creatures have all bowed to Allah and are humbled before His grace, honor, pride, greatness, highness and ability over all things. The creatures are insignificant before Him, for they are all under His irresistible decision and power,

... وَهُوَ الْحَكِيمُ ...

and He is the All-Wise, (in all His actions),

... الْخَبِيرُ ﴿١٨﴾

Well-Acquainted with all things.

Who places everything in its rightful place, grants and favors whomever deserves His favor.

Allah said next,

قُلْ أَيُّ شَيْءٍ أَكْبَرُ شَهَادةً ...

Say: "What thing is the most great in witness!''

or what is the greatest witness,

... قُلِ اللّهِ شَهِيدٌ بِيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ ...

Say: "Allah (the Most Great!) is Witness between you and I.''

for He knows what I brought you and what you will answer me with,

... وَأُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ هَذَا الْقُرْآنُ لأُنذِرَكُم بِهِ وَمَن بَلَغَ ...

this Qur'an has been revealed to me that I may therewith warn you and whomsoever it may reach.

Therefore, this Qur'an is a warner for all those who hear of it.

In another Ayah, Allah said,

وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِهِ مِنَ الاٌّحْزَابِ فَالنَّارُ مَوْعِدُهُ

But those of the sects that reject it, the Fire will be their promised meeting place. (11:17)

Ar-Rabi bin Anas said,

"Those who follow the Messenger of Allah ought to call to what the Messenger of Allah called to and warn against what he warned against.''

Allah said next,

... أَئِنَّكُمْ لَتَشْهَدُونَ ...

"Can you verily bear witness...'' (O idolators),

... أَنَّ مَعَ اللّهِ آلِهَةً أُخْرَى قُل لاَّ أَشْهَدُ ...

"that besides Allah there are other gods!'' Say, "I bear no (such) witness!''

Similarly, in another Ayah, Allah said;

فَإِن شَهِدُواْ فَلاَ تَشْهَدْ مَعَهُمْ

Then if they testify, testify not you with them. (6:150)

Allah said next,

... قُلْ إِنَّمَا هُوَ إِلَـهٌ وَاحِدٌ وَإِنَّنِي بَرِيءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ ﴿١٩﴾

Say: "Only He is God, alone, and truly I am innocent of what you join in worship with Him.''

 People of the Book Recognize the Prophet Just as They Recognize Their Own Children

Allah says,

الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَعْرِفُونَهُ كَمَا يَعْرِفُونَ أَبْنَاءهُمُ ...

Those to whom We have given the Scripture recognize him, as they recognize their own children.

Allah says, the People of the Book know what you brought them, O Muhammad, as they know their own children. This is because they received good news from the previous Messengers and Prophets about the coming of Muhammad, his attributes, homeland, his migration, and the description of his Ummah.

Allah said next,

... الَّذِينَ خَسِرُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ ...

Those who have lost (destroyed) themselves,

and thus incurred the ultimate loss,

... فَهُمْ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿٢٠﴾

will not believe.

in this clear matter. A matter about which the previous Prophets gave good news, and a matter extolled about in ancient and modern times.

Allah said next,

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَى عَلَى اللّهِ كَذِبًا أَوْ كَذَّبَ بِآيَاتِهِ ...

And who does more wrong than he who invents a lie against Allah or rejects His Ayat,

meaning, there is no person more unjust than he who lies about Allah and claims that Allah has sent him, while Allah did not send him. There is no person more unjust than he who denies Allah's proofs, signs and evidences,

... إِنَّهُ لاَ يُفْلِحُ الظَّالِمُونَ ﴿٢١﴾

Verily, the wrongdoers shall never be successful.

Surely, both of these people will never acquire success, whoever falsely (claims that Allah sent him) and whoever refuses (Allah's Ayat).

 

 

Previous 17-21

وَيَوْمَ نَحْشُرُهُمْ جَمِيعاً ثُمَّ نَقُولُ لِلَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُواْ أَيْنَ شُرَكَآؤُكُمُ الَّذِينَ كُنتُمْ تَزْعُمُونَ

6:22 And on the Day when We shall gather them all together, We shall say to those who joined partners in worship (with Us): "Where are your partners (false deities) whom you used to assert (as partners in worship with Allah)!''

ثُمَّ لَمْ تَكُنْ فِتْنَتُهُمْ إِلاَّ أَن قَالُواْ وَاللَّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشْرِكِينَ

6:23 There will then be (left) no Fitnah for them but to say: "By Allah, our Lord, we were not those who joined others (in worship with Allah).''

انظُرْ كَيْفَ كَذَبُواْ عَلَى أَنفُسِهِمْ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُمْ مَّا كَانُواْ يَفْتَرُونَ

6:24 Look! How they lie against themselves! But the (lie) which they invented will disappear from them.

وَمِنْهُمْ مَّن يَسْتَمِعُ إِلَيْكَ وَجَعَلْنَا عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ أَكِنَّةً أَن يَفْقَهُوهُ وَفِى ءَاذَانِهِمْ وَقْراً وَإِن يَرَوْاْ كُلَّ ءَايَةٍ لاَّ يُؤْمِنُواْ بِهَا

6:25 And of them there are some who listen to you; but We have set veils on their hearts, so they understand it not, and deafness in their ears; if they see every one of the Ayat they will not believe therein;

حَتَّى إِذَا جَآءُوكَ يُجَـدِلُونَكَ يَقُولُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ إِنْ هَـذَآ إِلاَّ أَسَـطِيرُ الاٌّوَّلِينَ

to the point that when they come to you to argue with you, those who disbelieve say: "These are nothing but tales of the men of old.''

وَهُمْ يَنْهَوْنَ عَنْهُ وَيَنْأَوْنَ عَنْهُ وَإِن يُهْلِكُونَ إِلاَّ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ

6:26 And they prevent others from him and they themselves keep away from him, and (by doing so) they destroy none but themselves, yet they perceive (it) not.

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Next 27-30   

 

 The Polytheists Shall be Questioned About the Shirk They Committed

About the polytheists, Allah said:

وَيَوْمَ نَحْشُرُهُمْ جَمِيعًا ...

And on the Day when We shall gather them all together,

This is on the Day of Resurrection,

... ثُمَّ نَقُولُ لِلَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُواْ ...

We shall say to those who joined partners in worship (with Us):

when He will ask them about the idols and rivals that they worshipped instead of Him.

Allah will say to them,

... أَيْنَ شُرَكَآؤُكُمُ الَّذِينَ كُنتُمْ تَزْعُمُونَ ﴿٢٢﴾

Where are your partners (false deities) whom you used to assert (as partners in worship with Allah)!

Allah said in Surah Al-Qasas,

وَيَوْمَ يُنَـدِيهِمْ فَيَقُولُ أَيْنَ شُرَكَآئِىَ الَّذِينَ كُنتُمْ تَزْعُمُونَ

And (remember) the Day when He will call to them, and say, "Where are My (so-called) partners whom you used to assert!'' (28:62)

Allah's statement,

ثُمَّ لَمْ تَكُن فِتْنَتُهُمْ ...

There will then be (left) no Fitnah for them,

 means, argument.

Ata' Al-Khurasani said that, ثُمَّ لَمْ تَكُن فِتْنَتُهُمْ  (There will then be (left) no Fitnah for them),

in the face of the affliction that will be placed on them,

... إِلاَّ أَن قَالُواْ وَاللّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشْرِكِينَ ﴿٢٣﴾

but to say: "By Allah, our Lord, we were not those who joined others (in worship with Allah).''

Allah said next,

انظُرْ كَيْفَ كَذَبُواْ عَلَى أَنفُسِهِمْ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُواْ يَفْتَرُونَ ﴿٢٤

Look! How they lie against themselves! But the (lie) which they invented will disappear from them.

which is similar to His other statement,

ثُمَّ قِيلَ لَهُمْ أَيْنَ مَا كُنتُمْ تُشْرِكُونَ

مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ قَـالُواْ ضَـلُّواْ عَنَّا بَل لَّمْ نَكُنْ نَّدْعُواْ مِن قَبْلُ شَيْئاً كَذَلِكَ يُضِلُّ اللَّهُ الْكَـفِرِينَ

Then it will be said to them: "Where are (all) those whom you used to join in worship as partners, Besides Allah'!'

They will say, "They have vanished from us: Nay, we did not invoke (worship) anything before.''

Thus Allah leads astray the disbelievers. (40:73-74)

 The Miserable Do Not Benefit from the Qur'an

Allah's statement,

وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَسْتَمِعُ إِلَيْكَ وَجَعَلْنَا عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ أَكِنَّةً أَن يَفْقَهُوهُ ...

And of them there are some who listen to you; but We have set veils on their hearts, so they understand it not,

means, they come to you, (O Muhammad ), so that they hear you recite the Qur'an, but its recitation does not benefit them, because Allah has set veils on their hearts, and so they do not understand the Qur'an,

... وَفِي آذَانِهِمْ وَقْرًا ...

and (set) deafness in their ears;

that prevents them from hearing what benefits them.

In another Ayah, Allah said;

وَمَثَلُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِى يَنْعِقُ بِمَا لاَ يَسْمَعُ إِلاَّ دُعَآءً وَنِدَآءً

And the example of those who disbelieve, is as that of him who shouts at one who hears nothing but calls and cries. (2:171)

Allah said next,

... وَإِن يَرَوْاْ كُلَّ آيَةٍ لاَّ يُؤْمِنُواْ بِهَا ...

if they see every one of the Ayat they will not believe therein;

meaning, they will not believe in any of the Ayat, proofs, clear evidences and signs they witness because they do not have sound comprehension or fair judgment.

In another Ayah, Allah said,

وَلَوْ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ فِيهِمْ خَيْرًا لأَسْمَعَهُمْ

Had Allah known of any good in them, He would indeed have made them listen. (8:23)

Allah said,

... حَتَّى إِذَا جَآؤُوكَ يُجَادِلُونَكَ ...

to the point that when they come to you to argue with you...

using falsehood against truth,

... يَقُولُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ إِنْ هَذَآ إِلاَّ أَسَاطِيرُ الأَوَّلِينَ ﴿٢٥﴾

those who disbelieve say: "These are nothing but tales of the men of old.''

The disbelievers say, what you (O Muhammad) brought us was taken from the books of those who were before us, meaning plagiarized,

وَهُمْ يَنْهَوْنَ عَنْهُ وَيَنْأَوْنَ عَنْهُ ...

And they prevent others from him and they themselves keep away from him,

They discourage people from following the truth, believing in Muhammad and obeying the Qur'an,

وَيَنْأَوْنَ عَنْهُ (and they themselves keep away from him),

They thus combine both evil acts, for they neither benefit themselves, nor let others benefit from the Prophet.

Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn Abbas said that the Ayah, وَهُمْ يَنْهَوْنَ عَنْهُ (And they prevent others from him), means,

they hinder people from believing in Muhammad.

Muhammad bin Al-Hanafiyyah said,

"The disbelievers of Quraysh used to refrain from meeting Muhammad and they discouraged people from coming to him.''

Similar was reported from Qatadah, Mujahid and Ad-Dahhak and several others.

... وَإِن يُهْلِكُونَ إِلاَّ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ ﴿٢٦﴾

and (by doing so) they destroy not but themselves, yet they perceive (it) not.

They destroy themselves by committing this evil action, and its harm will only touch them. Yet, they do not perceive this fact!

 

 

Previous 22-26

وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذْ وُقِفُواْ عَلَى النَّارِ فَقَالُواْ يلَيْتَنَا نُرَدُّ وَلاَ نُكَذِّبَ بِـَايَـتِ رَبِّنَا وَنَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

6:27 If you could but see when they will be held over the (Hell) Fire! They will say: "Would that we were but sent back (to the world)! Then we would not deny the Ayat of our Lord, and we would be of the believers!''

بَلْ بَدَا لَهُمْ مَّا كَانُواْ يُخْفُونَ مِن قَبْلُ

6:28 Nay, what they had been concealing before has become manifest to them.

وَلَوْ رُدُّواْ لَعَـدُواْ لِمَا نُهُواْ عَنْهُ وَإِنَّهُمْ لَكَـذِبُونَ

But if they were returned (to the world), they would certainly revert to that which they were forbidden. And indeed they are liars.

وَقَالُواْ إِنْ هِىَ إِلاَّ حَيَاتُنَا الدُّنْيَا وَمَا نَحْنُ بِمَبْعُوثِينَ

6:29 And they said: "There is no (other life) but our (present) life of this world, and never shall we be resurrected.''

  وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذْ وُقِفُواْ عَلَى رَبِّهِمْ قَالَ أَلَيْسَ هَـذَا بِالْحَقِّ

6:30 If you could but see when they will stand before their Lord! He will say: "Is not this the truth!''

قَالُواْ بَلَى وَرَبِّنَا

They will say: "Yes, by our Lord!''

قَالَ فَذُوقُواْ العَذَابَ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْفُرُونَ

He will then say: "So taste you the torment because you used not to believe.''

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 Wishes and Hopes Do Not Help One When He Sees the Torment

Allah tells;

وَلَوْ تَرَىَ إِذْ وُقِفُواْ عَلَى النَّارِ ...

If you could but see when they will be held over the (Hell) Fire!

Allah mentions the condition of the disbelievers when they are made to stand before the Fire on the Day of Resurrection and witness its chains and restraints, along with seeing the horrible, momentous conditions in the Fire with their own eyes. This is when, 

... فَقَالُواْ يَا لَيْتَنَا نُرَدُّ وَلاَ نُكَذِّبَ بِآيَاتِ رَبِّنَا وَنَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ﴿٢٧﴾

They will say: "Would that we were but sent back (to the world)! Then we would not deny the Ayat of our Lord, and we would be of the believers!''

They wish that they would be sent back to the life of the world so that they could perform righteous deeds, refrain from disbelieving in the Ayat of their Lord and be among the believers.

Allah said,

بَلْ بَدَا لَهُم مَّا كَانُواْ يُخْفُونَ مِن قَبْلُ ...

Nay, what they had been concealing before has become manifest to them.

meaning, the disbelief, denial and rebellion that they used to hide in their hearts will then be uncovered, even though they will try to hide this fact in this life and the Hereafter.

Earlier, Allah said,

ثُمَّ لَمْ تَكُن فِتْنَتُهُمْ  إِلاَّ أَن قَالُواْ وَاللّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشْرِكِينَ

انظُرْ كَيْفَ كَذَبُواْ عَلَى أَنفُسِهِمْ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُواْ يَفْتَرُونَ

There will then be (left) no trial for them but to say: "By Allah, our Lord, we were not those who joined others in worship with Allah.'' Look! How they lie against themselves! But the (lie) which they invented will disappear from them. (6:23-24)

It is also possible that the meaning here is that the disbelievers will realize the truth that they knew all along in their hearts, that is, that what the Messengers brought them in this life is true, although they used to deny his Message before their followers.

Allah said that Musa said to Fir`awn,

لَقَدْ عَلِمْتَ مَآ أَنزَلَ هَـؤُلاءِ إِلاَّ رَبُّ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ بَصَآئِرَ

"Verily, you know that these signs have clearly been sent down by none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth as eye-opening evidence.'' (17:102)

Allah said about Fir`awn and his people,

وَجَحَدُواْ بِهَا وَاسْتَيْقَنَتْهَآ أَنفُسُهُمْ ظُلْماً وَعُلُوّاً

And they belied them (those Ayat) wrongfully and arrogantly, though they were themselves convinced thereof. (27:14)

بَلْ بَدَا لَهُم مَّا كَانُواْ يُخْفُونَ مِن قَبْلُ ...

Nay, it has become manifest to them what they had been concealing before.

When this occurs, and the disbelievers ask to be returned to this life, they will not do so because they truly wish to embrace the faith. Rather, they ask to be returned to this life for fear of the torment that they are witnessing before them, as punishment for the disbelief they committed, and to try and avoid the Fire that they see before their eyes.

... وَلَوْ رُدُّواْ لَعَادُواْ لِمَا نُهُواْ عَنْهُ وَإِنَّهُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ ﴿٢٨﴾

But if they were returned, they would certainly revert to that which they were forbidden. And indeed they are liars.

meaning, they lie when they say they wish to go back to this life so that they can embrace the faith.

Allah states that even if they were sent back to the life of this world, they will again commit the disbelief and defiance that they were prohibited.

وَإِنَّهُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ (And indeed they are liars), in their statement that,

... فَقَالُواْ يَا لَيْتَنَا نُرَدُّ وَلاَ نُكَذِّبَ بِآيَاتِ رَبِّنَا وَنَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

بَلْ بَدَا لَهُم مَّا كَانُواْ يُخْفُونَ مِن قَبْلُ  وَلَوْ رُدُّواْ لَعَادُواْ لِمَا نُهُواْ عَنْهُ وَإِنَّهُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ

"Would that we were but sent back! Then we would not deny the Ayat of our Lord, and we would be of the believers!''

Nay, what they had been concealing before has become manifest to them. But if they were returned, they would certainly revert to that which they were forbidden. And indeed they are liars.

Therefore, they will revert to their old behavior,

وَقَالُواْ إِنْ هِيَ إِلاَّ حَيَاتُنَا الدُّنْيَا ...

And they said: There is no life but our life of this world,

and there is no Hereafter,

... وَمَا نَحْنُ بِمَبْعُوثِينَ ﴿٢٩﴾

and never shall we be resurrected.

Allah said,

وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذْ وُقِفُواْ عَلَى رَبِّهِمْ ...

If you could but see when they will stand before their Lord!

in front of Him,

... قَالَ أَلَيْسَ هَذَا بِالْحَقِّ ...

He will say: "Is not this the truth''

meaning, is not Resurrection true, contrary to what you thought,

... قَالُواْ بَلَى وَرَبِّنَا ...

They will say: "Yes, by our Lord!''

... قَالَ فَذُوقُواْ العَذَابَ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْفُرُونَ ﴿٣٠﴾

He will then say: "So taste you the torment because you used not to believe.''

and because you today denied Resurrection. Therefore, taste the torment,

أَفَسِحْرٌ هَـذَا أَمْ أَنتُمْ لاَ تُبْصِرُونَ

"Is this magic, or do you not see!'' (52:15)

 

 

Previous 27-30

قَدْ خَسِرَ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِلِقَآءِ اللَّهِ حَتَّى إِذَا جَآءَتْهُمُ السَّاعَةُ بَغْتَةً قَالُواْ يحَسْرَتَنَا عَلَى مَا فَرَّطْنَا فِيهَا

6:31 They indeed are losers who denied their meeting with Allah, until all of a sudden, the Hour (signs of death) is upon them, and they say: "Alas for us that we gave no thought to it,''

وَهُمْ يَحْمِلُونَ أَوْزَارَهُمْ عَلَى ظُهُورِهِمْ أَلاَ سَآءَ مَا يَزِرُونَ

while they will bear their burdens on their backs; and evil indeed are the burdens that they will bear!

وَمَا الْحَيَوةُ الدُّنْيَآ إِلاَّ لَعِبٌ وَلَهْوٌ وَلَلدَّارُ الاٌّخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ أَفَلاَ تَعْقِلُونَ

6:32 And the life of this world is nothing but play and amusement. But far better is the abode of the Hereafter for those have Taqwa. Will you not then understand!

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 Allah says;

قَدْ خَسِرَ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِلِقَاء اللّهِ ...

They indeed are losers who denied their meeting with Allah,

Allah describes the regret of the disbelievers when facing Him, and their disappointment at the commencement, along with their sorrow for not performing good deeds and for their evil deeds.

This is why Allah said,

... حَتَّى إِذَا جَاءتْهُمُ السَّاعَةُ بَغْتَةً قَالُواْ يَا حَسْرَتَنَا عَلَى مَا فَرَّطْنَا فِيهَا ...

until all of a sudden, the Hour (signs of death) is upon them, and they say: "Alas for us that we gave no thought to it.''

`It' here refers to either the life of this world, or the affairs of the Hereafter.

Allah's statement,

... وَهُمْ يَحْمِلُونَ أَوْزَارَهُمْ عَلَى ظُهُورِهِمْ أَلاَ سَاء مَا يَزِرُونَ ﴿٣١﴾

while they will bear their burdens on their backs; and evil indeed are the burdens that they will bear!

Asbat said that As-Suddi said,

"Upon entering his grave, every unjust person will meet a man with an ugly face, dark skin, awful odor, wearing dirty clothes, who will enter his grave with him. When the unjust person sees him, he will say, `How ugly is your face!'

He will reply, `So was your work, it was ugly.'

The unjust person will say, `How foul is the odor coming from you!'

He will reply, `Such was the case with your work, it stunk.'

The unjust person will say, `How dirty are your clothes!'

He will reply, `And your work too was dirty.'

The unjust person will ask, `Who are you?'

He will reply, `I am your deeds.'

So he will remain with the unjust person in his grave, and when he is resurrected on the Day of Resurrection, his companion will say to him, `In the life of the world, I used to carry you because you followed desire and lust. Today, you carry me.'

So he will ride on the unjust person's back and lead him until he enters the Fire.

So Allah said, وَهُمْ يَحْمِلُونَ أَوْزَارَهُمْ عَلَى ظُهُورِهِمْ أَلاَ سَاء مَا يَزِرُونَ  (while they will bear their burdens on their backs; and evil indeed are the burdens that they will bear!''

Allah's statement,

وَمَا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا إِلاَّ لَعِبٌ وَلَهْوٌ ...

And the life of this world is nothing but play and amusement.

means, most of it is play and amusement,

... وَلَلدَّارُ الآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ أَفَلاَ تَعْقِلُونَ ﴿٣٢﴾

But far better is the abode of the Hereafter for those who have Taqwa. Will you not then understand!

 

 

Previous 31-32

قَدْ نَعْلَمُ إِنَّهُ لَيَحْزُنُكَ الَّذِى يَقُولُونَ فَإِنَّهُمْ لاَ يُكَذِّبُونَكَ وَلَـكِنَّ الظَّـلِمِينَ بِـَايَـتِ اللَّهِ يَجْحَدُونَ

6:33 We know indeed the grief which their words cause you; it is not you that they deny, but it is the verses of Allah that the wrongdoers deny.

وَلَقَدْ كُذِّبَتْ رُسُلٌ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَصَبَرُواْ عَلَى مَا كُذِّبُواْ وَأُوذُواْ حَتَّى أَتَـهُمْ نَصْرُنَا وَلاَ مُبَدِّلَ لِكَلِمَـتِ اللَّهِ وَلَقدْ جَآءَكَ مِن نَّبَإِ الْمُرْسَلِينَ

6:34 Verily, (many) Messengers were denied before you, but with patience they bore the denial, and they were hurt, till Our help reached them, and none can alter the Words of Allah. Surely, there has reached you the information about the Messengers (before you).

وَإِن كَانَ كَبُرَ عَلَيْكَ إِعْرَاضُهُمْ فَإِن اسْتَطَعْتَ أَن تَبْتَغِىَ نَفَقاً فِى الاٌّرْضِ أَوْ سُلَّماً فِى السَّمَآءِ فَتَأْتِيَهُمْ بِـَايَةٍ

6:35 If their aversion is hard on you, then if you were able to seek a tunnel in the ground or a ladder to the sky, so that you may bring them a sign.

وَلَوْ شَآءَ اللَّهُ لَجَمَعَهُمْ عَلَى الْهُدَى فَلاَ تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْجَـهِلِينَ

And had Allah willed, He could have gathered them together upon true guidance, so be not you one of the ignorant.

إِنَّمَا يَسْتَجِيبُ الَّذِينَ يَسْمَعُونَ وَالْمَوْتَى يَبْعَثُهُمُ اللَّهُ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ يُرْجَعُونَ 

6:36 It is only those who listen, that will respond, but as for the dead, Allah will raise them up, then to Him they will be returned.

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 Comforting the Prophet

Allah comforts the Prophet in his grief over his people's denial and defiance of him,

قَدْ نَعْلَمُ إِنَّهُ لَيَحْزُنُكَ الَّذِي يَقُولُونَ ...

We know indeed the grief which their words cause you;

meaning, We know about their denial of you and your sadness and sorrow for them.

Allah said in other Ayat,

فَلاَ تَذْهَبْ نَفْسُكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَسَرَتٍ

So destroy not yourself in sorrow for them. (35:8)

and,

لَعَلَّكَ بَـخِعٌ نَّفْسَكَ أَلاَّ يَكُونُواْ مُؤْمِنِينَ 

It may be that you are going to kill yourself with grief, that they do not become believers. (26:3)

and,

فَلَعَلَّكَ بَـخِعٌ نَّفْسَكَ عَلَى ءَاثَـرِهِمْ إِن لَّمْ يُؤْمِنُواْ بِهَـذَا الْحَدِيثِ أَسَفاً

Perhaps, you, would kill yourself in grief, over their footsteps (for their turning away from you), because they believe not in this narration. (18:6)

Allah's statement,

... فَإِنَّهُمْ لاَ يُكَذِّبُونَكَ وَلَكِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ بِآيَاتِ اللّهِ يَجْحَدُونَ ﴿٣٣﴾

it is not you that they deny, but it is the verses of Allah that the wrongdoers deny.

means, they do not accuse you of being a liar, وَلَكِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ بِآيَاتِ اللّهِ يَجْحَدُونَ  (but it is the Verses of Allah that the wrongdoers deny). It is only the truth that they reject and refuse.

Muhammad bin Ishaq mentioned that Az-Zuhri said that;

Abu Jahl, Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb and Al-Akhnas bin Shurayq once came to listen to the Prophet reciting the Qur'an at night, but these three men were not aware of the presence of each other. So they listened to the Prophet's recitation until the morning, and then left.

They met each other on their way back and each one of them asked the others, "What brought you!''

So they mentioned to each other the reason why they came. They vowed not to repeat this incident so that the young men of Quraysh would not hear of what they did and imitate them.

On the second night, each one of the three came back thinking that the other two would not come because of the vows they made to each other. In the morning, they again met each other on their way back and criticized each other, vowing not to repeat what they did.

On the third night, they again went to listen to the Prophet and in the morning they again vowed not to repeat this incident.

During that day, Al-Akhnas bin Shurayq took his staff and went to Abu Sufyan bin Harb in his house saying, "O Abu Hanzalah! What is your opinion concerning what you heard from Muhammad.''

Abu Sufyan said, "O Abu Thalabah! By Allah, I have heard some things that I recognize and know their implications. I also heard some things whose meaning and implications were unknown to me.''

Al-Akhnas said, "And I the same, by He Whom you swore by!''

Al-Akhnas left Abu Sufyan and went to Abu Jahl and asked him, "O Abu Al-Hakam! What is your opinion about what you heard from Muhammad.''

Abu Jahl said, "We competed with Bani Abd Manaf (the Prophet's sub tribe) and so we fed as they fed and gave away as they gave away. So, when we were neck and neck with them, just as two horses in a race, they said, `There is a Prophet from among us, to whom revelation from the heaven comes.' So how can we ever beat them at that! By Allah we will never believe in him or accept what he says.'

This is when Al-Akhnas left Abu Jahl and went away.''

Allah's statement,

وَلَقَدْ كُذِّبَتْ رُسُلٌ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَصَبَرُواْ عَلَى مَا كُذِّبُواْ وَأُوذُواْ حَتَّى أَتَاهُمْ نَصْرُنَا ...

Verily, (many) Messengers were denied before you, but with patience they bore the denial, and they were hurt, till Our help reached them,

This comforts the Prophet's concern for those who denied and rejected him.

Allah also commands the Prophet to be patient, just as the mighty Messengers before him were. He also promised him victory, just as the previous Messengers were victorious and the good end was theirs, after the denial and harm their people placed on them. Then, victory came to them in this life, just as victory is theirs in the Hereafter.

Allah said,

... وَلاَ مُبَدِّلَ لِكَلِمَاتِ اللّهِ ...

and none can alter the Words of Allah.

This refers to His decision that victory in this life and the Hereafter is for His believing servants.

Allah said in other Ayat,

وَلَقَدْ سَبَقَتْ كَلِمَتُنَا لِعِبَادِنَا الْمُرْسَلِينَ

إِنَّهُمْ لَهُمُ الْمَنصُورُونَ

وَإِنَّ جُندَنَا لَهُمُ الْغَـلِبُونَ

And, verily, Our Word has gone forth of old for Our servants, the Messengers. That they verily would be made triumphant. And that Our hosts, they verily would be the victors. (37:171-173)

and,

 كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لاّغْلِبَنَّ أَنَاْ وَرُسُلِى إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَوِىٌّ عَزِيزٌ

Allah has decreed: "Verily! It is I and My Messengers who shall be the victorious.'' Verily, Allah is All-Powerful, Almighty. (58:21)

Allah said;

... وَلَقدْ جَاءكَ مِن نَّبَإِ الْمُرْسَلِينَ ﴿٣٤﴾

Surely, there has reached you the information about the Messengers (before you).

who were given victory and prevailed over the people who rejected them. And you (O Muhammad), have a good example in them.

Allah said next,

وَإِن كَانَ كَبُرَ عَلَيْكَ إِعْرَاضُهُمْ ...

If their aversion is hard on you,

and you cannot be patient because of their aversion,

... فَإِنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ أَن تَبْتَغِيَ نَفَقًا فِي الأَرْضِ أَوْ سُلَّمًا فِي السَّمَاء ...

then if you were able to seek a tunnel in the ground or a ladder to the sky...

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas commented,

"If you were able to seek a tunnel and bring them an Ayah, or go up a ladder in the sky and bring a better Ayah than the one I (Allah) gave them, then do that.''

Similar was reported from Qatadah, As-Suddi and others.

... فَتَأْتِيَهُم بِآيَةٍ ...

so that you may bring them a sign.

Allah's statement,

... وَلَوْ شَاء اللّهُ لَجَمَعَهُمْ عَلَى الْهُدَى فَلاَ تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْجَاهِلِينَ ﴿٣٥﴾

And had Allah willed, He could have gathered them together upon true guidance, so be not you one of the ignorant.

is similar to His statement,

وَلَوْ شَاء رَبُّكَ لآمَنَ مَن فِي الأَرْضِ كُلُّهُمْ جَمِيعًا

And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed, all of them together. (10:99)

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said about Allah's statement, وَلَوْ شَاء اللّهُ لَجَمَعَهُمْ عَلَى الْهُدَى  (And had Allah willed, He could have gathered them together upon true guidance),

"The Messenger of Allah was eager that all people believe and be guided to follow him. Allah told him that only those whose happiness Allah has written in the first Dhikr will believe.''

Allah's statement,

إِنَّمَا يَسْتَجِيبُ الَّذِينَ يَسْمَعُونَ ...

It is only those who listen, that will respond,

means, only those who hear the speech, comprehend and understand it, will accept your call, O Muhammad!

In another Ayah, Allah said;

لِّيُنذِرَ مَن كَانَ حَيّاً وَيَحِقَّ الْقَوْلُ عَلَى الْكَـفِرِينَ

That it may give warning to him who is living, and that the Word may be justified against the disbelievers. (36:70)

Allah's statement,

... وَالْمَوْتَى يَبْعَثُهُمُ اللّهُ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ يُرْجَعُونَ ﴿٣٦﴾

but as for the dead, Allah will raise them up, then to Him they will be returned.

refers to the disbelievers because their hearts are dead. Therefore, Allah resembled them to dead corpses as a way of mocking and belittling them, saying, وَالْمَوْتَى يَبْعَثُهُمُ اللّهُ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ يُرْجَعُونَ (but as for the dead (disbelievers), Allah will raise them up, then to Him they will be returned (for their recompense).

 

 

Previous 33-36

وَقَالُواْ لَوْلاَ نُزِّلَ عَلَيْهِ ءَايَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ

6:37 And they said: "Why is not a sign sent down to him from his Lord!''

قُلْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَادِرٌ عَلَى أَن يُنَزِّلٍ ءايَةً وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ

Say: "Allah is certainly able to send down a sign, but most of them know not.''

وَمَا مِن دَآبَّةٍ فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَلاَ طَائِرٍ يَطِيرُ بِجَنَاحَيْهِ إِلاَّ أُمَمٌ أَمْثَـلُكُمْ

6:38 There is not a moving creature on earth, nor a bird that flies with its two wings, but are Umam like you.

مَّا فَرَّطْنَا فِى الكِتَـبِ مِن شَىْءٍ ثُمَّ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ يُحْشَرُونَ

We have neglected nothing in the Book, then unto their Lord they (all) shall be gathered.

وَالَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِـْايَـتِنَا صُمٌّ وَبُكْمٌ فِى الظُّلُمَـتِ

6:39 Those who reject Our Ayat are deaf and dumb in darkness.

مَن يَشَإِ اللَّهُ يُضْلِلْهُ وَمَن يَشَأْ يَجْعَلْهُ عَلَى صِرَطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ 

Allah sends astray whom He wills and He guides on the straight path whom He wills.

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Next 40-45   

 

 The Idolators Ask for a Miracle

Allah says;

وَقَالُواْ لَوْلاَ نُزِّلَ عَلَيْهِ آيَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ ...

And they said: "Why is not a sign sent down to him from his Lord!''

Allah states that the idolators used to proclaim, "Why does not (Muhammad) bring an Ayah from his Lord,'' meaning, a miracle of their choice!

They would sometimes say,

لَن نُّؤْمِنَ لَكَ حَتَّى تَفْجُرَ لَنَا مِنَ الاٌّرْضِ يَنْبُوعًا

"We shall not believe in you, until you cause a spring to gush forth from the ground for us.'' (17:90)

... قُلْ إِنَّ اللّهَ قَادِرٌ عَلَى أَن يُنَزِّلٍ آيَةً وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿٣٧﴾

Say: "Allah is certainly able to send down a sign, but most of them know not.''

Certainly, Allah is able to send an Ayah (sign). But, He decided out of His wisdom to delay that, because if He sends an Ayah of their liking and they still do not believe, this will hasten their punishment as with the previous nations.

Allah said in other Ayat,

وَمَا مَنَعَنَآ أَن نُّرْسِلَ بِالاٌّيَـتِ إِلاَّ أَن كَذَّبَ بِهَا الاٌّوَّلُونَ وَءَاتَيْنَا ثَمُودَ النَّاقَةَ مُبْصِرَةً فَظَلَمُواْ بِهَا وَمَا نُرْسِلُ بِالاٌّيَـتِ إِلاَّ تَخْوِيفًا

And nothing stops Us from sending the Ayat but that the people of old denied them. And We sent the she-camel to Thamud as a clear sign, but they did her wrong. And We sent not the signs except to warn, and to make them afraid (of destruction). (17:59)

and,

إِن نَّشَأْ نُنَزِّلْ عَلَيْهِمْ مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ ءَايَةً فَظَلَّتْ أَعْنَـقُهُمْ لَهَا خَـضِعِينَ

If We will, We could send down to them from the heaven a sign, to which they would bend their necks in humility. (26:4)

 The Meaning of Umam

Allah said,

وَمَا مِن دَآبَّةٍ فِي الأَرْضِ وَلاَ طَائِرٍ يَطِيرُ بِجَنَاحَيْهِ إِلاَّ أُمَمٌ أَمْثَالُكُم ...

There is not a moving (living) creature on earth, nor a bird that flies with its two wings, but are Umam like you.

Mujahid commented,

"Meaning, various species that have distinct names.''

Qatadah said,

"Birds are an Ummah, humans are an Ummah and the Jinns are an Ummah.''

As-Suddi said that, إِلاَّ أُمَمٌ أَمْثَالُكُم (but are Umam like you) means,

creations (or species).

Allah's statement,

... مَّا فَرَّطْنَا فِي الكِتَابِ مِن شَيْءٍ ...

We have neglected nothing in the Book,

means, the knowledge about all things is with Allah, and He never forgets any of His creatures, nor their sustenance, nor their affairs, whether these creatures live in the sea or on land.

In another Ayah, Allah said;

وَمَا مِن دَآبَّةٍ فِي الاٌّرْضِ إِلاَّ عَلَى اللَّهِ رِزْقُهَا وَيَعْلَمُ مُسْتَقَرَّهَا وَمُسْتَوْدَعَهَا كُلٌّ فِى كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ

And no moving creature is there on earth but its provision is due from Allah. And He knows its dwelling place and its deposit (in the uterus, grave, etc.). All is in a Clear Book. (11:6)

there is a record of their names, numbers, movements, and lack of movement.

In another Ayah, Allah said;

وَكَأَيِّن مِّن دَآبَّةٍ لاَّ تَحْمِلُ رِزْقَهَا اللَّهُ يَرْزُقُهَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ 

And so many a moving creature there is, that carries not its own provision! Allah provides for it and for you. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower. (29:60)

... ثُمَّ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ يُحْشَرُونَ ﴿٣٨﴾

then unto their Lord they (all) shall be gathered.

Ibn Abi Hatim reported that Ibn Abbas said about the Ayah,

"Death gathers them.''

It was also said that the Day of Resurrection gathers them, for in another Ayah, Allah said;

وَإِذَا الْوُحُوشُ حُشِرَتْ

And when the wild beasts shall be gathered together. (81:5)

Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Abu Hurayrah said about Allah's statement, إِلاَّ أُمَمٌ أَمْثَالُكُم مَّا فَرَّطْنَا فِي الكِتَابِ مِن شَيْءٍ ثُمَّ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ يُحْشَرُونَ (but are Umam like you. We have neglected nothing in the Book, then unto their Lord they (all) shall be gathered),

"All creatures will be gathered on the Day of Resurrection, the beasts, birds and all others. Allah's justice will be so perfect, that the un-horned sheep will receive retribution from the horned sheep. Allah will then command them, `Be dust!' This is when the disbeliever will say, يَا لَيْتَنِي كُنتُ تُرَابًا ("Woe to me! Would that I were dust!)'' (78: 40)

And this was reported from the Prophet in the Hadith about the Trumpet.

 The Disbelievers will be Deaf and Mute in Darkness

Allah said,

وَالَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِآيَاتِنَا صُمٌّ وَبُكْمٌ فِي الظُّلُمَاتِ ...

Those who reject Our Ayat are deaf and dumb in darkness.

due to their ignorance, little knowledge and minute comprehension. Their example is that of the deaf-mute who cannot hear nor speak, as well as being blinded by darkness. Therefore, how can such a person find guidance to the path or change the condition he is in

Allah said in other Ayat,

مَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِى اسْتَوْقَدَ نَاراً فَلَمَّآ أَضَاءَتْ مَا حَوْلَهُ ذَهَبَ اللَّهُ بِنُورِهِمْ وَتَرَكَهُمْ فِي ظُلُمَـتٍ لاَّ يُبْصِرُونَ

صُمٌّ بُكْمٌ عُمْىٌ فَهُمْ لاَ يَرْجِعُونَ

Their parable is that of one who kindled a fire; then, when it illuminated all around him, Allah took away their light and left them in darkness. (So) they could not see. They are deaf, dumb, and blind, so they return not (to the right path). (2:17-18)

and,

أَوْ كَظُلُمَـتٍ فِى بَحْرٍ لُّجِّىٍّ يَغْشَـهُ مَوْجٌ مِّن فَوْقِهِ مَوْجٌ مِّن فَوْقِهِ سَحَابٌ ظُلُمَـتٌ بَعْضُهَا فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ إِذَآ أَخْرَجَ يَدَهُ لَمْ يَكَدْ يَرَاهَا وَمَن لَّمْ يَجْعَلِ اللَّهُ لَهُ نُوراً فَمَا لَهُ مِن نُورٍ

Or like the darkness in a vast deep sea, overwhelmed with a great wave topped by a great wave, topped by dark clouds, darkness, one above another, if a man stretches out his hand, he can hardly see it! And he for whom Allah has not appointed light, for him there is no light. (24:40)

This is why Allah said here,

... مَن يَشَإِ اللّهُ يُضْلِلْهُ وَمَن يَشَأْ يَجْعَلْهُ عَلَى صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ ﴿٣٩﴾

Allah sends astray whom He wills and He guides on the straight path whom He wills.

for He does what He wills with His creatures.

 

 

Previous 37-39

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُكُم إِنْ أَتَـكُمْ عَذَابُ اللَّهِ أَوْ أَتَتْكُمْ السَّاعَةُ أَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ تَدْعُونَ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ

6:40 Say: "Tell me if Allah's torment comes upon you, or the Hour comes upon you, would you then call upon any one other than Allah! (Reply) if you are truthful!''

بَلْ إِيَّـهُ تَدْعُونَ فَيَكْشِفُ مَا تَدْعُونَ إِلَيْهِ إِنْ شَآءَ وَتَنسَوْنَ مَا تُشْرِكُونَ

6:41 Nay! To Him alone you call, and, if He willed, He would remove that (distress) for which you call upon Him, and you forget at that time whatever partners you joined with Him (in worship)!

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلنَآ إِلَى أُمَمٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَأَخَذْنَـهُمْ بِالْبَأْسَآءِ وَالضَّرَّآءِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَضَرَّعُونَ

6:42 Verily, We sent (Messengers) to many nations before you. And We seized them with extreme poverty and loss of health so that they might believe with humility.

فَلَوْلا إِذْ جَآءَهُمْ بَأْسُنَا تَضَرَّعُواْ

6:43 When Our torment reached them, why then did they not believe with humility!

وَلَـكِن قَسَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَـنُ مَا كَانُواّ يَعْمَلُونَ

But their hearts became hardened, and Shaytan made fair-seeming to them that which they used to do.

فَلَمَّا نَسُواْ مَا ذُكِّرُواْ بِهِ فَتَحْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ أَبْوَابَ كُلِّ شَىْءٍ حَتَّى إِذَا فَرِحُواْ بِمَآ أُوتُواْ أَخَذْنَـهُمْ بَغْتَةً فَإِذَا هُمْ مُّبْلِسُونَ

6:44 So, when they forgot (the warning) with which they had been reminded, We opened to them the gates of every (pleasant) thing, until in the midst of their enjoyment in that which they were given, all of a sudden, We took them to punishment, and lo! They were plunged into destruction with deep regrets and sorrows.

فَقُطِعَ دَابِرُ الْقَوْمِ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ

6:45 So the roots of the people who did wrong were cut off.

وَالْحَمْدُ للَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ

And all the praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of the all that exists.

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Next 46-49   

 

 The Idolators Call On Allah Alone During Torment and Distress

Allah states that He does what He wills with His creatures and none can resist His decision or avert what He decrees for them. He is the One Who has no partners, Who accepts the supplication from whomever He wills.

Allah said,

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُكُم إِنْ أَتَاكُمْ عَذَابُ اللّهِ أَوْ أَتَتْكُمُ السَّاعَةُ أَغَيْرَ اللّهِ تَدْعُونَ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ ﴿٤٠

Say: "Tell me if Allah's torment comes upon you, or the Hour comes upon you, would you then call upon any one other than Allah! (Reply) if you are truthful!''

This means, you -- disbelievers -- will not call other than Allah in this case, because you know that none except He is able to remove the affliction. إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ (if you are truthful) by taking gods besides Him.

Allah said,

بَلْ إِيَّاهُ تَدْعُونَ فَيَكْشِفُ مَا تَدْعُونَ إِلَيْهِ إِنْ شَاء وَتَنسَوْنَ مَا تُشْرِكُونَ ﴿٤١

Nay! To Him alone you call, and, if He willed, He would remove that (distress) for which you call upon Him, and you forget at that time whatever partners you joined with Him (in worship)!

for in times of necessity, you only call on Allah and forget your idols and false deities.

In another Ayah, Allah said;

وَإِذَا مَسَّكُمُ الْضُّرُّ فِى الْبَحْرِ ضَلَّ مَن تَدْعُونَ إِلاَ إِيَّاهُ

And when harm touches you upon the sea, those that you call upon besides Him vanish from you except Him (Allah). (17:67)

Allah said;

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلنَآ إِلَى أُمَمٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَأَخَذْنَاهُمْ بِالْبَأْسَاء ...

Verily, We sent (Messengers) to many nations before you. And We seized them with extreme poverty...

That is, loss of wealth and diminished provisions,

... وَالضَّرَّاء ...

and loss of health,

various illnesses, diseases and pain,

... لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَضَرَّعُونَ ﴿٤٢

so that they might believe with humility.

and call Allah and supplicate to Him with humbleness and humility.

Allah said;

فَلَوْلا إِذْ جَاءهُمْ بَأْسُنَا تَضَرَّعُواْ ...

When Our torment reached them, why then did they not believe with humility,

Meaning: Why do they not believe and humble themselves before Us when We test them with disaster!'

... وَلَـكِن قَسَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ ...

But their hearts became hardened,

for their hearts are not soft or humble,

... وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ مَا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ ﴿٤٣﴾

and Shaytan made fair-seeming to them that which they used to do.

That is, Shirk, defiance and rebellion.

فَلَمَّا نَسُواْ مَا ذُكِّرُواْ بِهِ ...

So, when they forgot (the warning) with which they had been reminded,

by ignoring and turning away from it,

.... فَتَحْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ أَبْوَابَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ ...

We opened to them the gates of everything,

Meaning: `We opened the gates of provisions for them from wherever they wished, so that We deceive them.'

We seek refuge with Allah from such an end.

This is why Allah said,

... حَتَّى إِذَا فَرِحُواْ بِمَا أُوتُواْ ...

until in the midst of their enjoyment in that which they were given,

such as wealth, children and provisions,

... أَخَذْنَاهُم بَغْتَةً فَإِذَا هُم مُّبْلِسُونَ ﴿٤٤﴾

all of a sudden, We took them to punishment and lo! They were plunged into destruction with deep regrets and sorrows.

They have no hope for any type of good thing.

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said,

"Whomever Allah gives provision and he thinks that Allah is not testing him, has no wisdom. Whomever has little provision and thinks that Allah will not look at (provide for) him, has no wisdom.''

He then recited the Ayah,

فَلَمَّا نَسُواْ مَا ذُكِّرُواْ بِهِ فَتَحْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ أَبْوَابَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ حَتَّى إِذَا فَرِحُواْ بِمَا أُوتُواْ أَخَذْنَاهُم بَغْتَةً فَإِذَا هُم مُّبْلِسُونَ

So, when they forgot (the warning) with which they had been reminded, We opened to them the gates of every (pleasant) thing, until in the midst of their enjoyment in that which they were given, all of a sudden, We took them to punishment, and lo! They were plunged into destruction with deep regrets and sorrows.

He added,

"By the Lord of the Ka`bah! Allah deceived these people, when He gave them what they wished, and then they were punished.''

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this statement.

Allah's statement,

فَقُطِعَ دَابِرُ الْقَوْمِ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿٤٥

So the roots of the people who did wrong were cut off. And all the praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of the all that exists.

 

 

Previous 40-45

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِنْ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ سَمْعَكُمْ وَأَبْصَـرَكُمْ وَخَتَمَ عَلَى قُلُوبِكُمْ مَّنْ إِلَـهٌ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ يَأْتِيكُمْ بِهِ

6:46 Say: "Tell me, if Allah took away your hearing and your sight, and sealed up your hearts, is there a god other than Allah who could restore them to you!''

انْظُرْ كَيْفَ نُصَرِّفُ الاٌّيَـتِ ثُمَّ هُمْ يَصْدِفُونَ

See how variously We explain the Ayat, yet they turn aside.

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتَكُمْ إِنْ أَتَـكُمْ عَذَابُ اللَّهِ بَغْتَةً أَوْ جَهْرَةً هَلْ يُهْلَكُ إِلاَّ الْقَوْمُ الظَّـلِمُونَ

6:47 Say: "Tell me, if the punishment of Allah comes to you suddenly, or openly, will any be destroyed except the wrongdoing people!''

وَمَا نُرْسِلُ الْمُرْسَلِينَ إِلاَّ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ

6:48 And We send not the Messengers but as givers of glad tidings and as warners.

فَمَنْ ءَامَنَ وَأَصْلَحَ فَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

So whosoever believes and does righteous good deeds, upon such shall come no fear, nor shall they grieve.

وَالَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِـَايَـتِنَا يَمَسُّهُمُ الْعَذَابُ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَفْسُقُونَ 

6:49 But those who reject Our Ayat, the torment will strike them for their rebelling.

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Allah said to His Messenger,

قُلْ ...

say,

O Muhammad, to those rebellious liars,

... أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِنْ أَخَذَ اللّهُ سَمْعَكُمْ وَأَبْصَارَكُمْ ...

Tell me, if Allah took away your hearing and your sight.

just as He gave these senses to you.

In another Ayah, Allah said;

هُوَ الَّذِى أَنشَأَكُمْ وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالاٌّبْصَـرَ

It is He Who has created you, and endowed you with hearing, seeing. (67:23)

The Ayah above might also mean that Allah will not allow the disbelievers to benefit from these senses in religious terms. This is why He said next,

... وَخَتَمَ عَلَى قُلُوبِكُم ...

and sealed up your hearts,.

He also said in other Ayat,

أَمَّن يَمْلِكُ السَّمْعَ والاٌّبْصَـرَ

Or who owns hearing and sight! (10:31)

and,

وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَحُولُ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَقَلْبِهِ

And know that Allah comes in between a person and his heart.

Allah said;

... مَّنْ إِلَـهٌ غَيْرُ اللّهِ يَأْتِيكُم بِهِ ...

Is there a god other than Allah who could restore them to you!

Meaning, is there anyone except Allah who is able to give you back these senses if Allah took them from you! Only Allah is able to do so, and this is why He said here,

... انظُرْ كَيْفَ نُصَرِّفُ الآيَاتِ ...

See how variously We explain the Ayat,

and make them plain and clear, testifying to Allah's Oneness in lordship and that those worshipped besides Him are all false and unworthy.

... ثُمَّ هُمْ يَصْدِفُونَ ﴿٤٦﴾

yet they turn aside.

After this explanation, they still turn away from the truth and hinder people from following it.

Allah's statement,

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتَكُمْ إِنْ أَتَاكُمْ عَذَابُ اللّهِ بَغْتَةً ...

Say: "Tell me, if the punishment of Allah comes to you suddenly...''

means, while you are unaware -- or during the night -- striking you all of a sudden,

... أَوْ جَهْرَةً ...

or openly

during the day, or publicly,

... هَلْ يُهْلَكُ إِلاَّ الْقَوْمُ الظَّالِمُونَ ﴿٤٧﴾

will any be destroyed except the wrongdoing people.

This torment only strikes those who commit injustice against themselves by associating others with Allah, while those who worship Allah alone without partners will be saved from it, and they will have no fear or sorrow.

In another Ayah, Allah said;

الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَلَمْ يَلْبِسُواْ إِيمَـنَهُمْ بِظُلْمٍ

It is those who believe and confuse not their belief with Zulm, (wrong or Shirk). (6:82)

Allah's statement,

وَمَا نُرْسِلُ الْمُرْسَلِينَ إِلاَّ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ ...

And We send not the Messengers but as bearers of glad tidings and as warners.

means, the Messengers bring good news to Allah's servants, as well as, command all that is good and righteous. They also warn those who disbelieve in Allah of His anger and of all types of torment.

Allah said,

... فَمَنْ آمَنَ وَأَصْلَحَ ...

So whosoever believes and does righteous good deeds,

meaning, whoever believes in his heart with what the Messengers were sent with and makes his works righteous by imitating them;

... فَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ ...

upon such shall come no fear,

concerning the future,

... وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ ﴿٤٨﴾

nor shall they grieve.

about what they missed in the past and left behind them in this world. Certainly, Allah will be the Wali and Protector over what they left behind.

Allah said next,

وَالَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِآيَاتِنَا يَمَسُّهُمُ الْعَذَابُ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَفْسُقُونَ ﴿٤٩

But those who reject Our Ayat, the torment will strike them for their rebelling.

The torment will strike them because of disbelieving in the Message of the Messengers, defying Allah's commands, committing what He prohibited and transgressing His set limits.

 

 

Previous 46-49

قُل لاَّ أَقُولُ لَكُمْ عِندِى خَزَآئِنُ اللَّهِ وَلا أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ وَلا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ إِنِّى مَلَكٌ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلاَّ مَا يُوحَى إِلَىَّ

6:50 Say: "I don't tell you that with me are the treasures of Allah, nor (that) I know the Unseen; nor do I tell you that I am an angel. I but follow what is revealed to me.''

قُلْ هَلْ يَسْتَوِى الاٌّعْمَى وَالْبَصِيرُ أَفَلاَ تَتَفَكَّرُونَ

Say: "Are the blind and the one who sees equal! Will you not then consider!''

وَأَنذِرْ بِهِ الَّذِينَ يَخَافُونَ أَن يُحْشَرُواْ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ لَيْسَ لَهُمْ مِّن دُونِهِ وَلِىٌّ وَلاَ شَفِيعٌ لَّعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ

6:51 And warn therewith those who fear that they will be gathered before their Lord, when there will be neither a protector nor an intercessor for them besides Him, so that they may have Taqwa.

وَلاَ تَطْرُدِ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُمْ بِالْغَدَاةِ وَالْعَشِىِّ يُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَهُ

6:52 And turn not away those who invoke their Lord, morning and evening seeking His Face.

مَا عَلَيْكَ مِنْ حِسَابِهِم مِّن شَىْءٍ وَمَا مِنْ حِسَابِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ مِّن شَىْءٍ فَتَطْرُدَهُمْ فَتَكُونَ مِنَ الظَّـلِمِينَ

You are accountable for them in nothing, and they are accountable for you in nothing, that you may turn them away, and thus become of the wrongdoers.

وَكَذلِكَ فَتَنَّا بَعْضَهُمْ بِبَعْضٍ لِّيَقُولواْ أَهَـؤُلاءِ مَنَّ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّن بَيْنِنَآ

6:53 Thus We have tried some of them with others, that they might say: "Is it these (poor believers) that Allah has favored from amongst us!''

أَلَيْسَ اللَّهُ بِأَعْلَمَ بِالشَّـكِرِينَ

Does not Allah know best those who are grateful!

وَإِذَا جَآءَكَ الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِـَايَـتِنَا فَقُلْ سَلَـمٌ عَلَيْكُمْ

6:54 When those who believe in Our Ayat come to you, say: "Salamun `Alaykum'' (peace be on you);

كَتَبَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ الرَّحْمَةَ أَنَّهُ مَن عَمِلَ مِنكُمْ سُوءًا بِجَهَالَةٍ ثُمَّ تَابَ مِن بَعْدِهِ وَأَصْلَحَ فَأَنَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

your Lord has written mercy for Himself, so that, if any of you does evil in ignorance, and thereafter repents and does righteous good deeds, then surely, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

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 The Messenger Neither has the Key to Allah's Treasures, Nor Knows the Unseen

Allah said to His Messenger,

قُل لاَّ أَقُولُ لَكُمْ عِندِي خَزَآئِنُ اللّهِ ...

Say: "I don't tell you that with me are the treasures of Allah.''

meaning, I do not own Allah's treasures or have any power over them,

... وَلا أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ ...

nor (that) I know the Unseen,

and I do not say that I know the Unseen, because its knowledge is with Allah and I only know what He conveys of it to me.

... وَلا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ إِنِّي مَلَكٌ ...

nor I tell you that I am an angel.

meaning, I do not claim that I am an angel. I am only a human to whom Allah sends revelation, and He honored me with this duty and favored me with it.

... إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلاَّ مَا يُوحَى إِلَيَّ ...

I but follow what is revealed to me.

and I never disobey the revelation in the least.

... قُلْ هَلْ يَسْتَوِي الأَعْمَى وَالْبَصِيرُ ...

Say: "Are the blind and the one who sees equal!''

meaning, `Is the one who is guided, following the truth, equal to the one misled!'

... أَفَلاَ تَتَفَكَّرُونَ ﴿٥٠﴾

Will you not then consider!

In another Ayah, Allah said;

أَفَمَن يَعْلَمُ أَنَّمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَبِّكَ الْحَقُّ كَمَنْ هُوَ أَعْمَى إِنَّمَا يَتَذَكَّرُ أُوْلُواْ الأَلْبَـبِ

Shall he then who knows that what has been revealed to you from your Lord is the truth, be like him who is blind But it is only the men of understanding that pay heed. (13:19)

Allah's statement,

وَأَنذِرْ بِهِ الَّذِينَ يَخَافُونَ أَن يُحْشَرُواْ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ لَيْسَ لَهُم مِّن دُونِهِ وَلِيٌّ وَلاَ شَفِيعٌ ...

And warn therewith those who fear that they will be gathered before their Lord, when there will be neither a protector nor an intercessor for them besides Him,

means, warn with this Qur'an, O Muhammad,

الَّذِينَ هُم مِّنْ خَشْيةِ رَبِّهِمْ مُّشْفِقُونَ

Those who live in awe for fear of their Lord, (23:57)

who,

يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُموَيَخَافُونَ سُوءَ الحِسَابِ

Fear their Lord, and dread the terrible reckoning. (13:21)

وَأَنذِرْ بِهِ الَّذِينَ يَخَافُونَ أَن يُحْشَرُواْ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ (those who fear that they will be gathered before their Lord), on the Day of Resurrection, لَيْسَ لَهُم مِّن دُونِهِ وَلِيٌّ وَلاَ شَفِيعٌ  (when there will be neither a protector nor an intercessor for them besides Him),  for on that Day, they will have no relative or intercessor who can prevent His torment if He decides to punish them with it, لَّعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ  (so that they may have Taqwa).

Therefore, warn of the Day when there will be no judge except Allah,

... لَّعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ ﴿٥١﴾

so that they may have Taqwa.

and thus work good deeds in this life, so that their good deeds may save them on the Day of Resurrection from Allah's torment, and so that He will grant them multiple rewards.

 Prohibiting the Messenger from Turning the Weak Away and the Order to Honor Them

Allah said,

وَلاَ تَطْرُدِ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُم بِالْغَدَاةِ وَالْعَشِيِّ يُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَهُ ...

And turn not away those who invoke their Lord, morning and evening seeking His Face.

meaning, do not turn away those who have these qualities, instead make them your companions and associates.

In another Ayah, Allah said;

وَاصْبِرْ نَفْسَكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُم بِالْغَدَاةِ وَالْعَشِىِّ يُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَهُ وَلاَ تَعْدُ عَيْنَاكَ عَنْهُمْ تُرِيدُ زِينَةَ الْحَيَوةِ الدُّنْيَا وَلاَ تُطِعْ مَنْ أَغْفَلْنَا قَلْبَهُ عَن ذِكْرِنَا وَاتَّبَعَ هَوَاهُ وَكَانَ أَمْرُهُ فُرُطًا

And keep yourself patiently with those who call on their Lord morning and evening, seeking His Face, and let not your eyes overlook them, desiring the pomp and glitter of the life of the world; and obey not him whose heart We have made heedless of Our remembrance, one who follows his own lusts and whose affair (deeds) has been lost.(18:28)

Allah's statement, يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُم  (invoke their Lord...),

refers to those who worship Him and supplicate to Him,

بِالْغَدَاةِ وَالْعَشِيِّ (morning and evening),

referring to the obligatory prayers, according to Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib, Mujahid, Al-Hasan and Qatadah.

In another Ayah, Allah said;

وَقَالَ رَبُّكُـمْ ادْعُونِى أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ

And your Lord said, "Invoke Me, I will respond (to your invocation).'' (40:60)

I will accept your supplication.

Allah said next, يُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَهُ (seeking His Face),

meaning, they seek Allah's Most Generous Face, by sincerity for Him in the acts of worship and obedience they perform.

Allah said;

... مَا عَلَيْكَ مِنْ حِسَابِهِم مِّن شَيْءٍ وَمَا مِنْ حِسَابِكَ عَلَيْهِم مِّن شَيْءٍ ...

You are accountable for them in nothing, and they are accountable for you in nothing,

This is similar to the answer Nuh gave to his people when they said, أَنُؤْمِنُ لَكَ وَاتَّبَعَكَ الْأَرْذَلُونَ (Shall we believe in you, when the meekest (of the people) follow you!'' (26:111) Nuh answered them,

قَالَ وَمَا عِلْمِي بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

إِنْ حِسَابُهُمْ إِلَّا عَلَى رَبِّي لَوْ تَشْعُرُونَ

And what knowledge have I of what they used to do! Their account is only with my Lord, if you could (but) know. (26:112-113)

meaning, their reckoning is for Allah not me, just as my reckoning is not up to them.

Allah said here,

... فَتَطْرُدَهُمْ فَتَكُونَ مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ ﴿٥٢﴾

that you may turn them away, and thus become of the wrongdoers.

meaning, you will be unjust if you turn them away.

Allah's statement,

وَكَذَلِكَ فَتَنَّا بَعْضَهُم بِبَعْضٍ ...

Thus We have tried some of them with others!

means, We tested, tried and checked them with each other,

... لِّيَقُولواْ أَهَـؤُلاء مَنَّ اللّهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّن بَيْنِنَا ...

That they might say: "Is it these (poor believers) that Allah has favored from amongst us!''

This is because at first, most of those who followed the Messenger of Allah were the weak among the people, men, women, slaves, and only a few chiefs or noted men followed him.

Nuh, was also addressed by his people مَا نَرَاكَ إِلاَّ بَشَرًا مِّثْلَنَا وَمَا نَرَاكَ اتَّبَعَكَ إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ هُمْ أَرَاذِلُنَا بَادِيَ الرَّأْيِ  (Nor do we see any follow you but the meekest among us and they (too) followed you without thinking). (11:27)

Heraclius, emperor of Rome, asked Abu Sufyan, "Do the noblemen or the weak among people follow him (Muhammad)?''

Abu Sufyan replied, "Rather the weak among them.''

Heraclius commented, "Such is the case with followers of the Messengers.''

The idolators of Quraysh used to mock the weak among them who believed in the Prophet and they even tortured some of them. They used to say, "Are these the ones whom Allah favored above us,'' meaning, Allah would not guide these people, instead of us, to all that is good, if indeed what they embraced is good.

Allah mentioned similar statements in the Qur'an from the disbelievers,

لَوْ كَانَ خَيْراً مَّا سَبَقُونَآ إِلَيْهِ

Had it been a good thing, they (weak and poor) would not have preceded us to it! (46:11)

and,

وَإِذَا تُتْلَى عَلَيْهِمْ ءَايَـتُنَا بِيِّنَـتٍ قَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ أَىُّ الْفَرِيقَيْنِ خَيْرٌ مَّقَاماً وَأَحْسَنُ نَدِيّاً

And when Our clear verses are recited to them, those who disbelieve say to those who believe: "Which of the two groups is best in position and station.'' (19:73)

Allah said in reply,

وَكَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا قَبْلَهُمْ مِّن قَرْنٍ هُمْ أَحْسَنُ أَثَاثاً وَرِءْياً 

And how many a generation (past nations) have We destroyed before them, who were better in wealth, goods and outward appearance. (19:74)

Here, Allah answered the disbelievers when they said,

...أَهَـؤُلاء مَنَّ اللّهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّن بَيْنِنَا أَلَيْسَ اللّهُ بِأَعْلَمَ بِالشَّاكِرِينَ ﴿٥٣﴾

"Is it these (poor believers) that Allah has favored from amongst us!'' Does not Allah know best those who are grateful!

Meaning is not Allah more knowledgeable of those who thank and appreciate Him in statement, action and heart!

Thus Allah directs these believers to the ways of peace, transfers them from darkness to light by His leave, and guides them to the straight path.

In another Ayah, Allah said;

وَالَّذِينَ جَـهَدُواْ فِينَا لَنَهْدِيَنَّهُمْ سُبُلَنَا وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمَعَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ 

As for those who strive hard for Us (Our cause), We will surely guide them to Our paths (i.e. Allah's religion). And verily, Allah is with the doers of good.'' (29:69)

An authentic Hadith states,

إِنَّ اللهَ لَا يَنْظُرُ إِلَى صُوَرِكُمْ وَلَا إِلَى أَلْوَانِكُمْ، وَلَكِنْ يَنْظُرُ إِلَى قُلُوبِكُمْ وَأَعْمَالِكُم

Allah does not look at your shapes or colors, but He looks at your heart and actions.

Allah's statement,

وَإِذَا جَاءكَ الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِآيَاتِنَا فَقُلْ سَلاَمٌ عَلَيْكُمْ ...

When those who believe in Our Ayat come to you, say: "Salamun `Alaykum'' (peace be on you);

means, honor them by returning the Salam and give them the good news of Allah's exclusive, encompassing mercy for them.

So Allah said;

... كَتَبَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ الرَّحْمَةَ ...

your Lord has written Mercy for Himself,

meaning, He has obliged His Most Honored Self to grant mercy, as a favor, out of His compassion and beneficence,

... أَنَّهُ مَن عَمِلَ مِنكُمْ سُوءًا بِجَهَالَةٍ ...

So that, if any of you does evil in ignorance...

as every person who disobeys Allah does it in ignorance,

... ثُمَّ تَابَ مِن بَعْدِهِ وَأَصْلَحَ ...

and thereafter repents and does righteous good deeds,

by repenting from the sins that he committed, intending not to repeat the sin in the future, but to perform righteous deeds,

... فَأَنَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ ﴿٥٤﴾

then surely, He is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

لَمَّا قَضَى اللهُ الْخَلْقَ كَتَبَ فِي كِتَابٍ فَهُوَ عِنْدَهُ فَوْقَ الْعَرْشِ: إِنَّ رَحْمَتِي غَلَبَتْ غَضَبِي

When Allah finished with the creation, He wrote in a Book that He has with Him above the Throne, `My mercy prevails over My anger'.

This Hadith was also recorded in the Two Sahihs.

 

 

Previous 50-54

وَكَذَلِكَ نفَصِّلُ الاٌّيَـتِ وَلِتَسْتَبِينَ سَبِيلُ الْمُجْرِمِينَ

6:55 And thus do We explain the Ayat in detail, that the way of the criminals, may become manifest.

قُلْ إِنِّى نُهِيتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ

6:56 Say: "I have been forbidden to worship those whom you invoke (worship) besides Allah.''

قُلْ لاَّ أَتَّبِعُ أَهْوَآءَكُمْ قَدْ ضَلَلْتُ إِذاً وَمَآ أَنَاْ مِنَ الْمُهْتَدِينَ

Say: "I will not follow your vain desires. If I did, I would go astray, and I would not be one of the rightly guided.''

قُلْ إِنِّى عَلَى بَيِّنَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّى وَكَذَّبْتُم بِهِ مَا عِندِى مَا تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ بِهِ إِنِ الْحُكْمُ إِلاَّ للَّهِ يَقُصُّ الْحَقَّ وَهُوَ خَيْرُ الْفَـصِلِينَ

6:57 Say: "I am on clear proof from my Lord, but you deny it. I do not have what you are hastily seeking (the torment). The decision is only for Allah, He declares the truth, and He is the best of judges.''

قُل لَّوْ أَنَّ عِندِى مَا تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ بِهِ لَقُضِىَ الاٌّمْرُ بَيْنِى وَبَيْنَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِالظَّـلِمِينَ

6:58 Say: "If I had that which you are asking for impatiently (the torment), the matter would have been settled at once between you and I, but Allah knows best the wrongdoers.''

وَعِندَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لاَ يَعْلَمُهَآ إِلاَّ هُوَ

6:59 And with Him are the keys of the Ghayb (all that is hidden), none knows them but He.

وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِى الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَمَا تَسْقُطُ مِن وَرَقَةٍ إِلاَّ يَعْلَمُهَا

And He knows whatever there is on the land and in the sea; not a leaf falls, but he knows it.

وَلاَ حَبَّةٍ فِى ظُلُمَـتِ الاٌّرْضِ وَلاَ رَطْبٍ وَلاَ يَابِسٍ إِلاَّ فِى كِتَـبٍ مُّبِينٍ

There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record.

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 The Prophet Understands What He Conveys; Torment is in Allah's Hands Not the Prophet's

Allah says, just as We mentioned the clear signs that testify and direct to the path of guidance, all the while chastising useless arguments and defiance,

وَكَذَلِكَ نفَصِّلُ الآيَاتِ ...

And thus do We explain the Ayat in detail,

that is, whatever responsible adults need explained to them, in the affairs of life and religion,

... وَلِتَسْتَبِينَ سَبِيلُ الْمُجْرِمِينَ ﴿٥٥﴾

That the way of the criminals may become manifest.

so that the path of the criminals who defy the Prophets is apparent and clear.

This Ayah was also said to mean, so that you, O Muhammad, are aware of the path of the criminals.

Allah's statement,

قُلْ إِنِّي نُهِيتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللّهِ قُل لاَّ أَتَّبِعُ أَهْوَاءكُمْ قَدْ ضَلَلْتُ إِذًا وَمَا أَنَاْ مِنَ الْمُهْتَدِينَ ﴿٥٦

Say: "I have been forbidden to worship those whom you invoke (worship) besides Allah.''

Say: "I will not follow your vain desires. If I did, I would go astray, and I would not be one of the rightly guided.''

Allah's statement,

قُلْ إِنِّي عَلَى بَيِّنَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّي ...

Say: "I am on clear proof from my Lord...''

means: I have a clear understanding of the Law of Allah that He has revealed to me,

... وَكَذَّبْتُم بِهِ ...

but you deny it.

meaning, but you disbelieve in the truth that came to me from Allah.

... مَا عِندِي مَا تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ بِهِ ...

I do not have what you are hastily seeking,

meaning, the torment,

... إِنِ الْحُكْمُ إِلاَّ لِلّهِ ...

The decision is only for Allah,

for the ruling of this is with Allah. If He wills, He will punish you soon in response to your wish! If He wills, He will give you respite, out of His great wisdom.

This is why Allah said,

... يَقُصُّ الْحَقَّ وَهُوَ خَيْرُ الْفَاصِلِينَ ﴿٥٧﴾

He declares the truth, and He is the best of judges.

and the best in reckoning between His servants.

Allah's statement,

قُل لَّوْ أَنَّ عِندِي مَا تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ بِهِ لَقُضِيَ الأَمْرُ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ ...

Say: "If I had that which you are asking for impatiently (the torment), the matter would have been settled at once between you and I,''

means, if I have what you ask for, I will surely send down what you deserve of it,

... وَاللّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِالظَّالِمِينَ ﴿٥٨﴾

but Allah knows best the wrongdoers.

Someone might ask about the meaning of this Ayah compared to the Hadith in the Two Sahihs, from Aishah, may Allah be pleased with her, that;

she said to the Messenger, "O Allah's Messenger ! Have you encountered a day harder than the day (of the battle) of Uhud?''

The Prophet replied,

لَقَدْ لَقِيتُ مِنْ قَوْمِكِ، وَكَانَ أَشَدَّ مَا لَقِيتُ مِنْهُمْ يَوْمَ الْعَقَبَةِ،إِذْ عَرَضْتُ نَفْسِي عَلَى ابْنِ عَبْدِيَالِيلَ بْنِ عَبْدِكُلَالٍ، فَلَمْ يُجِبْنِي إِلَى مَا أَرَدْتُ، فَانْطَلَقْتُ وَأَنَا مَهْمُومٌ عَلَى وَجْهِي، فَلَمْ أَسْتَفِقْ إِلَّا بِقَرْنِ الثَّعَالِبِ، فَرَفَعْتُ رَأْسِي، فَإِذَا أَنَا بِسَحَاَبَةٍ قَدْ ظَلَّلَتْنِي،

Your people have troubled me a lot and the worst trouble was on the day of Aqabah when I presented myself to Ibn Abd Yalil bin Abd Kulal, who did not respond to my call. So I departed, overwhelmed with severe sorrow, proceeded on and could not relax until I found myself at Qarn Ath-Tha`alib where I raised my head towards the sky to see a cloud unexpectedly shading me.

فَنَظَرْتُ فَإِذَا فِيهَا جِبْرِيلُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ، فَنَادَانِي فَقَالَ: إِنَّ الله قَدْ سَمِعَ قَوْلَ قَوْمِكَ لَكَ، وَمَا رَدُّوا عَلَيْكَ، وَقَدْ بَعَثَ إِلَيْكَ مَلَكَ الْجِبَالِ، لِتَأْمُرَهُ بِمَا شِئْتَ فِيهِمْ،

I looked up and saw Jibril in it and he called me saying, `Indeed Allah has heard what you said to the people and what they have responded to you. Therefore, Allah has sent the Angel of the Mountains to you so that you may order him to do whatever you wish to these people.'

فَنَادَانِي مَلَكُ الْجِبَالِ وَسَلَّمَ عَلَيَّ، ثُمَّ قَالَ: يَا مُحَمَّدُ إِنَّ اللهَ قَدْ سَمِعَ قَوْلَ قَوْمِكَ لَكَ، وَقَدْ بَعَثَنِي رَبُّكَ إِلَيْكَ، لِتَأْمُرَنِي بِأَمْرِكَ فِيمَا شِئْتَ، إِنْ شِئْتَ أَطْبَقْتُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْأَخْشَبَيْن

The Angel of the Mountains called and greeted me, and then said, `O Muhammad! verily, Allah has heard how your people responded to you and He has sent me to you so that you could order me to do what you wish. If you like, I will let Al-Akhshabayn (two mountains to the north and south of Makkah) fall on them.'

فَقَالَ رَسُولَُ اللهَ

بَلْ أَرْجُو أَنْ يُخْرِجَ اللهُ مِنْ أَصْلَابِهِمْ، مَنْ يَعْبُدُ اللهَ لَا يُشْرِكُ بِهِ شَيْئًا

The Prophet said, No, but I hope that Allah will let them generate offspring who will worship Allah Alone, and will worship none besides Him.

This is the wording of Muslim.

Tormenting the disbelievers of Quraysh was offered to the Prophet, but he chose patience and asked Allah for respite for them, so that Allah might let them generate offspring who will not associate anything with Him in worship.

Therefore, how can we combine the meaning of this Hadith and the honorable Ayah,

قُل لَّوْ أَنَّ عِندِي مَا تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ بِهِ لَقُضِيَ الأَمْرُ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ وَاللّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِالظَّالِمِينَ

Say: "If I had that which you are asking for impatiently (the torment), the matter would have been settled at once between you and I, but Allah knows best the wrongdoers.''

The answer to this question is, Allah knows the best, that the Ayah states that if the punishment that they asked for was in the Prophet's hand at the time, he would have sent it on them as they asked.

As for the Hadith, the disbelievers did not ask the Prophet to send the torment down on them. Rather, the angel responsible for the mountains offered him the choice to let the two mountains to the north and south of Makkah close in on the disbelievers and crush them. The Prophet did not wish that and asked for respite out of compassion for them.

 Only Allah Knows the Unseen

Allah said next,

وَعِندَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لاَ يَعْلَمُهَا إِلاَّ هُوَ ...

And with Him are the keys of the Ghayb (all that is hidden), none knows them but He.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Salim bin Abdullah said that his father said that the Messenger of Allah said,

مَفَاتِيحُ الْغَيْبِ خَمْسٌ لَا يَعْلَمُهُنَّ إِلَّا الله

The keys of the Unseen are five and none except Allah knows them:

  • إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ

  • وَيُنَزِّلُ الْغَيْثَ

  • وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِى الاٌّرْحَامِ

  • وَمَا تَدْرِى نَفْسٌ مَّاذَا تَكْسِبُ غَداً

  • وَمَا تَدْرِى نَفْسٌ بِأَىِّ أَرْضٍ تَمُوتُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَيمٌ خَبِيرٌ

  • Verily, Allah! With Him (Alone) is the knowledge of the Hour,

  • He sends down the rain,

  • and knows that which is in the wombs.

  • No person knows what he will earn tomorrow,

  • and no person knows in what land he will die.

Verily, Allah is All-Knower, All-Aware.'' (31:34)

Allah's statement,

... وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ ...

And He knows whatever there is on the land and in the sea;

means, Allah's honored knowledge encompasses everything, including the creatures living in the sea and on land, and none of it, not even the weight of an atom on earth or in heaven, ever escapes His knowledge.

Allah's statement,

... وَمَا تَسْقُطُ مِن وَرَقَةٍ إِلاَّ يَعْلَمُهَا ...

not a leaf falls, but He knows it.

means, He knows the movements of everything including inanimate things. Therefore, what about His knowledge of the living creatures, especially, those whom the Divine laws have been imposed upon such as mankind and the Jinns.

In another Ayah, Allah said;

يَعْلَمُ خَآئِنَةَ الاٌّعْيُنِ وَمَا تُخْفِى الصُّدُورُ

Allah knows the fraud of the eyes, and all that the breasts conceal. (40:19)

... وَلاَ حَبَّةٍ فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الأَرْضِ وَلاَ رَطْبٍ وَلاَ يَابِسٍ إِلاَّ فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ ﴿٥٩﴾

There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record.

 

 

Previous 55-59

وَهُوَ الَّذِى يَتَوَفَّـكُم بِالَّيْلِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا جَرَحْتُم بِالنَّهَارِ ثُمَّ يَبْعَثُكُمْ فِيهِ لِيُقْضَى أَجَلٌ مّسَمًّى ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ مَرْجِعُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

6:60 It is He, Who takes your souls by night (when you are asleep), and has knowledge of all that you have done by day, then he raises (wakes) you up again, that a term appointed be fulfilled, then (in the end), unto Him will be your return. Then He will inform you of what you used to do.

 وَهُوَ الْقَاهِرُ فَوْقَ عِبَادِهِ وَيُرْسِلُ عَلَيْكُم حَفَظَةً حَتَّى إِذَا جَآءَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ تَوَفَّتْهُ رُسُلُنَا وَهُمْ لاَ يُفَرِّطُونَ

6:61 He is the Qahir over His servants, and He sends guardians over you, until when death approaches one of you, Our messengers take his soul, and they never neglect their duty.

ثُمَّ رُدُّواْ إِلَى اللَّهِ مَوْلَـهُمُ الْحَقِّ أَلاَ لَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَهُوَ أَسْرَعُ الْحَـسِبِينَ

6:62 Then they are returned to Allah, their Master, the Just Lord. Surely, His is the judgment and He is the swiftest in taking account.

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 The Servants are in Allah's Hands Before and After Death

Allah states that He brings death to His servants in their sleep at night, for sleep is minor death. Allah said in other Ayat,

إِذْ قَالَ اللَّهُ يعِيسَى إِنِّي مُتَوَفِّيكَ وَرَافِعُكَ إِلَىَّ

And (remember) when Allah said: "O `Isa! I will take you and raise you to Myself...'' (3:55)

and,

اللَّهُ يَتَوَفَّى الاٌّنفُسَ حِينَ مِوْتِـهَا وَالَّتِى لَمْ تَمُتْ فِى مَنَامِـهَا فَيُمْسِكُ الَّتِى قَضَى عَلَيْهَا الْمَوْتَ وَيُرْسِلُ الاٍّخْرَى إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى

It is Allah Who takes away the souls at the time of their death, and those that die not during their sleep. He keeps those (souls) for which He has ordained death and sends the rest for a term appointed. (39:42)

thus mentioning both minor and major death.

Allah says,

وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَتَوَفَّاكُم بِاللَّيْلِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا جَرَحْتُم بِالنَّهَارِ...

It is He, Who takes your souls by night (when you are asleep), and has knowledge of all that you have done by day,

meaning, He knows the deeds and actions that you perform during the day.

This Ayah demonstrates Allah's perfect knowledge of His creation, by day and night, and in their movements and idleness.

Allah said in other Ayat,

سَوَآءٌ مِّنْكُمْ مَّنْ أَسَرَّ الْقَوْلَ وَمَنْ جَهَرَ بِهِ وَمَنْ هُوَ مُسْتَخْفٍ بِالَّيْلِ وَسَارِبٌ بِالنَّهَارِ

It is the same (to Him) whether any of you conceal his speech or declare it openly, whether he be hid by night or go forth freely by day. (13:10)

and,

وَمِن رَّحْمَتِهِ جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ لِتَسْكُنُواْ فِيهِ وَلِتَبْتَغُواْ مِن فَضْلِهِ

It is out of His mercy that He made night and day, so that you may rest therein, (by night), and that you may seek of His bounty (by day). 28:73)

Allah said,

وَجَعَلْنَا الَّيْلَ لِبَاساً

وَجَعَلْنَا النَّهَارَ مَعَاشاً

And (We) have made the night as a covering. And (We) have made the day for livelihood. (78:10-11)

Allah said here,

وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَتَوَفَّاكُم بِاللَّيْلِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا جَرَحْتُم بِالنَّهَارِ...

It is He, Who takes your souls by night (when you are asleep), and has knowledge of all that you have done by day, (6:60)

Then said,

... ثُمَّ يَبْعَثُكُمْ فِيهِ ...

then he raises (wakes) you up again,

According to Mujahid, Qatadah and As-Suddi,

by day.

Allah's statement,

... لِيُقْضَى أَجَلٌ مُّسَمًّى ...

that a term appointed be fulfilled.

refers to the life span of every person,

... ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ مَرْجِعُكُمْ ...

then (in the end), unto Him will be your return.

on the Day of Resurrection.

... ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ ﴿٦٠﴾

Then He will inform you of what you used to do.

He will reward you, good for good, and evil for evil.

Allah's statement,

وَهُوَ الْقَاهِرُ فَوْقَ عِبَادِهِ ...

He is the Qahir over His servants.

The Qahir means, the one who controls everything, all are subservient to His supreme grace, greatness and majesty,

... وَيُرْسِلُ عَلَيْكُم حَفَظَةً ...

and He sends guardians over you,

angels who guard mankind.

In another Ayah, Allah said;

لَهُ مُعَقِّبَـتٌ مِّن بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِ يَحْفَظُونَهُ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ

For each (person), there are angels in succession, before and behind him. They guard him by the command of Allah. (13:11),

watching his deeds and recording them.

Allah said,

وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ لَحَـفِظِينَ 

But verily, over you (are appointed angels in charge of mankind) to watch you. (82:10)

and,

إِذْ يَتَلَقَّى الْمُتَلَقِّيَانِ عَنِ الْيَمِينِ وَعَنِ الشِّمَالِ قَعِيدٌ

مَّا يَلْفِظُ مِن قَوْلٍ إِلاَّ لَدَيْهِ رَقِيبٌ عَتِيدٌ

(Remember!) that the two receivers (recording angels) receive, one sitting on the right and one on the left. Not a word does he utter, but there is a watcher by him, ready. (50:17-18)

Allah's statement,

... حَتَّىَ إِذَا جَاء أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ ...

until when death approaches one of you...

refers to, when one's life span comes to an end and he is dying,

... تَوَفَّتْهُ رُسُلُنَا ...

Our messengers take his soul...

meaning, there are angels who are responsible for this job.

Ibn Abbas and several others said that;

the Angel of Death has angels who pull the soul from its body and when it reaches the throat, the Angel of Death captures it.

Allah said;

... وَهُمْ لاَ يُفَرِّطُونَ ﴿٦١﴾

and they never neglect their duty.

They guard the soul of the dead person and take it to wherever Allah wills, to Illiyyin if he was among the righteous, and to Sijjin if he was among the wicked (disbelievers, sinners, etc.), we seek refuge with Allah from this end.

Allah said next,

ثُمَّ رُدُّواْ إِلَى اللّهِ مَوْلاَهُمُ الْحَقِّ ...

Then they are returned to Allah, their Master, the Just Lord.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,

إِنَّ الْمَيِّتَ تَحْضُرُهُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ فَإِذَا كَانَ الرَّجُلُ الصَّالِحُ، قَالُوا: اخْرُجِي أَيَّتُهَا النَّفْسُ الطَّيِّبَةُ كَانَتْ فِي الْجَسَدِ الطَّيِّبِ،اخْرُجِي حَمِيدَةً، وَأَبْشِرِي بِرَوْحٍ وَرَيْحَانٍ، وَرَبَ غَيْرِ غَضْبَانَ،

The angels attend the dying person. If he is a righteous person, the angels will say, `O pure soul from a pure body! Come out with honor and receive the good news of rest, satisfaction and a Lord Who is not angry.'

فَلَا تَزَالُ يُقَالُ لَهَا ذَلِكَ حَتَّى تَخْرُجَ، ثُمَّ يُعْرَجَ بِهَا إِلَى السَّمَاءِ، فَيَسْتَفْتَحُ لَهَا فَيُقَالُ مَنْ هَذَا ؟

The angels will keep saying this until the soul leaves its body, and they will then raise it up to heaven and will ask that the door be opened for the soul and it will be asked, `Who is this?'

فَيُقَالُ: فُلَانٌ،

It will be said, `(The soul of) so-and-so.'

فَيُقَالَ: مَرْحبًا بِالنَّفْسِ الطَّيِّبَةِ، كَانَتْ فِي الْجَسَدِ الطَّيِّبِ، ادْخُلي حَمِيدَةً وَأَبْشِرِي بِرَوْحٍ وَرَيْحَانٍ وَرَبَ غَيْرِ غَضْبَانَ،

It will be said, `Welcome, to the pure soul that inhabited the pure body. Enter with honor and receive the good news of rest, satisfaction and a Lord Who is not angry.'

فَلَا تَزَالُ يُقَالُ لَهَا ذَلِكَ حَتَّى يُنْتَهَى بِهَا إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الَّتِي فِيهَا اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ،

This statement will be repeated until the soul reaches the heaven above which there is Allah.

وَإِذَا كَانَ الرَّجُلُ السَّوْءُ، قَالُوا: اخْرُجِي أَيَّتُهَا النَّفْسُ الْخَبِيثَةُ كَانَتْ فِي الْجَسَدِ الْخَبِيثِ، اخْرُجِي ذَمِيمَةً وَأَبْشِري بِحَمِيمٍ وَغَسَّاقٍ، وَآخَرَ مِنْ شَكْلِهِ أَزْوَاج، فَلَا تَزَالُ يُقَالُ لَهَا ذَلِكَ حَتَّى تَخْرُجَ،

If the dying person is evil, the angels will say, `Get out (of your body), O wicked soul from a wicked body! Get out in disgrace and receive the news of boiling fluid, a fluid dark, murky, intensely cold and other (torments) of similar kind - all together - to match them.' This statement will be said repeatedly until the evil soul leaves its body.

ثُمَّ يُعْرَجَ بِهَا إِلَى السَّمَاءِ، فَيُسْتَفْتَحُ لَهًا فَيُقَالُ: مَنْ هَذَا؟

The soul will be raised up to heaven and a request will be made that the door be opened for it. It will be asked, `Who is this?'

فَيُقَالُ: فُلَانٌ،

It will be said, `(The soul of) so and so.'

فَيُقَالُ: لَا مَرْحَبًا بِالنَّفْسِ الْخَبِيثَةِ كَانَتْ فِي الْجَسَدِ الْخَبِيثِ، ارْجِعِي ذَمِيمَةً، فَإِنَّهُ لَا يُفْتَحُ لَكَ أَبْوَابُ السَّمَاءِ، فَتُرْسَلُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ ثُمَّ تَصِيرُ إِلَى الْقَبْرِ،

It will be said, `No welcome to the wicked soul from the wicked body. Return with disgrace, for the doors of heaven will not be opened for you.' So it will be thrown from heaven until it returns to the grave.

فَيُجْلَسُ الرَّجُلُ الصَّالِحُ، فَيُقَالُ لَهُ مِثْلُ مَا قِيلَ فِي الْحَدِيثِ الأَوَّلِ، وَيُجْلَسُ الرَّجُلُ السَّوْءُ فَيُقَالُ لَهُ مِثْلُ مَا قِيلَ فِي الْحَدِيثِ الثَّانِي

So the righteous person sits and similar is said to him as before. And the evil person sits and similar is said to him as before.

It is also possible that the meaning of, ثُمَّ رُدُّوا (Then they are returned...),

refers to the return of all creation to Allah on the Day of Resurrection, when He will subject them to His just decision.

Allah said in other Ayat,

قُلْ إِنَّ الاٌّوَّلِينَ وَالاٌّخِرِينَ

لَمَجْمُوعُونَ إِلَى مِيقَـتِ يَوْمٍ مَّعْلُومٍ 

Say: "(Yes) verily, those of old, and those of later times. All will surely be gathered together for an appointed meeting of a known Day.'' (56:49-50)

and,

وَحَشَرْنَاهُمْ فَلَمْ نُغَادِرْ مِنْهُمْ أَحَدًا (And We shall gather them all together so as to leave not one of them behind... until, وَلَا يَظْلِمُ رَبُّكَ أَحَدًا (And your Lord treats no one with injustice). (18:47-49)

Allah said here,

...مَوْلاَهُمُ الْحَقِّ أَلاَ لَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَهُوَ أَسْرَعُ الْحَاسِبِينَ ﴿٦٢﴾

their Master, the Just Lord. Surely, His is the judgment and He is the swiftest in taking account.

 

 

Previous 60-62

قُلْ مَن يُنَجِّيكُمْ مِّن ظُلُمَـتِ الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ تَدْعُونَهُ تَضَرُّعاً وَخُفْيَةً لَّئِنْ أَنجَـنَا مِنْ هَـذِهِ لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الشَّـكِرِينَ

6:63 Say: "Who rescues you from the dark recesses of the land and the sea, when you call upon Him begging and in secret (saying): `If He (Allah) only saves us from these (dangers), we shall truly be grateful.''

قُلِ اللَّهُ يُنَجِّيكُمْ مِّنْهَا وَمِن كُلِّ كَرْبٍ ثُمَّ أَنتُمْ تُشْرِكُونَ

6:64 Say: "Allah rescues you from these (dangers) and from all distress, and yet you commit Shirk.''

قُلْ هُوَ الْقَادِرُ عَلَى أَن يَبْعَثَ عَلَيْكُمْ عَذَاباً مِّن فَوْقِكُمْ أَوْ مِن تَحْتِ أَرْجُلِكُمْ أَوْ يَلْبِسَكُمْ شِيَعاً وَيُذِيقَ بَعْضَكُمْ بَأْسَ بَعْضٍ

6:65 Say: "He has the power to send torment on you from above or from under your feet, or to Yalbisakum in party strife, and make you taste the violence of one another.''

انْظُرْ كَيْفَ نُصَرِّفُ الاٌّيَـتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَفْقَهُونَ

See how variously We explain the Ayat, so that they may understand.

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Next 66-69   

 

 Allah's Compassion and Generosity, and His Power and Torment

Allah mentions how He favors His servants, saving them during times of need, in the darkness of land and at sea, such as when storms strike. In such cases, they call on Allah alone, without partners, in supplication. In other Ayat, Allah said,

وَإِذَا مَسَّكُمُ الْضُّرُّ فِى الْبَحْرِ ضَلَّ مَن تَدْعُونَ إِلاَ إِيَّاهُ

And when harm strikes you at sea, those that you call upon besides Him vanish from you except Him. (17:67)

هُوَ الَّذِى يُسَيِّرُكُمْ فِى الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ حَتَّى إِذَا كُنتُمْ فِى الْفُلْكِ وَجَرَيْنَ بِهِم بِرِيحٍ طَيِّبَةٍ وَفَرِحُواْ بِهَا جَآءَتْهَا رِيحٌ عَاصِفٌ وَجَآءَهُمُ الْمَوْجُ مِن كُلِّ مَكَانٍ وَظَنُّواْ أَنَّهُمْ أُحِيطَ بِهِمْ دَعَوُاْ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ لَئِنْ أَنْجَيْتَنَا مِنْ هَـذِهِ لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الشَّـكِرِينَ

He it is Who enables you to travel through the land and the sea, till when you are in the ships and they sail with them with a favorable wind, and they rejoice, then comes a stormy wind and the waves come to them from all sides, and they think that they are encircled therein, they invoke Allah, making their faith pure for Him alone, saying: "If You deliver us from this, we shall truly be of the grateful''. (10:22)

and,

أَمَّن يَهْدِيكُمْ فِى ظُلُمَـتِ الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَمَن يُرْسِلُ الرِّيَاحَ بُشْرًاَ بَيْنَ يَدَىْ رَحْمَتِهِ أَءِلَـهٌ مَّعَ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى اللَّهُ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ

Is not He (better than your gods) Who guides you in the darkness of the land and the sea, and Who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, going before His mercy Is there any god with Allah High Exalted be Allah above all that they associate as partners (with Him)! (27:63)

Allah said in this honorable Ayah,

قُلْ مَن يُنَجِّيكُم مِّن ظُلُمَاتِ الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ تَدْعُونَهُ تَضَرُّعاً وَخُفْيَةً ...   

Say: "Who rescues you from the dark recesses of the land and the sea, when you call upon Him begging and in secret.''

i.e., in public and secret,

... لَّئِنْ أَنجَانَا ...

(Saying): `If He (Allah) only saves us...

... مِنْ هَـذِهِ ...

from these (dangers),

from this distress,

... لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الشَّاكِرِينَ ﴿٦٣﴾

we shall truly be grateful.

thereafter.

Allah said,

قُلِ اللّهُ يُنَجِّيكُم مِّنْهَا وَمِن كُلِّ كَرْبٍ ثُمَّ أَنتُمْ تُشْرِكُونَ ﴿٦٤

Say: "Allah rescues you from these (dangers) and from all distress, and yet you commit Shirk.''

meaning, yet you call other gods besides Him in times of comfort.

Allah said;

قُلْ هُوَ الْقَادِرُ عَلَى أَن يَبْعَثَ عَلَيْكُمْ عَذَابًا مِّن فَوْقِكُمْ أَوْ مِن تَحْتِ أَرْجُلِكُمْ ...

Say: "He has the power to send torment on you from above or from under your feet,''

He said this after His statement, ثُمَّ أَنتُمْ تُشْرِكُونَ  (And yet you commit Shirk). Allah said next, قُلْ هُوَ الْقَادِرُ عَلَى أَن يَبْعَثَ عَلَيْكُمْ عَذَابًا (Say: "He has the power to send torment on you..''), after He saves you.

Allah said in Surah Isra',

رَّبُّكُمُ الَّذِى يُزْجِى لَكُمُ الْفُلْكَ فِى الْبَحْرِ لِتَبْتَغُواْ مِن فَضْلِهِ إِنَّهُ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا

وَإِذَا مَسَّكُمُ الْضُّرُّ فِى الْبَحْرِ ضَلَّ مَن تَدْعُونَ إِلاَ إِيَّاهُ فَلَمَّا نَجَّـكُمْ إِلَى الْبَرِّ أَعْرَضْتُمْ وَكَانَ الإِنْسَـنُ كَفُورًا

أَفَأَمِنتُمْ أَن يَخْسِفَ بِكُمْ جَانِبَ الْبَرِّ أَوْ يُرْسِلَ عَلَيْكُمْ حَاصِبًا ثُمَّ لاَ تَجِدُواْ لَكُمْ وَكِيلاً

أَمْ أَمِنتُمْ أَن يُعِيدَكُمْ فِيهِ تَارَةً أُخْرَى فَيُرْسِلَ عَلَيْكُمْ قَاصِفًا مِّنَ الرِّيحِ فَيُغْرِقَكُم بِمَا كَفَرْتُمْ ثُمَّ لاَ تَجِدُواْ لَكُمْ عَلَيْنَا بِهِ تَبِيعًا

Your Lord is He Who drives the ship for you through the sea, in order that you may seek of His bounty. Truly! He is Ever Merciful towards you. And when harm strikes you upon the sea, those that you call upon besides Him vanish from you except Him. But when He brings you safely to land, you turn away (from Him). And man is ever ungrateful. Do you then feel secure that He will not cause a side of the land to swallow you up, or that He will not send against you a storm of stones! Then, you shall find no guardian. Or do you feel secure that He will not send you back a second time to sea, and send against you a hurricane of wind and drown you because of your disbelief, then you will not find any avenger therein against Us. (17:66-69)

Al-Bukhari, may Allah grant him His mercy, commented on Allah's statement,

قُلْ هُوَ الْقَادِرُ ...أَوْ يَلْبِسَكُمْ شِيَعاً وَيُذِيقَ بَعْضَكُم بَأْسَ بَعْضٍ ...

Say: "He has the power to send torment on you from above or from under your feet, or to Yalbisakum in party strife, and make you taste the violence of one another.''

"Yalbisakum means, `cover you with confusion', So it means to, `divide into parties and sects'.

Jabir bin Abdullah said,

`When this Ayah was revealed, قُلْ هُوَ الْقَادِرُ عَلَى أَن يَبْعَثَ عَلَيْكُمْ عَذَابًا مِّن فَوْقِكُمْ (Say: "He has power to send torment on you from above''), Allah's Messenger said, أَعُوذُ بِوَجْهِك  (I seek refuge with Your Face), أَوْ مِن تَحْتِ أَرْجُلِكُمْ (or from under your feet),

he again said,  أَعُوذُ بِوَجْهِك  (I seek refuge with Your Face), أَوْ يَلْبِسَكُمْ شِيَعاً وَيُذِيقَ بَعْضَكُم بَأْسَ بَعْضٍ  (or to cover you with confusion in party strife, and make you to taste the violence of one another).

he said,

هَذهِ أَهْوَنُ أَوْ أَيْسَر

This is less burdensome or easier.'''

Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith again in the book of Tawhid (in his Sahih), and An-Nasa'i also recorded it in the book of Tafsir.

Another Hadith

Imam Ahmad recorded that;

Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas said, We accompanied the Messenger of Allah and passed by the Masjid of Bani Mu`awiyah. The Prophet went in and offered a two Rak`ah prayer, and we prayed behind him. He supplicated to his Lord for a long time and then said,

سَأَلْتُ رَبِّي ثَلَاثًا:

  • سَأَلْتُهُ أَنْ لَا يُهْلِكَ أُمَّتِي بِالْغَرَقِ فَأَعْطَانِيهَا،

  • وَسَأَلْتُهُ أَنْ لَا يُهْلِكَ أُمَّتِي بِالسَّنَةِ فَأَعْطَانِيهَا،

  • وَسَأَلْتُهُ أَنْ لَا يَجْعَلَ بَأْسَهُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ فَمَنَعَنِيهَا

I asked my Lord for three:

  • I asked Him not to destroy my Ummah (Muslims) by drowning and He gave that to me.

  • I asked Him not to destroy my Ummah by famine and He gave that to me.

  • And I asked Him not to make them taste the violence of one another, but He did not give that to me.

Muslim, but not Al-Bukhari, recorded this Hadith in the book on Fitan (trials) (of his Sahih).

Another Hadith

Imam Ahmad recorded that;

Khabbab bin Al-Aratt, who attended the battle of Badr with the Messenger of Allah, said, "I met Allah's Messenger during a night in which he prayed throughout it, until dawn. When the Messenger of Allah ended his prayer, I said, `O Allah's Messenger! This night, you have performed a prayer that I never saw you perform before.'

Allah's Messenger said,

أَجَلْ إِنَّهَا صَلَاةُ رَغَبٍ وَرَهَبٍ، سَأَلْتُ رَبِّي عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِيهَا ثَلَاثَ خِصَالٍ، فَأَعْطَانِي اثْنَتَيْنِ وَمَنَعَنِي وَاحِدَةً،

Yes, it was a prayer of eagerness and fear. During this prayer, I asked my Lord for three things and He gave me two and refused to give me the third.

  • سَأَلْتُ رَبِّي عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَنْ لَا يُهْلِكْنَا بِمَا أَهْلَكَ بِهِ الْأُمَمَ قَبْلَنَا فَأَعْطَانِيهَا،

  • وَسَأَلْتُ رَبِّي عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَنْ لَا يُظْهِرَ عَلَيْنَا عَدُوًّا مِنْ غَيْرِنَا فَأَعْطَانِيهَا،

  • وَسَأَلْتُ رَبِّي عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَنْ لَا يُلْبِسَنَا شِيَعًا فَمَنَعَنِيهَا

  • I asked my Lord not to destroy us with what He destroyed the nations before us and He gave me that.

  • I asked my Lord not to make our enemies prevail above us and He gave me that.

  • I asked my Lord not to cover us with confusion in party strife, but He refused.

An-Nasa'i, Ibn Hibban in his Sahih, and At-Tirmidhi also recorded it. In the book on Fitan, in Al-Jami`, At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih''.

Allah's statement,

... أَوْ يَلْبِسَكُمْ شِيَعاً ...

or to cover you with confusion in party strife, 

means, He causes you to be in disarray and separate into opposing parties and groups.

Al-Walibi (Ali bin Abi Talhah) reported that Ibn Abbas said that;

this Ayah refers to desires.

Mujahid and several others said similarly.

A Hadith from the Prophet, collected from various chains of narration, states,

وَسَتَفْتَرِقُ هَذِهِ الأُمَّةُ عَلَى ثَلَاثٍ وَسَبْعِينَ فِرْقَةً، كُلُّهَا فِي النَّارِ إِلَّا وَاحِدَة

And this Ummah (Muslims) will divide into seventy - three groups, all of them in the Fire except one.

Allah said;

... وَيُذِيقَ بَعْضَكُم بَأْسَ بَعْضٍ ...

and make you taste the violence of one another.

According to Ibn Abbas and others,

meaning, some of you will experience torture and murder from one another.

Allah said next,

... انظُرْ كَيْفَ نُصَرِّفُ الآيَاتِ ...

See how variously We explain the Ayat,

by making them clear, plain and duly explained,

... لَعَلَّهُمْ يَفْقَهُونَ ﴿٦٥﴾

So that they may understand.

and comprehend Allah's Ayat, proofs and evidences.

 

 

Previous 63-65

وَكَذَّبَ بِهِ قَوْمُكَ وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ

6:66 But your people have denied it (the Qur'an) though it is the truth.

قُل لَّسْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ بِوَكِيلٍ

Say: "I am not responsible for your affairs.''

لِّكُلِّ نَبَإٍ مُّسْتَقَرٌّ وَسَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ

6:67 For every news there is a reality and you will come to know.

وَإِذَا رَأَيْتَ الَّذِينَ يَخُوضُونَ فِى ءَايَـتِنَا فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ حَتَّى يَخُوضُواْ فِى حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ

6:68 And when you see those who engage in false conversation about Our verses (of the Qur'an) by mocking at them, stay away from them till they turn to another topic.

وَإِمَّا يُنسِيَنَّكَ الشَّيْطَـنُ فَلاَ تَقْعُدْ بَعْدَ الذِّكْرَى مَعَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّـلِمِينَ

And if Shaytan causes you to forget, then after the remembrance, sit not you in the company of those people who are the wrongdoers.

وَمَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ مِنْ حِسَابِهِم مِّن شَىْءٍ وَلَـكِن ذِكْرَى لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ 

6:69 There is no responsibility for them upon those who have Taqwa, but (their duty) is to remind them, that they may (attain) Taqwa.

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 The Invitation to the Truth is Guidance Without Coercion

Allah said,

وَكَذَّبَ بِهِ ...   

But have denied it,

denied the Qur'an, guidance and clear explanation that you (O Muhammad) have brought them,

... قَوْمُكَ ...

your people,

meaning, Quraysh,

... وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ ...

though it is the truth.

beyond which there is no other truth.

... قُل لَّسْتُ عَلَيْكُم بِوَكِيلٍ ﴿٦٦﴾

Say: "I am not responsible for your affairs.''

meaning, I have not been appointed a guardian or watcher over you.

Allah also said;

وَقُلِ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ فَمَن شَآءَ فَلْيُؤْمِن وَمَن شَآءَ فَلْيَكْفُرْ

And say: "The truth is from your Lord.'' Then whosoever wills, let him believe, and whosoever wills, let him disbelieve. (18:29)

This means, my duty is to convey the Message and your duty is to hear and obey. Those who follow me, will acquire happiness in this life and the Hereafter. Those who defy me will become miserable in this life and the Hereafter.

So Allah said;

لِّكُلِّ نَبَإٍ مُّسْتَقَرٌّ ...

For every news there is a reality...,

According to Ibn Abbas and others,

meaning, for every news, there is a reality, in that, this news will occur, perhaps after a while.

Allah said in other Ayat,

وَلَتَعْلَمُنَّ نَبَأَهُ بَعْدَ حِينِ

And you shall certainly know the truth of it after a while. (38:88)

and,

لِكُلِّ أَجَلٍ كِتَابٌ

(For) each and every matter there is a decree (from Allah). (13:38)

This, indeed, is a warning and a promise that will surely occur,

... وَسَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿٦٧﴾

and you will come to know.

Allah's statement,

وَإِذَا رَأَيْتَ الَّذِينَ يَخُوضُونَ فِي آيَاتِنَا ...

And when you see those who engage in false conversation about Our verses (of the Qur'an),

by denying and mocking them.

 The Prohibition of Sitting with Those Who Deny and Mock Allah's Ayat

Allah said,

... فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ حَتَّى يَخُوضُواْ فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ ...

stay away from them till they turn to another topic.

until they talk about a subject other than the denial they were engaged in.

... وَإِمَّا يُنسِيَنَّكَ الشَّيْطَانُ ...

And if Shaytan causes you to forget...,

This command includes every member of this Ummah. No one is to sit with those who deny and distort Allah's Ayat and explain them incorrectly.

If one forgets and sits with such people,

... فَلاَ تَقْعُدْ بَعْدَ الذِّكْرَى ...

then after the remembrance sit not you,

after you remember,

... مَعَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ ﴿٦٨﴾

in the company of those people who are the wrongdoers.

A Hadith states,

رُفِعَ عَنْ أُمَّتِي الْخَطَأُ وَالنِّسْيَانُ وَمَا اسْتُكْرِهُوا عَلَيْه

My Ummah was forgiven unintentional errors, forgetfulness and what they are coerced to do.

The Ayah above (6:68) is the Ayah mentioned in Allah's statement,

وَقَدْ نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِى الْكِتَـبِ أَنْ إِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ ءَايَـتِ اللَّهِ يُكَفَرُ بِهَا وَيُسْتَهْزَأُ بِهَا فَلاَ تَقْعُدُواْ مَعَهُمْ حَتَّى يَخُوضُواْ فِى حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ إِنَّكُمْ إِذاً مِّثْلُهُمْ

And it has already been revealed to you in the Book that when you hear the Verses of Allah being denied and mocked at, then sit not with them, until they engage in a talk other than that; (but if you stayed with them) certainly in that case you would be like them. (4:140),

for, if you still sit with them, agreeing to what they say, you will be just like them.

Allah's statement,

وَمَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ مِنْ حِسَابِهِم مِّن شَيْءٍ ...

There is no responsibility for them upon those who have Taqwa,

means, when the believers avoid sitting with wrongdoers in this case, they will be innocent of them and they will have saved themselves from their sin.

Allah's statement,

... وَلَـكِن ذِكْرَى لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ ﴿٦٩﴾

but (their duty) is to remind them, that they may avoid that.

means, We commanded you to ignore and avoid them, so that they become aware of the error they are indulging in, that they may avoid this behavior and never repeat it again.

 

 

Previous 66-69

وَذَرِ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُواْ دِينَهُمْ لَعِباً وَلَهْواً وَغَرَّتْهُمُ الْحَيَوةُ الدُّنْيَا

6:70 And leave alone those who take their religion as play and amusement, and are deceived by the life of this world.

وَذَكِّرْ بِهِ أَن تُبْسَلَ نَفْسٌ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ لَيْسَ لَهَا مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلِىٌّ وَلاَ شَفِيعٌ وَإِن تَعْدِلْ كُلَّ عَدْلٍ لاَّ يُؤْخَذْ مِنْهَآ

But remind (them) with it (the Qur'an) lest a soul Tubsal for that which one has earned, when he will find for himself no protector or intercessor besides Allah, and even if he offers every ransom, it will not be accepted from him.

أُوْلَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ أُبْسِلُواْ بِمَا كَسَبُواْ

Such are they who are given up to destruction because of that which they have earned.

لَهُمْ شَرَابٌ مِّنْ حَمِيمٍ وَعَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَكْفُرُونَ 

For them will be a drink of boiling water and a painful torment because they used to disbelieve.

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Next 71-73   

 

Allah said,

وَذَرِ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُواْ دِينَهُمْ لَعِبًا وَلَهْوًا وَغَرَّتْهُمُ الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا ...

And leave alone those who take their religion as play and amusement, and are deceived by the life of this world.

The Ayah commands to leave such people, ignore them and give them respite, for soon, they will taste a tremendous torment.

This is why Allah said,

... وَذَكِّرْ بِهِ ...

But remind with it,

meaning, remind the people with this Qur'an and warn them against Allah's revenge and painful torment on the Day of Resurrection.

Allah said;

... أَن تُبْسَلَ نَفْسٌ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ ...

lest a soul Tubsal for that which one has earned,

meaning, so that it is not Tubsal.

Ad-Dahhak from Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan and As-Suddi said that;

Tubsal means, be submissive.

Al-Walibi said that Ibn Abbas said that;

Tubsal means, `be exposed'.

Qatadah said that;

Tubsal means, `be prevented'.

Murrah and Ibn Zayd said that;

it means, `be recompensed'.

Al-Kalbi said,

`be reckoned'.

All these statements and expressions are similar, for they all mean exposure to destruction, being kept away from all that is good, and being restrained from attaining what is desired.

Allah also said;

كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ رَهِينَةٌ

إِلاَّ أَصْحَـبَ الْيَمِينِ

Every person is restrained by what he has earned. Except those on the Right. (74:38-39)

and,

... لَيْسَ لَهَا مِن دُونِ اللّهِ وَلِيٌّ وَلاَ شَفِيعٌ ...

when he will find for himself no protector or intercessor besides Allah.

and,

... وَإِن تَعْدِلْ كُلَّ عَدْلٍ لاَّ يُؤْخَذْ مِنْهَا ...

and even if he offers every ransom, it will not be accepted from him.

meaning, whatever the ransom such people offer, it will not be accepted from them.

Allah said in a similar statement,

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَمَاتُواْ وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ فَلَن يُقْبَلَ مِنْ أَحَدِهِم مِّلْءُ الاٌّرْضِ ذَهَبًا

Verily, those who disbelieved, and died while they were disbelievers, the (whole) earth full of gold will not be accepted from anyone of them. (3:91)

Allah said here,

... أُوْلَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ أُبْسِلُواْ بِمَا كَسَبُواْ لَهُمْ شَرَابٌ مِّنْ حَمِيمٍ وَعَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَكْفُرُونَ ﴿٧٠﴾

Such are they who are given up to destruction because of that which they have earned. For them will be a drink of boiling water and a painful torment because they used to disbelieve.

 

 

Previous 70

قُلْ أَنَدْعُواْ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لاَ يَنفَعُنَا وَلاَ يَضُرُّنَا وَنُرَدُّ عَلَى أَعْقَـبِنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَانَا اللَّهُ كَالَّذِى اسْتَهْوَتْهُ الشَّيَـطِينُ فِى الاٌّرْضِ حَيْرَانَ لَهُ أَصْحَـبٌ يَدْعُونَهُ إِلَى الْهُدَى ائْتِنَا

6:71 Say: "Shall we invoke others besides Allah (false deities), that can do us neither good nor harm, and shall we turn on our heels after Allah has guided us -- Like one whom the Shayatin (devils) have made to go astray, confused (wandering) through the land, his companions calling him to guidance (saying): `Come to us.'''

قُلْ إِنَّ هُدَى اللَّهِ هُوَ الْهُدَى وَأُمِرْنَا لِنُسْلِمَ لِرَبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ

Say: "Verily, Allah's guidance is the only guidance, and we have been commanded to submit (ourselves) to the Lord of all that exists.

وَأَنْ أَقِيمُواْ الصَّلوةَ وَاتَّقُوهُ وَهُوَ الَّذِى إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ

6:72 And to perform the Salah, and have Taqwa of Him, and it is He to Whom you shall be gathered.

وَهُوَ الَّذِى خَلَقَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ بِالْحَقِّ وَيَوْمَ يَقُولُ كُن فَيَكُونُ

6:73 It is He Who has created the heavens and the earth in truth, and on the Day He will say: "Be!'' it shall become.

قَوْلُهُ الْحَقُّ

His Word is the truth.

وَلَهُ الْمُلْكُ يَوْمَ يُنفَخُ فِى الصُّوَرِ عَـلِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَـدَةِ وَهُوَ الْحَكِيمُ الْخَبِيرُ 

His will be the dominion on the Day when the Sur will be blown. All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. He is the All-Wise, Well-Aware.

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 The Parable of Those Who Revert to Disbelief After Faith and Good Deeds

As-Suddi said,

"Some idolators said to some Muslims, `Follow us and abandon the religion of Muhammad.' Allah sent down the revelation,

قُلْ أَنَدْعُو مِن دُونِ اللّهِ مَا لاَ يَنفَعُنَا وَلاَ يَضُرُّنَا وَنُرَدُّ عَلَى أَعْقَابِنَا ...  

Say: "Shall we invoke others besides Allah, that can do us neither good nor harm, and shall we turn on our heels...''

by reverting to disbelief,

... بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَانَا اللّهُ ...

"...after Allah has guided us.''

for if we do this, our example will be like he whom the devils have caused to wander in confusion throughout the land.

Allah says here, your example, if you revert to disbelief after you believed, is that of a man who went with some people on a road, but he lost his way and the devils led him to wander in confusion over the land. Meanwhile, his companions on the road were calling him to come to them saying, `Come back to us, for we are on the path.' But, he refused to go back to them. This is the example of he who follows the devil after recognizing Muhammad, and Muhammad is the person who is calling the people to the path, and the path is Islam.''

Ibn Jarir recorded this statement.

Allah's statement,

... كَالَّذِي اسْتَهْوَتْهُ الشَّيَاطِينُ فِي الأَرْضِ حَيْرَانَ ...

Like one whom the Shayatin (devils) have made to go astray confused (wandering) through the land, 

refers to ghouls,

...لَهُ أَصْحَابٌ يَدْعُونَهُ إِلَى الْهُدَى ائْتِنَا ...

his companions calling him to guidance (saying): `Come to us.'''

(calling him) by his name, his father's and his grandfather's names. So he follows the devils' call thinking that it is a path of guidance, but by the morning he will find himself destroyed and perhaps they eat him. The Jinns will then let him wander in a wasteland where he will die of thirst.

This is the example of those who follow the false gods that are being worshipped instead of Allah, Most Honored.

Ibn Jarir also recorded this.

Allah said,

... قُلْ إِنَّ هُدَى اللّهِ هُوَ الْهُدَىَ ...

Say: "Verily, Allah's guidance is the only guidance,''

Allah said in other instances,

وَمَن يَهْدِ اللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ مِن مُّضِلٍّ

And whomsoever Allah guides, for him there will be none to misguide him. (39:37)

and,

إِن تَحْرِصْ عَلَى هُدَاهُمْ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَهْدِى مَن يُضِلُّ وَمَا لَهُمْ مِّن نَّـصِرِينَ

If you covet for their guidance, then verily Allah guides not those whom He makes to go astray. And they will have no helpers. (17:37)

Allah's statement,

... وَأُمِرْنَا لِنُسْلِمَ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿٧١﴾

and we have been commanded to submit to the Lord of all that exists.

means, we were commanded to worship Allah in sincerity to Him alone, without partners.

وَأَنْ أَقِيمُواْ الصَّلاةَ وَاتَّقُوهُ ...

And to perform the Salah, and have Taqwa of Him.

meaning, we were commanded to perform the prayer and to fear Allah in all circumstances,

... وَهُوَ الَّذِيَ إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ ﴿٧٢﴾

and it is He to Whom you shall be gathered.

on the Day of Resurrection.

وَهُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ بِالْحَقِّ ...

It is He Who has created the heavens and the earth in truth.

meaning, in justice, and He is their Originator and Owner Who governs their affairs and the affairs of their inhabitants.

Allah said,

... وَيَوْمَ يَقُولُ كُن فَيَكُونُ ...

and on the Day He will say: "Be!'' it shall become.

Referring to the Day of Resurrection, which will come faster than the blink of an eye, when Allah says to it, `Be.'

... قَوْلُهُ الْحَقُّ ...

His Word is the truth.

 As-Sur; The Trumpet

Allah's statement,

... وَلَهُ الْمُلْكُ يَوْمَ يُنفَخُ فِي الصُّوَرِ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ وَهُوَ الْحَكِيمُ الْخَبِيرُ ﴿٧٣﴾

His will be the dominion on the Day when the Sur will be blown. All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. He is the All-Wise, Well-Aware.

يَوْمَ يُنفَخُ فِي الصُّوَرِ (on the Day when the Sur will be blown...),

refers to His statement, وَيَوْمَ يَقُولُ كُن فَيَكُونُ (and on the Day He will say: "Be!'' it shall become). as we stated above.

Or, it means, وَلَهُ الْمُلْكُ يَوْمَ يُنفَخُ فِي الصُّوَرِ (His will be the dominion on the Day when the Sur will be blown).

Allah said in other Ayat,

لِّمَنِ الْمُلْكُ الْيَوْمَ لِلَّهِ الْوَحِدِ الْقَهَّارِ

Whose is the kingdom this Day It is Allah's, the One, the Irresistible! (40:16)

and,

الْمُلْكُ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْحَقُّ لِلرَّحْمَـنِ وَكَانَ يَوْماً عَلَى الْكَـفِرِينَ عَسِيراً 

The sovereignty on that Day will be the true (sovereignty), belonging to the Most Beneficent (Allah), and it will be a hard Day for the disbelievers. (25:26)

The Sur is the Trumpet into which the angel Israfil, peace be upon him, will blow.

The Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ إِسْرَافِيلَ قَدِ الْتَقَمَ الصُّورَ، وَحَنَى جَبْهَتَهُ يَنْتَظِرُ مَتَى يُؤْمَر فَيَنْفُخ

Israfil has held the Sur in his mouth and lowered his forehead, awaiting the command to blow in it.

Muslim recorded this Hadith in his Sahih.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin `Amr said,

"A Bedouin man said, `O Allah's Messenger! What is the Sur?'

He said,

قَرْنٌ يُنْفَخُ فِيه

A Trumpet which will be blown.''

 

 

Previous 71-73

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَهِيمُ لاًّبِيهِ ءَازَرَ أَتَتَّخِذُ أَصْنَاماً ءَالِهَةً إِنِّى أَرَاكَ وَقَوْمَكَ فِى ضَلَـلٍ مُّبِينٍ

6:74 And (remember) when Ibrahim said to his father Azar: "Do you take idols as gods! Verily, I see you and your people in manifest error.''

وَكَذَلِكَ نُرِى إِبْرَهِيمَ مَلَكُوتَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَلِيَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُوقِنِينَ

6:75 Thus did we show Ibrahim the kingdom of the heavens and the earth that he be one of those who have faith with certainty.

فَلَمَّا جَنَّ عَلَيْهِ الَّيْلُ رَأَى كَوْكَباً قَالَ هَـذَا رَبِّى

6:76 When the night overcame him he saw a Kawkab. He said: "This is my lord.''

فَلَمَّآ أَفَلَ قَالَ لا أُحِبُّ الاٌّفِلِينَ

But when it Afala, he said: "I like not those that set.''

فَلَمَّآ رَأَى الْقَمَرَ بَازِغاً قَالَ هَـذَا رَبِّى

6:77 When he saw the moon rising up, he said: "This is my lord.''

فَلَمَّآ أَفَلَ قَالَ لَئِن لَّمْ يَهْدِنِى رَبِّى لاّكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الضَّآلِّينَ

But when it set, he said: "Unless my Lord guides me, I shall surely be among the misguided people.''

فَلَماَّ رَأَى الشَّمْسَ بَازِغَةً قَالَ هَـذَا رَبِّى هَـذَآ أَكْبَرُ

6:78 When he saw the sun rising up, he said: "This is my lord. This is greater.''

فَلَمَّآ أَفَلَتْ قَالَ يقَوْمِ إِنِّى بَرِىءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ

But when it Afalat, he said: "O my people! I am indeed free from all that you join as partners in worship with Allah.

إِنِّى وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِىَ لِلَّذِى فَطَرَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ حَنِيفاً وَمَآ أَنَاْ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ 

6:79 Verily, I have turned my face towards Him Who has created the heavens and the earth, Hanifan, and I am not of the idolators.''

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 Ibrahim Advises his Father

Ibrahim advised, discouraged and forbade his father from worshipping idols, just as Allah stated,

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ لأَبِيهِ آزَرَ أَتَتَّخِذُ أَصْنَامًا آلِهَةً ...

And (remember) when Ibrahim said to his father Azar: "Do you take idols as gods!''

meaning, do you worship an idol instead of Allah.

... إِنِّي أَرَاكَ وَقَوْمَكَ ...

Verily, I see you and your people...,

who follow your path,

... فِي ضَلاَلٍ مُّبِينٍ ﴿٧٤﴾

in manifest error.

wandering in confusion unaware of where to go. Therefore, you are in disarray and ignorance, and this fact is clear to all those who have sound reason.

Allah also said,

وَاذْكُرْ فِى الْكِتَـبِ إِبْرَهِيمَ إِنَّهُ كَانَ صِدِّيقاً نَّبِيّاً

إِذْ قَالَ لاًّبِيهِ يأَبَتِ لِمَ تَعْبُدُ مَا لاَ يَسْمَعُ وَلاَ يَبْصِرُ وَلاَ يُغْنِى عَنكَ شَيْئاً

يأَبَتِ إِنِّى قَدْ جَآءَنِى مِنَ الْعِلْمِ مَا لَمْ يَأْتِكَ فَاتَّبِعْنِى أَهْدِكَ صِرَاطاً سَوِيّاً

يأَبَتِ لاَ تَعْبُدِ الشَّيْطَـنَ إِنَّ الشَّيْطَـنَ كَانَ لِلرَّحْمَـنِ عَصِيّاً

يأَبَتِ إِنِّى أَخَافُ أَن يَمَسَّكَ عَذَابٌ مِّنَ الرَّحْمَـنِ فَتَكُونَ لِلشَّيْطَـنِ وَلِيّاً

قَالَ أَرَاغِبٌ أَنتَ عَنْ آلِهَتِى يإِبْرَهِيمُ لَئِن لَّمْ تَنتَهِ لأَرْجُمَنَّكَ وَاهْجُرْنِى مَلِيّاً

قَالَ سَلَـمٌ عَلَيْكَ سَأَسْتَغْفِرُ لَكَ رَبِّي إِنَّهُ كَانَ بِى حَفِيّاً

وَأَعْتَزِلُكُمْ وَمَا تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَأَدْعُو رَبِّى عَسَى أَلاَّ أَكُونَ بِدُعَآءِ رَبِّى شَقِيًّا

And mention in the Book (the Qur'an, the story of) Ibrahim.

Verily! He was a man of truth, a Prophet. When he said to his father: "O my father! Why do you worship that which hears not, sees not and cannot avail you in anything O my father!

Verily! There has come to me of knowledge that which came not unto you. So follow me. I will guide you to a straight path.

O my father! Worship not Shaytan. Verily! Shaytan has been a rebel against the Most Beneficent (Allah).

O my father! Verily! I fear lest a torment from the Most Beneficent (Allah) overtakes you, so that you become a companion of Shaytan (in the Hell-fire).''

He (the father) said: "Do you reject my gods, O Ibrahim If you stop not (this), I will indeed stone you. So get away from me safely before I punish you.''

Ibrahim said: "Peace be on you! I will ask forgiveness of my Lord for you. Verily! He is unto me, Ever Most Gracious. And I shall turn away from you and from those whom you invoke besides Allah. And I shall call on my Lord; and I hope that I shall not be unanswered in my invocation to my Lord.'' (19:41-48)

Ibrahim continued asking for forgiveness for his father for the rest of his father's life. When his father died an idolator and Ibrahim realized this fact, he stopped asking Allah for forgiveness for him and disassociated himself from him.

Allah said,

وَمَا كَانَ اسْتِغْفَارُ إِبْرَهِيمَ لاًّبِيهِ إِلاَّ عَن مَّوْعِدَةٍ وَعَدَهَآ إِيَّاهُ فَلَمَّا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ أَنَّهُ عَدُوٌّ لِلَّهِ تَبَرَّأَ مِنْهُ إِنَّ إِبْرَهِيمَ لأَوَّاهٌ حَلِيمٌ 

And invoking for his father's forgiveness was only because of a promise he had made to him. But when it became clear to him that he was an enemy to Allah, he dissociated himself from him. Verily Ibrahim was patient in supplication and forbearing. (9:114)

It was recorded in the Sahih that;

Ibrahim will meet his father Azar on the Day of Resurrection and Azar will say to him, "My son! This Day, I will not disobey you.''

Ibrahim will say, "O Lord! You promised me not to disgrace me on the Day they are resurrected; and what will be more disgraceful to me than cursing and dishonoring my father!''

Then Allah will say, "O Ibrahim! Look behind you!''

He will look and there he will see (that his father was changed into) a male hyena covered in dung, which will be caught by the legs and thrown in the (Hell) Fire.''

 Tawhid Becomes Apparent to Ibrahim

Allah's statement,

وَكَذَلِكَ نُرِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ مَلَكُوتَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ ...   

Thus did We show Ibrahim the kingdom of the heavens and the earth...,

means, when he contemplated about the creation of the heaven and earth, We showed Ibrahim the proofs of Allah's Oneness over His dominion and His creation, which indicate that there is no god or Lord except Allah.

Allah said in other Ayat;

قُلِ انظُرُواْ مَاذَا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ

Say: "Behold all that is in the heavens and the earth.'' (10:101)

and,

أَفَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ إِلَى مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ وَالاٌّرْضِ إِن نَّشَأْ نَخْسِفْ بِهِمُ الاٌّرْضَ أَوْ نُسْقِطْ عَلَيْهِمْ كِسَفاً مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لاّيَةً لِّكُلِّ عَبْدٍ مُّنِيبٍ

See they not what is before them and what is behind them, of the heaven and the earth If We will, We sink the earth with them, or cause a piece of the sky to fall upon them. Verily, in this is a sign for every servant who turns to Allah. (34:9)

... وَلِيَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُوقِنِينَ ﴿٧٥﴾

...that he be one of those who have faith with certainty.

Allah said next,

فَلَمَّا جَنَّ عَلَيْهِ اللَّيْلُ ...

When the night overcame him,

covered him with darkness,

... رَأَى كَوْكَبًا ...

He saw a Kawkab, (a star).

... قَالَ هَـذَا رَبِّي فَلَمَّا أَفَلَ ...

He said: "This is my lord.'' But when it Afala,

meaning, set,

he said,

... قَالَ لا أُحِبُّ الآفِلِينَ ﴿٧٦﴾

I like not those that set.

Qatadah commented,

"Ibrahim knew that his Lord is Eternal and never ceases.''

فَلَمَّا رَأَى الْقَمَرَ بَازِغًا قَالَ هَـذَا رَبِّي فَلَمَّا أَفَلَ قَالَ لَئِن لَّمْ يَهْدِنِي رَبِّي لأكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الضَّالِّينَ ﴿٧٧   

When he saw the moon rising up, he said: "This is my lord.'' But when it set, he said: "Unless my Lord guides me, I shall surely be among the misguided people.''

فَلَمَّا رَأَى الشَّمْسَ بَازِغَةً قَالَ هَـذَا رَبِّي ...   

When he saw the sun rising up, he said: "This is my lord.''

this radiating, rising star is my lord,

... هَـذَآ أَكْبَرُ ...

This is greater,

bigger than the star and the moon, and more radiant.

... فَلَمَّا أَفَلَتْ ...

But when it Afalat, (set),

... قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ إِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ ﴿٧٨﴾

إِنِّي وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ ...

he said: "O my people! I am indeed free from all that you join as partners in worship with Allah. Verily, I have turned my face...,''

meaning, I have purified my religion and made my worship sincere,

... لِلَّذِي فَطَرَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ ...

"towards Him Who has created the heavens and the earth,''

Who originated them and shaped them without precedence,

... حَنِيفًا ...

Hanifan,

avoiding Shirk and embracing Tawhid.

This is why he said next,

... وَمَا أَنَاْ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ﴿٧٩﴾

"and I am not of the idolators.''

 Prophet Ibrahim Debates with his People

We should note here that, in these Ayat, Ibrahim, peace be upon him, was debating with his people, explaining to them the error of their way in worshipping idols and images.

  • In the first case with his father, Ibrahim explained to his people their error in worshipping the idols of earth, which they made in the shape of heavenly angels, so that they intercede on their behalf with the Glorious Creator. His people thought that they are too insignificant to worship Allah directly, and this is why they turned to the worship of angels as intercessors with Allah for their provisions, gaining victory and attaining their various needs.

  • He then explained to them the error and deviation of worshipping the seven planets, which they said were the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. The brightest of these objects and the most honored to them was the Sun, the Moon then Venus.

  • Ibrahim, may Allah's peace and blessings be on him, first proved that Venus is not worthy of being worshipped, for it is subservient to a term and course appointed that it does not defy, nor swerving right or left. Venus does not have any say in its affairs, for it is only a heavenly object that Allah created and made bright out of His wisdom. Venus rises from the east and sets in the west where it disappears from sight. This rotation is repeated the next night, and so forth. Such an object is not worthy of being a god.

  • Ibrahim then went on to mention the Moon in the same manner in which he mentioned Venus, and then the Sun.

When he proved that these three objects were not gods, although they are the brightest objects the eyes can see, قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ إِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ  (he said: "O my people! I am indeed free from all that you join as partners in worship with Allah.''),

meaning, I am free from worshipping these objects and from taking them as protectors. Therefore, if they are indeed gods as you claim, then all of you bring your plot against me and do not give me respite.

إِنِّي وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِي فَطَرَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا أَنَاْ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Verily, I have turned my face towards Him Who has created the heavens and the earth, Hanifan, and I am not one of the idolators.

meaning, I worship the Creator of these things, Who originated and decreed them, and Who governs their affairs and made them subservient. It is He in Whose Hand is the dominion of all things, and He is the Creator, Lord, King and God of all things in existence.

In another Ayah, Allah said;

إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِى خَلَقَ السَمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ يُغْشِى الَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ يَطْلُبُهُ حَثِيثًا وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ وَالنُّجُومَ مُسَخَّرَتٍ بِأَمْرِهِ أَلاَ لَهُ الْخَلْقُ وَالاٌّمْرُ تَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَـلَمِينَ

Indeed your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days, and then He Istawa (rose over) the Throne. He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly, and (He created) the sun, the moon, the stars, subjecting them to His command. Surely, His is the creation and commandment. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of all that exists! (7:54)

Allah described Prophet Ibrahim,

وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَآ إِبْرَهِيمَ رُشْدَهُ مِن قَبْلُ وَكُنَّا بِهِ عَـلِمِينَ

إِذْ قَالَ لاًّبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ مَا هَـذِهِ التَّمَـثِيلُ الَّتِى أَنتُمْ لَهَا عَـكِفُونَ 

And indeed We bestowed aforetime on Ibrahim his (portion of) guidance, and We were well-acquainted with him. When he said to his father and his people: "What are these images, to which you are devoted!'' (21:51-52)

These Ayat indicate that Ibrahim was debating with his people about the Shirk they practiced.

 

 

Previous 74-79

وَحَآجَّهُ قَوْمُهُ قَالَ أَتُحَاجُّونِّى فِى اللَّهِ وَقَدْ هَدَانِ وَلاَ أَخَافُ مَا تُشْرِكُونَ بِهِ إِلاَّ أَن يَشَآءَ رَبِّى شَيْئاً

6:80 His people disputed with him. He said: "Do you dispute with me about Allah while He has guided me, and I fear not those whom you associate with Allah in worship. (Nothing can happen to me) except when my Lord wills something.

وَسِعَ رَبِّى كُلَّ شَىْءٍ عِلْماً أَفَلاَ تَتَذَكَّرُونَ

My Lord comprehends in His knowledge all things. Will you not then remember!

وَكَيْفَ أَخَافُ مَآ أَشْرَكْتُمْ وَلاَ تَخَافُونَ أَنَّكُمْ أَشْرَكْتُم بِاللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَـناً

6:81 And how should I fear those whom you associate in worship with Allah, while you fear not that you have joined in worship with Allah things for which He has not sent down to you any Sultan.

فَأَىُّ الْفَرِيقَيْنِ أَحَقُّ بِالاٌّمْنِ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

(So) which of the two parties has more right to be in security If you but know.''

الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَلَمْ يَلْبِسُواْ إِيمَـنَهُمْ بِظُلْمٍ أُوْلَـئِكَ لَهُمُ الاٌّمْنُ وَهُمْ مُّهْتَدُونَ

6:82 It is those who believe and confuse not their belief with Zulm (wrong), for them (only) there is security and they are the guided.

وَتِلْكَ حُجَّتُنَآ ءَاتَيْنَـهَآ إِبْرَهِيمَ عَلَى قَوْمِهِ

6:83 And that was Our proof which We gave Ibrahim against his people.

نَرْفَعُ دَرَجَـتٍ مَّن نَّشَآءُ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٌ 

We in degrees raise whom We will. Certainly your Lord is All-Wise, All-Knowing.

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Allah says;

وَحَآجَّهُ قَوْمُهُ قَالَ ...

His people disputed with him. He said:

Allah states that His Khalil, Prophet Ibrahim, said when his people mentioned various doubts and disputed with him about the Tawhid that he called to:

... أَتُحَاجُّونِّي فِي اللّهِ وَقَدْ هَدَانِ ...

Do you dispute with me about Allah while He has guided me.

The Ayah means, do you argue with me about Allah, other than Whom there is no god worthy of worship, while He has guided me to the Truth and made me aware of it! Therefore, how can I ever consider your misguided statements and false doubts!

Ibrahim said next,

... وَلاَ أَخَافُ مَا تُشْرِكُونَ بِهِ إِلاَّ أَن يَشَاء رَبِّي شَيْئًا ...

and I fear not those whom you associate with Allah in worship. (Nothing can happen to me) except when my Lord wills something.

Ibrahim said, among the proofs to the falsehood of your creed, is that these false gods that you worship do not bring about any effect, and I do not fear them or care about them. Therefore, if these gods are able to cause harm, then use them against me and do not give me respite.

Ibrahim's statement, إِلاَّ أَن يَشَاء رَبِّي شَيْئًا (except when my Lord wills something),

means, only Allah causes benefit or harm.

... وَسِعَ رَبِّي كُلَّ شَيْءٍ عِلْمًا ...

My Lord comprehends in His knowledge all things.

meaning, Allah's knowledge encompasses all things and nothing escapes His complete observation.

... أَفَلاَ تَتَذَكَّرُونَ ﴿٨٠﴾

Will you not then remember!

what I explained to you, considering your idols as false gods and refraining from worshipping them.

This reasoning from Prophet Ibrahim is similar to the argument that Prophet Hud used against his people, `Ad. Allah mentioned this incident in His Book, when He said,

قَالُواْ يَهُودُ مَا جِئْتَنَا بِبَيِّنَةٍ وَمَا نَحْنُ بِتَارِكِى ءالِهَتِنَا عَن قَوْلِكَ وَمَا نَحْنُ لَكَ بِمُؤْمِنِينَ

إِن نَّقُولُ إِلاَّ اعْتَرَاكَ بَعْضُ ءَالِهَتِنَا بِسُوءٍ قَالَ إِنِّى أُشْهِدُ اللَّهِ وَاشْهَدُواْ أَنِّى بَرِىءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ

مِن دُونِهِ فَكِيدُونِى جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ لاَ تُنظِرُونِ

إِنِّى تَوَكَّلْتُ عَلَى اللَّهِ رَبِّى وَرَبِّكُمْ مَّا مِن دَآبَّةٍ إِلاَّ هُوَ ءاخِذٌ بِنَاصِيَتِهَآ إِنَّ رَبِّى عَلَى صِرَطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ 

They said: "O Hud! No evidence have you brought us, and we shall not leave our gods for your (mere) saying! And we are not believers in you. All that we say is that some of our gods have seized you with evil.''

He said: "I call Allah to witness - and bear you witness - that I am free from that which you ascribe as partners in worship with Him (Allah). So plot against me, all of you, and give me no respite. I put my trust in Allah, my Lord and your Lord! There is not a moving creature but He has grasp of its forelock. Verily, my Lord is on the straight path (the truth).'' (11:53-56)

Ibrahim's statement,

وَكَيْفَ أَخَافُ مَا أَشْرَكْتُمْ ...   

And how should I fear those whom you associate...,

means, how should I fear the idols that you worship instead of Allah.

... وَلاَ تَخَافُونَ أَنَّكُمْ أَشْرَكْتُم بِاللّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَانًا ...

while you fear not that you have joined in worship with Allah things for which He has not sent down to you any Sultan.

According to Ibn Abbas and others among the Salaf,

meaning, proof,

Allah said in similar Ayat;

أَمْ لَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ شَرَعُواْ لَهُمْ مِّنَ الدِّينِ مَا لَمْ يَأْذَن بِهِ اللَّهُ

Or have they partners who have instituted for them a religion which Allah has not allowed! (42:21)

and,

إِنْ هِىَ إِلاَّ أَسْمَآءٌ سَمَّيْتُمُوهَآ أَنتُمْ وَءَابَآؤُكُم مَّآ أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ بِهَا مِن سُلْطَـنٍ

They are but names which you have named, you and your fathers, for which Allah has sent down no authority. (53:21)

His statement,

... فَأَيُّ الْفَرِيقَيْنِ أَحَقُّ بِالأَمْنِ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿٨١﴾

(So) which of the two parties has more right to be in security! If you but know.

means, which of the two parties is on the truth, those who worship Him in Whose Hand is harm and benefit, or those who worship what cannot bring harm or benefit, without authority to justify worshipping them Who among these two parties has more right to be saved from Allah's torment on the Day of Resurrection.

Allah said,

الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَلَمْ يَلْبِسُواْ إِيمَانَهُم بِظُلْمٍ أُوْلَـئِكَ لَهُمُ الأَمْنُ وَهُم مُّهْتَدُونَ ﴿٨٢

It is those who believe and confuse not their belief with Zulm (wrong), for them (only) there is security and they are the guided.

Therefore, those who worship Allah alone without partners, will acquire safety on the Day of Resurrection, and they are the guided ones in this life and the Hereafter.

 Shirk is the Greatest Zulm (Wrong)

Al-Bukhari recorded that Abdullah said,

"When the Ayah, وَلَمْ يَلْبِسُواْ إِيمَانَهُم بِظُلْمٍ  (and confuse not their belief with Zulm (wrong)) was revealed, the Companions of the Prophet said, `And who among us did not commit Zulm against himself?' The Ayah, إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ (Verily! Joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed) (31:13), was later revealed.''

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah said,

"When this Ayah was revealed, الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَلَمْ يَلْبِسُواْ إِيمَانَهُم بِظُلْمٍ  (It is those who believe and confuse not their belief with Zulm (wrong)), it was hard on the people. They said, `O Allah's Messenger! Who among us did not commit Zulm against himself?'

He said,

إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ الَّذِي تَعْنُونَ، أَلَمْ تَسْمَعُوا مَا قَالَ الْعَبْدُ الصَّالِحُ

It is not what you understood from it. Did you not hear what the righteous servant (Luqman) said, يَا بُنَيَّ لَا تُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ (O my son! Join not in worship others with Allah. Verily! Shirk is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed). (31:13), Therefore, it is about Shirk.

Allah's statement,

وَتِلْكَ حُجَّتُنَا آتَيْنَاهَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَلَى قَوْمِهِ ...

... نَرْفَعُ دَرَجَاتٍ مَّن نَّشَاء إِنَّ رَبَّكَ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٌ ﴿٨٣﴾  

And that was Our proof which We gave Ibrahim against his people.

means, We directed him to proclaim Our proof against them.

Mujahid and others said that `Our proof' refers to,

وَكَيْفَ أَخَافُ مَا أَشْرَكْتُمْ وَلاَ تَخَافُونَ أَنَّكُمْ أَشْرَكْتُم بِاللّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَانًا فَأَيُّ الْفَرِيقَيْنِ أَحَقُّ بِالأَمْنِ

And how should I fear those whom you associate in worship with Allah (though they can neither benefit nor harm, while you fear not that you have joined in worship with Allah things for which He has not sent down to you any Sultan. (So) which of the two parties has more right to be in security!

Allah has testified Ibrahim's statement and affirmed security and guidance, saying;

الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَلَمْ يَلْبِسُواْ إِيمَانَهُم بِظُلْمٍ أُوْلَـئِكَ لَهُمُ الأَمْنُ وَهُم مُّهْتَدُونَ

It is those who believe and confuse not their belief with Zulm, for them there is security and they are the guided.

Allah said,

وَتِلْكَ حُجَّتُنَا آتَيْنَاهَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَلَى قَوْمِهِ نَرْفَعُ دَرَجَاتٍ مَّن نَّشَاء ...

And that was Our proof which We gave Ibrahim against his people. We raise in degrees whom We will.

And;

... إِنَّ رَبَّكَ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٌ ﴿٨٣﴾

Certainly your Lord is All-Wise, All-Knowing.

He is All-Wise in His statements and actions, All-Knower of those whom He guides or misguides, and whether the proof was established against them or not.

Allah also said,

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِمْ كَلِمَةُ رَبِّكَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ

وَلَوْ جَآءَتْهُمْ كُلُّ ءايَةٍ حَتَّى يَرَوُاْ الْعَذَابَ الاٌّلِيمَ 

Truly! Those, against whom the Word (wrath) of your Lord has been justified, will not believe. Even if every sign should come to them -- until they see the painful torment. (10:96-97)

This is why Allah said here, إِنَّ رَبَّكَ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٌ   Certainly your Lord is All-Wise, All-Knowing.

 

 

Previous 80-83

وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَـقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ كُلاًّ هَدَيْنَا وَنُوحاً هَدَيْنَا مِن قَبْلُ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِهِ دَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَـنَ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُوسُفَ وَمُوسَى وَهَـرُونَ

6:84 And We bestowed upon him Ishaq and Yaqub, each of them We guided, and before him, We guided Nuh and among his progeny Dawud, Suleiman, Ayub, Yusuf, Musa, and Harun.

وَكَذَلِكَ نَجْزِى الْمُحْسِنِينَ

Thus do We reward the good-doers.

وَزَكَرِيَّا وَيَحْيَى وَعِيسَى وَإِلْيَاسَ كُلٌّ مِّنَ الصَّـلِحِينَ

6:85 And Zakariyya, and Yahya and Isa and Ilyas, each one of them was of the righteous.

وَإِسْمَـعِيلَ وَالْيَسَعَ وَيُونُسَ وَلُوطاً وَكُلاًّ فَضَّلْنَا عَلَى الْعَـلَمِينَ

6:86 And Ismail and Al-Yasa`, and Yunus and Lut, and each one of them We preferred above the Alamin (mankind and Jinns, of their times).

 وَمِنْ ءابَائِهِمْ وَذُرِّيَّـتِهِمْ وَإِخْوَنِهِمْ وَاجْتَبَيْنَـهُمْ وَهَدَيْنَـهُمْ إِلَى صِرَطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

6:87 And also some of their fathers and their progeny and their brethren, We chose them, and We guided them to a straight path.

ذلِكَ هُدَى اللَّهِ يَهْدِى بِهِ مَن يَشَآءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ

6:88 This is the guidance of Allah with which He guides whomsoever He wills of His servants.

وَلَوْ أَشْرَكُواْ لَحَبِطَ عَنْهُمْ مَّا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ

But if they had joined in worship others with Allah, all that they used to do would have been of no benefit to them.

أُوْلَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ ءَاتَيْنَـهُمُ الْكِتَـبَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ فَإِن يَكْفُرْ بِهَا هَـؤُلاءِ فَقَدْ وَكَّلْنَا بِهَا قَوْماً لَّيْسُواْ بِهَا بِكَـفِرِينَ

6:89 They are those whom We gave the Book, Al-Hukm, and Prophethood. But if they disbelieve therein, then, indeed We have entrusted it to a people who are not disbelievers therein.

أُوْلَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ هَدَى اللَّهُ فَبِهُدَاهُمُ اقْتَدِهْ

6:90 They are those whom Allah had guided. So follow their guidance.

قُل لاَّ أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْراً إِنْ هُوَ إِلاَّ ذِكْرَى لِلْعَـلَمِينَ 

Say: "No reward I ask of you for this (the Qur'an). It is only a reminder for the `Alamin (mankind and Jinns).''

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 Ibrahim Receives the News of Ishaq and Ya`qub During His Old Age

Allah states that after Ibrahim became old and he, and his wife, Sarah, lost hope of having children, He gave them Ishaq. The angels came to Ibrahim on their way to the people of Prophet Lut (to destroy them) and they delivered the good news of a child to Ibrahim and his wife. Ibrahim's wife was amazed at the news,

قَالَتْ يوَيْلَتَا ءَأَلِدُ وَأَنَاْ عَجُوزٌ وَهَـذَا بَعْلِى شَيْخًا إِنَّ هَـذَا لَشَىْءٌ عَجِيبٌ

قَالُواْ أَتَعْجَبِينَ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ رَحْمَتُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَـتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ إِنَّهُ حَمِيدٌ مَّجِيدٌ

She said (in astonishment): "Woe unto me! Shall I bear a child while I am an old woman, and here is my husband, an old man! Verily! This is a strange thing!''

They said: "Do you wonder at the decree of Allah The mercy of Allah and His blessings be on you, O the family (of Ibrahim). Surely, He (Allah) is All-Praiseworthy, All-Glorious.'' (11:72-73)

The angels also gave them the good news that Ishaq will be a Prophet and that he will have offspring of his own.

In another Ayah, Allah said;

وَبَشَّرْنَـهُ بِإِسْحَـقَ نَبِيّاً مِّنَ الصَّـلِحِينَ

And We gave him the good news of Ishaq a Prophet from the righteous.(37:112), which perfects this good news and completes the favor.

Allah said,

بِإِسْحَـقَ وَمِن وَرَآءِ إِسْحَـقَ يَعْقُوبَ

(of Ishaq, and after him, of Ya`qub... (11:71),

meaning, this child will have another child in your lifetime, so that your eyes are comforted by him, just as your eyes will be comforted by his father.

Certainly, one becomes jubilant and joyous when he becomes a grandfather, because this means that his offspring will continue to exist.

It was also expected that if an elderly couple had children, due to the child's weakness, he would have no offspring. This is why Allah delivered the good news of Ishaq and of his son Yaqub, whose name literally means `multiplying and having offspring'.

This was a reward for Ibrahim who left his people and migrated from their land so that he could worship Allah alone. Allah compensated Ibrahim with better than his people and tribe when He gave him righteous children of his own, who would follow his religion, so that his eyes would be comforted by them.

In another Ayah, Allah said; 

فَلَمَّا اعْتَزَلَهُمْ وَمَا يَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَـقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَكُلاًّ جَعَلْنَا نَبِيّاً

So when he turned away from them and from those whom they worshipped besides Allah, We gave him Ishaq and Yaqub, and each one of them We made a Prophet. (19:49)

Allah said here,

وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ كُلاًّ هَدَيْنَا ...

And We bestowed upon him Ishaq and Yaqub, each of them We guided,

Allah said;

... وَنُوحًا هَدَيْنَا مِن قَبْلُ ...

and before him, We guided Nuh...,

meaning, We guided Nuh before and gave him righteous offspring, just as We guided Ibrahim and gave him righteous children.

 Qualities of Nuh and Ibrahim

Each of these two Prophets had special qualities. When Allah caused the people of the earth to drown, except those who believed in Nuh and accompanied him in the ark, Allah made the offspring of Nuh the dwellers of the earth thereafter. Ever since that occurred, the people of the earth were and still are the descendants of Nuh.

As for Ibrahim, Allah did not send a Prophet after him but from his descendants. Allah said in other Ayat,

وَجَعَلْنَا فِى ذُرِّيَّتِهِمَا النُّبُوَّةَ وَالْكِتَـبَ

And We ordained among his (Ibrahim's) offspring Prophethood and the Book. (29:27)

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحاً وَإِبْرَهِيمَ وَجَعَلْنَا فِى ذُرِّيَّتِهِمَا النُّبُوَّةَ وَالْكِتَـبَ

And indeed, We sent Nuh and Ibrahim, and placed in their offspring Prophethood and the Book. (57:26)

and,

أُولَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ النَّبِيِّيْنَ مِن ذُرِّيَّةِ ءادَمَ وَمِمَّنْ حَمَلْنَا مَعَ نُوحٍ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّةِ إِبْرَهِيمَ وَإِسْرَءِيلَ وَمِمَّنْ هَدَيْنَا وَاجْتَبَيْنَآ إِذَا تُتْلَى عَلَيْهِمْ ءايَـتُ الرَّحْمَـنِ خَرُّواْ سُجَّداً وَبُكِيّاً

Those were they unto whom Allah bestowed His grace from among the Prophets, of the offspring of Adam, and of those whom We carried (in the ship) with Nuh, and of the offspring of Ibrahim and Israil and from among those whom We guided and chose. When the verses of the Most Beneficent (Allah) were recited unto them, they fell down prostrating and weeping. (19:58)

Allah said in this honorable Ayah here,

... وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِهِ ...

and among his progeny...

meaning, We guided from among his offspring,

... دَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ ...

Dawud, Suleiman...,

from the offspring of Nuh, according to Ibn Jarir.

It is also possible that the Ayah refers to Ibrahim since it is about him that the blessings were originally mentioned here, although Lut is not from his offspring, for he was Ibrahim's nephew, the son of his brother Maran, the son of Azar. It is possible to say that Lut was mentioned in Ibrahim's offspring as a generalization. As Allah said,

أَمْ كُنتُمْ شُهَدَآءَ إِذْ حَضَرَ يَعْقُوبَ الْمَوْتُ إِذْ قَالَ لِبَنِيهِ مَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن بَعْدِى قَالُواْ نَعْبُدُ إِلَـهَكَ وَإِلَـهَ آبَآئِكَ إِبْرَهِيمَ وَإِسْمَـعِيلَ وَإِسْحَـقَ إِلَـهًا وَاحِدًا وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ 

Or were you witnesses when death approached Yaqub When he said unto his sons, "What will you worship after me!''

They said, "We shall worship your God, and the God of your fathers, Ibrahim, Ismail, Ishaq, One God, and to Him we submit.'' (2:133)

Here, Ismail was mentioned among the ascendants of Yaqub, although he was Yaqub's uncle.

Similarly Allah said,

فَسَجَدَ الْمَلَـئِكَةُ كُلُّهُمْ أَجْمَعُونَ

إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ أَبَى أَن يَكُونَ مَعَ السَّـجِدِينَ 

So the angels prostrated themselves, all of them together. Except Iblis -- he refused to be among those to prostrate. (15:30-31)

Allah included Iblis in His order to the angels to prostrate, and chastised him for his opposition, all because he was similar to them in that (order), so he was considered among them in general, although he was a Jinn. Iblis was created from fire while the angels were created from light.

Allah says;

... وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُوسُفَ وَمُوسَى وَهَارُونَ وَكَذَلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِينَ ﴿٨٤﴾  

وَزَكَرِيَّا وَيَحْيَى وَعِيسَى وَإِلْيَاسَ كُلٌّ مِّنَ الصَّالِحِينَ ﴿٨٥

وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَالْيَسَعَ وَيُونُسَ وَلُوطًا وَكُلاًّ فضَّلْنَا عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿٨٦   

Ayub, Yusuf, Musa, and Harun. Thus do We reward the good-doers. And Zakariyya, and Yahya and Isa and Ilyas, each one of them was of the righteous. And Ismail and Al-Yasa`, and Yunus and Lut, and each one of them We preferred above the Alamin (mankind and Jinns, of their times).

Mentioning `Isa in the offspring of Ibrahim, or Nuh as we stated above, is proof that the grandchildren from a man's daughter's side are included among his offspring. `Isa is included among Ibrahim's progeny through his mother, although `Isa did not have a father.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that;

Abu Harb bin Abi Al-Aswad said,

"Al-Hajjaj sent to Yahya bin Ya`mar, saying, `I was told that you claim that Al-Hasan and Al-Hussein are from the offspring of the Prophet, did you find it in the Book of Allah I read the Qur'an from beginning to end and did not find it.'

Yahya said, `Do you not read in Surah Al-An`am, وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِهِ دَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ (and among his progeny Dawud, Sulayman...) until, وَيَحْيَى وَعِيسَى (and Yahya and `Isa...).

Al-Hajjaj said, `Yes.'

Yahya said, `Is not `Isa from the offspring of Ibrahim, although he did not have a father!'

Al-Hajjaj said, `You have said the truth.'''

For example, when a man leaves behind a legacy, a trust, or gift to his "offspring'' then the children of his daughters are included. But if a man gives something to his "sons'', or he leaves a trust behind for them, then that would be particular to his male children and their male children.

Allah's statement,

وَمِنْ آبَائِهِمْ وَذُرِّيَّاتِهِمْ وَإِخْوَانِهِمْ ...

And also some of their fathers and their progeny and their brethren,

mentions that some of these Prophets' ascendants and descendants were also guided and chosen.

So Allah said,

... وَاجْتَبَيْنَاهُمْ وَهَدَيْنَاهُمْ إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ ﴿٨٧﴾

We chose them, and We guided them to a straight path.

 Shirk Eradicates the Deeds, Even the Deeds of the Messengers

Allah said next,

ذَلِكَ هُدَى اللّهِ يَهْدِي بِهِ مَن يَشَاء مِنْ عِبَادِهِ ...   

This is the guidance of Allah with which He guides whomsoever He wills of His servants.

meaning, this occurred to them by Allah's leave and because He directed them to guidance.

Allah said;

... وَلَوْ أَشْرَكُواْ لَحَبِطَ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ ﴿٨٨﴾

But if they had joined in worship others with Allah, all that they used to do would have been of no benefit to them.

This magnifies the serious danger of Shirk and the gravity of committing it.

In another Ayah, Allah said;

وَلَقَدْ أُوْحِىَ إِلَيْكَ وَإِلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكَ لَئِنْ أَشْرَكْتَ لَيَحْبَطَنَّ عَمَلُكَ

And indeed it has been revealed to you, as it was to those (Allah's Messengers) before you: "If you join others in worship with Allah, surely your deeds will be in vain.'' (39:65)

`If' here does not mean that this would ever occur, as is similar in Allah's statement;

قُلْ إِن كَانَ لِلرَّحْمَـنِ وَلَدٌ فَأَنَاْ أَوَّلُ الْعَـبِدِينَ

Say: "If the Most Beneficent had a son, then I am the first of Allah's worshippers.'' (43:81)

and,

لَوْ أَرَدْنَآ أَن نَّتَّخِذَ لَهْواً لاَّتَّخَذْنَـهُ مِن لَّدُنَّآ إِن كُنَّا فَـعِلِينَ

If We intended to take a pastime (a wife or a son, etc.) We could surely have taken it from Us, if We were going to do (that). (21:17)

and,

لَّوْ أَرَادَ اللَّهُ أَن يَتَّخِذَ وَلَداً لاَّصْطَفَى مِمَّا يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَآءُ سُبْحَـنَهُ هُوَ اللَّهُ الْوَحِدُ الْقَهَّارُ

If Allah willed to take a son, He could have chosen whom He pleased out of those whom He created. But glory be to Him! He is Allah, the One, the Compelling. (39:4)

Allah said,

أُوْلَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ ...

They are those whom We gave the Book, Al-Hukm, and Prophethood.

We bestowed these bounties on them, as a mercy for the servants, and out of our kindness for creation.

... فَإِن يَكْفُرْ بِهَا ...

But if they disbelieve therein...,

in the Prophethood, or the three things; the Book, the Hukm and the Prophethood,

... هَـؤُلاء ...

They...,

According to Ibn Abbas, Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, As-Suddi, and others,

refers to the people of Makkah.

... فَقَدْ وَكَّلْنَا بِهَا قَوْمًا لَّيْسُواْ بِهَا بِكَافِرِينَ ﴿٨٩﴾

then, indeed We have entrusted it to a people who are not disbelievers therein.

This Ayah means, if the Quraysh and the rest of the people of the earth - Arabs and non-Arabs, illiterate and the People of the Scripture - disbelieve in these bounties, then We have entrusted them to another people, the Muhajirun and Ansar, and those who follow their lead until the Day of Resurrection, لَّيْسُواْ بِهَا بِكَافِرِينَ (who are not disbelievers therein).

They will not deny any of these favors, not even one letter. Rather, they will believe in them totally, even the parts that are not so clear to some of them.

We ask Allah to make us among them by His favor, generosity and kindness.

Addressing His servant and Messenger, Muhammad, Allah said;

أُوْلَـئِكَ ...   

They are...,

the Prophets mentioned here, along with their righteous fathers, offspring and brethren,

... الَّذِينَ هَدَى اللّهُ ...

those whom Allah had guided.

meaning, they alone are the people of guidance,

... فَبِهُدَاهُمُ اقْتَدِهْ ...

So follow their guidance.

Imitate them.

This command to the Messenger certainly applies to his Ummah, according to what he legislates and commands them.

While mentioning this Ayah, Al-Bukhari recorded that;

Mujahid asked Ibn Abbas, "Is there an instance where prostration is warranted in (Surah) Sad?''

Ibn Abbas said, "Yes.''

He then recited, وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ  ...And We bestowed upon him Ishaq and Ya`qub... until, فَبِهُدَاهُمُ اقْتَدِهْ (...So follow their guidance).

He commented,

"He (our Prophet, Muhammad) was among them.''

In another narration, Mujahid added that Ibn Abbas said,

"Your Prophet was among those whose guidance we were commanded to follow.''

Allah's statement,

... قُل لاَّ أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا ...

Say: "No reward I ask of you for this.''

means, I do not ask you for any reward for delivering the Qur'an to you, nor anything else,

... إِنْ هُوَ إِلاَّ ذِكْرَى لِلْعَالَمِينَ ﴿٩٠﴾

"It is only a reminder for the Alamin (mankind and Jinns).''

so they are reminded by it and guided from blindness to clarity, from misguidance to guidance, and from disbelief to faith.

 

 

Previous 84-90

وَمَا قَدَرُواْ اللَّهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ إِذْ قَالُواْ مَآ أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَى بَشَرٍ مِّن شَىْءٍ

6:91 They did not estimate Allah with an estimation due to Him when they said: "Nothing did Allah send down to any human being (by inspiration).''

قُلْ مَنْ أَنزَلَ الْكِتَـبَ الَّذِى جَآءَ بِهِ مُوسَى نُوراً وَهُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ تَجْعَلُونَهُ قَرَطِيسَ تُبْدُونَهَا وَتُخْفُونَ كَثِيراً وَعُلِّمْتُمْ مَّا لَمْ تَعْلَمُواْ أَنتُمْ وَلاَ ءَابَاؤُكُمْ

Say : "Who then sent down the Book which Musa brought, a light and a guidance to mankind which you (the Jews) have made into (separate) papersheets, disclosing (some of it) and concealing much. And you were taught that which neither you nor your fathers knew.''

قُلِ اللَّهُ

Say: "Allah (sent it down).''

ثُمَّ ذَرْهُمْ فِى خَوْضِهِمْ يَلْعَبُونَ

Then leave them to play in their vain discussions.

وَهَـذَا كِتَـبٌ أَنزَلْنَـهُ مُبَارَكٌ مُّصَدِّقُ الَّذِى بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَلِتُنذِرَ أُمَّ الْقُرَى وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا

6:92 And this is a blessed Book which We have sent down, confirming what came before it, so that you may warn the Mother of Towns and all those around it.

وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالاٌّخِرَةِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ وَهُمْ عَلَى صَلاَتِهِمْ يُحَافِظُونَ 

Those who believe in the Hereafter believe in it, and they are constant in guarding their Salah.

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Next 93-94   

 

The Messenger is but a Human to Whom the Book was Revealed by Inspiration

Allah says;

وَمَا قَدَرُواْ اللّهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ إِذْ قَالُواْ ...

They did not estimate Allah with an estimation due to Him when they said:

Allah says that those who rejected His Messengers did not give Allah due consideration.

Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and Abdullah bin Kathir said that;

this Ayah was revealed about the Quraysh.

It was also said that it was revealed about some Jews.

... مَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ عَلَى بَشَرٍ مِّن شَيْءٍ ...

(They said): "Nothing did Allah send down to any human being (by inspiration).''

Allah also, said,

أَكَانَ لِلنَّاسِ عَجَبًا أَنْ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَى رَجُلٍ مِّنْهُمْ أَنْ أَنذِرِ النَّاسَ

Is it a wonder for mankind that We have inspired to a man from among themselves (saying): "Warn mankind.'' (10:2)

and,

وَمَا مَنَعَ النَّاسَ أَن يُؤْمِنُواْ إِذْ جَآءَهُمُ الْهُدَى إِلاَّ أَن قَالُواْ أَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ بَشَرًا رَّسُولاً

قُل لَوْ كَانَ فِى الاٌّرْضِ مَلَـئِكَةٌ يَمْشُونَ مُطْمَئِنِّينَ لَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ مَلَكًا رَّسُولاً

And nothing prevented men from believing when the guidance came to them, except that they said: "Has Allah sent a man as Messenger!''

Say: "If there were on the earth, angels walking about in peace and security, We should certainly have sent down for them from the heaven an angel as a Messenger.'' (17:94-95)

Allah said here,

وَمَا قَدَرُواْ اللّهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ إِذْ قَالُواْ مَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ عَلَى بَشَرٍ مِّن شَيْءٍ

They did not estimate Allah with an estimation due to Him when they said: "Nothing did Allah send down to any human being (by inspiration).''

Allah answered them,

... قُلْ مَنْ أَنزَلَ الْكِتَابَ الَّذِي جَاء بِهِ مُوسَى نُورًا وَهُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ ...

Say : "Who then sent down the Book which Musa brought, a light and a guidance to mankind!''

meaning, say, O Muhammad, to those who deny the concept that Allah sent down Books by revelation, answering them specifically, مَنْ أَنزَلَ الْكِتَابَ الَّذِي جَاء بِهِ مُوسَى  (Who then sent down the Book which Musa brought) in reference to the Tawrah that you and all others know that Allah sent down to Musa, son of Imran.

Allah sent the Tawrah as a light and a guidance for people, so that it could shed light on the answers to various disputes, and to guide away from the darkness of doubts.

Allah's statement,

... تَجْعَلُونَهُ قَرَاطِيسَ تُبْدُونَهَا وَتُخْفُونَ كَثِيرًا ...

which you have made into (separate) paper sheets, disclosing (some of it) and concealing (much).

means, you made the Tawrah into separate sheets which you copied from the original and altered, changed and distorted as you wished. You then said, "this is from Allah,'' meaning it is in the revealed Book of Allah, when in fact, it is not from Allah. This is why Allah said here, تَجْعَلُونَهُ قَرَاطِيسَ تُبْدُونَهَا وَتُخْفُونَ كَثِيرًا (which you have made into (separate) paper sheets, disclosing (some of it) and concealing (much)).

Allah said;

... وَعُلِّمْتُم مَّا لَمْ تَعْلَمُواْ أَنتُمْ وَلاَ آبَاؤُكُمْ ...

And you were taught that which neither you nor your fathers knew.

meaning, Who sent down the Qur'an in which Allah taught you the news of those who were before you and the news of what will come after, that neither you nor your fathers had knowledge of.

Allah's statement,

... قُلِ اللّهُ ...

Say: "Allah.''

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said,

"Meaning, `Say, Allah sent it down.'''

Allah said,

... ثُمَّ ذَرْهُمْ فِي خَوْضِهِمْ يَلْعَبُونَ ﴿٩١﴾

Then leave them to play in their vain discussions.

leave them to play in ignorance and misguidance until the true news comes to them from Allah. Then, they will know whether the good end is theirs or for the fearful servants of Allah.

Allah said,

وَهَـذَا كِتَابٌ ...   

And this is a Book, (the Qur'an),

... أَنزَلْنَاهُ مُبَارَكٌ مُّصَدِّقُ الَّذِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَلِتُنذِرَ أُمَّ الْقُرَى ...

Blessed, which We have sent down, confirming which came before it, so that you may warn the Mother of Towns,

that is, Makkah,

... وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا ...

and all those around it...

referring to the Arabs and the rest of the children of Adam, Arabs and non-Arabs alike.

Allah said in other Ayat,

قُلْ يَأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا

Say: "O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah.'' (7:158)

and,

لاٌّنذِرَكُمْ بِهِ وَمَن بَلَغَ

"that I may therewith warn you and whomsoever it may reach.'' (6:19)

and,

وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِهِ مِنَ الاٌّحْزَابِ فَالنَّارُ مَوْعِدُهُ

but those of the sects who reject it, the Fire will be their promised meeting place. (11:17)

and,

تَبَارَكَ الَّذِى نَزَّلَ الْفُرْقَانَ عَلَى عَبْدِهِ لِيَكُونَ لِلْعَـلَمِينَ نَذِيراً

Blessed be He Who sent down the criterion to His servant that he may be a warner to the Alamin (mankind and Jinn). (25:1)

and,

وَقُلْ لِّلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَـبَ وَالاٍّمِّيِّينَ ءَأَسْلَمْتُمْ فَإِنْ أَسْلَمُواْ فَقَدِ اهْتَدَواْ وَّإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْكَ الْبَلَـغُ وَاللَّهُ بَصِيرٌ بِالْعِبَادِ

And say to those who were given the Scripture and to those who are illiterates: "Do you submit yourselves!'' If they do, they are rightly guided; but if they turn away, your duty is only to convey the Message; and Allah is All-Seer of (His) servants. (3:20)

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs, that the Messenger of Allah said,

أُعْطِيتُ خَمْسًا لَمْ يُعْطَهُنَّ أَحَدٌ مِنَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ قَبْلِي

I have been given five things which were not given to any one else before me.

The Prophet mentioned among these five things,

وَكَانَ النَّبِيُّ يُبْعَثُ إِلَى قَوْمِهِ خَاصَّةً، وَبُعِثْتُ إِلَى النَّاسِ عَامَّة

Every Prophet was sent only to his nation, but I have been sent to all people.

This is why Allah said,

... وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالآخِرَةِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ ...

Those who believe in the Hereafter believe in it,

meaning, those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, believe in this blessed Book, the Qur'an, which We revealed to you, O Muhammad.

... وَهُمْ عَلَى صَلاَتِهِمْ يُحَافِظُونَ ﴿٩٢﴾

and they are constant in guarding their Salah.

for they perform what Allah ordered them, offering the prayers perfectly and on time.

 

 

Previous 91-92

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَى عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِباً أَوْ قَالَ أُوْحِى إِلَىَّ وَلَمْ يُوحَ إِلَيْهِ شَىْءٌ وَمَن قَالَ سَأُنزِلُ مِثْلَ مَآ أَنَزلَ اللَّهُ

6:93 And who can be more unjust than he who invents a lie against Allah, or says: "I have received inspiration,'' whereas he is not inspired in anything; and who says, "I will reveal the like of what Allah has revealed.''

وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذِ الظَّـلِمُونَ فِى غَمَرَاتِ الْمَوْتِ وَالْمَلَـئِكَةُ بَاسِطُواْ أَيْدِيهِمْ أَخْرِجُواْ أَنفُسَكُمُ

And if you could but see when the wrongdoers are in the agonies of death, while the angels are stretching forth their hands (saying): "Deliver your souls!

الْيَوْمَ تُجْزَوْنَ عَذَابَ الْهُونِ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ غَيْرَ الْحَقِّ

This day you shall be recompensed with the torment of degradation because of what you used to utter against Allah other than the truth.

وَكُنتُمْ عَنْ ءَايَـتِهِ تَسْتَكْبِرُونَ

And you used to reject His Ayat with disrespect!''

وَلَقَدْ جِئْتُمُونَا فُرَادَى كَمَا خَلَقْنَـكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَتَرَكْتُمْ مَّا خَوَّلْنَـكُمْ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِكُمْ

6:94 And truly you have come unto Us alone, as We created you the first time. You have left behind you all that which We had bestowed on you.

وَمَا نَرَى مَعَكُمْ شُفَعَآءَكُمُ الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ أَنَّهُمْ فِيكُمْ شُرَكَآءُ لَقَد تَّقَطَّعَ بَيْنَكُمْ وَضَلَّ عَنكُم مَّا كُنتُمْ تَزْعُمُونَ

We see not with you your intercessors whom you claimed to be your partners. Now you and they have been cut off, and all that you used to claim has vanished from you.

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Next 95-97   

 

 None is Worse Than One who Invents a Lie Against Allah and Claims that Revelation Came to Him

Allah said,

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَى عَلَى اللّهِ كَذِبًا ...   

And who can be more unjust than he who invents a lie against Allah,

Therefore, none is more unjust than one who lies about Allah claiming that He has partners or a son, or falsely claiming that Allah sent him as a Prophet;

... أَوْ قَالَ أُوْحِيَ إِلَيَّ وَلَمْ يُوحَ إِلَيْهِ شَيْءٌ ...

or says: "I have received inspiration,'' whereas he is not inspired with anything;

Ikrimah and Qatadah said that;

this Ayah was revealed about Musaylimah Al-Kadhdhab.

... وَمَن قَالَ سَأُنزِلُ مِثْلَ مَا أَنَزلَ اللّهُ ...

and who says, "I will reveal the like of what Allah has revealed.''

This refers to he, who claims that the lies he invents rival the revelation that came from Allah.

In another Ayah, Allah said,

وَإِذَا تُتْلَى عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُنَا قَالُواْ قَدْ سَمِعْنَا لَوْ نَشَاء لَقُلْنَا مِثْلَ هَـذَا

And when Our verses (of the Qur'an) are recited to them, they say: "We have heard this (the Qur'an); if we wish we can say the like of this.'' (8:31)

 The Condition of These Unjust People Upon Death and on the Day of Resurrection

Allah, the Most Honored, said,

... وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذِ الظَّالِمُونَ فِي غَمَرَاتِ الْمَوْتِ ...

And if you could but see when the wrongdoers are in the agonies of death...

suffering from the hardships, agonies and afflictions of death,

... وَالْمَلآئِكَةُ بَاسِطُواْ أَيْدِيهِمْ ...

while the angels are stretching forth their hands...

beating them.

Allah said in other Ayat:

لَئِن بَسَطتَ إِلَىَّ يَدَكَ لِتَقْتُلَنِى

If you do stretch your hand against me to kill me.. (5:28)

and,

وَيَبْسُطُواْ إِلَيْكُمْ أَيْدِيَهُمْ وَأَلْسِنَتَهُمْ بِالسُّوءِ

And stretch forth their hands and their tongues against you with evil. (60:2)

Ad-Dahhak and Abu Salih said that,

`stretch forth their hands,' means, `with torment'.

In another Ayah, Allah said,

وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذْ يَتَوَفَّى الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ الْمَلَـئِكَةُ يَضْرِبُونَ وُجُوهَهُمْ وَأَدْبَـرَهُمْ

And if you could see when the angels take away the souls of those who disbelieve they smite their faces and their backs. (8:50)

Allah said, وَالْمَلآئِكَةُ بَاسِطُواْ أَيْدِيهِمْ  (while the angels are stretching forth their hands),

beating them, until their souls leave their bodies, saying, أَخْرِجُواْ أَنفُسَكُمُ  ("Deliver your souls!''),

When the disbeliever is near death, the angels will convey the `good news' to him of torment, vengeance, chains, restraints, Hell, boiling water and the anger of the Most Beneficent, Most Merciful. The soul will then scatter in the body of the disbeliever and refuse to get out of it. The angels will keep beating the disbeliever until his soul exits from his body,

...أَخْرِجُواْ أَنفُسَكُمُ الْيَوْمَ تُجْزَوْنَ عَذَابَ الْهُونِ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللّهِ غَيْرَ الْحَقِّ ...

(Saying): "Deliver your souls! This day you shall be recompensed with the torment of degradation because of what you used to say about Allah other than the truth.''

This Ayah means, today, you will be utterly humiliated because you used to invent lies against Allah and arrogantly refused to follow His Ayat and obey His Messengers.

... وَكُنتُمْ عَنْ آيَاتِهِ تَسْتَكْبِرُونَ ﴿٩٣﴾

And you used to reject His Ayat with disrespect!''

There are many Hadiths, of Mutawatir grade, that explain what occurs when the believers and disbelievers die, and we will mention these Hadiths when explaining Allah's statement, يُثَبِّتُ اللّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ بِالْقَوْلِ الثَّابِتِ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِي الآخِرَةِ (Allah will keep firm those who believe, with the word that stands firm in this world, and in the Hereafter). (14:27)

Allah said next,

وَلَقَدْ جِئْتُمُونَا فُرَادَى كَمَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ ...

And truly you have come unto Us alone as We created you the first time.

and this statement will be said on the Day of Return.

In another Ayah, Allah said,

وَعُرِضُواْ عَلَى رَبِّكَ صَفَا لَّقَدْ جِئْتُمُونَا كَمَا خَلَقْنَـكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ

And they will be set before your Lord in rows, (and Allah will say): "Now indeed, you have come to Us as We created you the first time.' (18:48),

meaning, just as We started your creation, We brought you back, although you used to deny Resurrection and reject its possibility. Therefore, this is the Day of Resurrection!

Allah said,

... وَتَرَكْتُم مَّا خَوَّلْنَاكُمْ وَرَاء ظُهُورِكُمْ ...

You have left behind you all that which We had bestowed on you.

The wealth and the money that you collected in the life of the world, you left all this behind you.

It is recorded in the Sahih that Allah's Messenger said,

يَقُولُ ابْنُ آدَمَ مَالِي مَالِي وَهَلْ لَكَ مِنْ مَالِكَ إِلَّا مَا أَكَلْتَ فَأَفْنَيْتَ، أَوْ لَبِسْتَ فَأَبْلَيْتَ، أَوْ تَصَدَّقْتَ فَأَمْضَيْتَ، وَمَا سِوَى ذَلِكَ فَذَاهِبٌ وَتَارِكُهُ لِلنَّاس

The Son of Adam says, `My money, my money!' But, what part of your money do you have, other than what you eat of it and is thus spent, what you wear and tear and what you gave in charity and thus remains (in the record of good deeds). Other than that, you will depart and leave it to the people.

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said,

"On the Day of Resurrection, the Son of Adam will be brought, as if he were a golden chariot and Allah, the Most Honored, will ask, `Where is what you collected?'

He will reply, `O Lord! I collected it and left it as intact as ever.'

Allah will say to him, `O Son of Adam! Where is what you sent forth for yourself (of righteous, good deeds),' and he will realize that he did not send forth anything for himself.''

Al-Hasan then recited the Ayah,

وَلَقَدْ جِئْتُمُونَا فُرَادَى كَمَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَتَرَكْتُم مَّا خَوَّلْنَاكُمْ وَرَاء ظُهُورِكُمْ

And truly you have come unto Us alone as We created you the first time. You have left behind you all that which We had bestowed on you.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this statement.

Allah said;

... وَمَا نَرَى مَعَكُمْ شُفَعَاءكُمُ الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ أَنَّهُمْ فِيكُمْ شُرَكَاء ...

We see not with you your intercessors whom you claimed to be your partners.

This chastises and criticizes the disbelievers for the rivals, idols and images that they worshipped in this life, thinking they will avail them in this life and upon Resurrection, if there is Resurrection, as they thought. On the Day of Resurrection, all relationships will be cut off, misguidance will be exposed, and those whom they used to call upon as gods will disappear from them. Allah will then call them, while the rest of creation is listening, أَيْنَ شُرَكَائِيَ الَّذِينَ كُنتُمْ تَزْعُمُونَ  (Where are My (so-called) partners whom you used to assert! (28:62)

And,

وَقِيلَ لَهُمْ أَيْنَ مَا كُنتُمْ تَعْبُدُونَ

مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ هَلْ يَنصُرُونَكُمْ أَوْ يَنتَصِرُونَ 

And it will be said to them: "Where are those that you used to worship. Instead of Allah! Can they help you or help themselves!'' (26:92-93)

Allah said here, وَمَا نَرَى مَعَكُمْ شُفَعَاءكُمُ الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ أَنَّهُمْ فِيكُمْ شُرَكَاء (We see not with you your intercessors whom you claimed were partners).

meaning partners in worship. That is, partners in a share of your worship.

... لَقَد تَّقَطَّعَ بَيْنَكُمْ ...

Now you and they have been cut off,

or, the Ayah is recited with the meaning: all connections,

means, and ties between you and them have been severed.

... وَضَلَّ عَنكُم ...

and vanished from you,

you have lost,

... مَّا كُنتُمْ تَزْعُمُونَ ﴿٩٤﴾

all that you used to claim) of hope in the benefit of the idols and rivals (you worshipped with Allah).

Allah said in other Ayat,

إِذْ تَبَرَّأَ الَّذِينَ اتُّبِعُواْ مِنَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُواْ وَرَأَوُاْ الْعَذَابَ وَتَقَطَّعَتْ بِهِمُ الاٌّسْبَابُ

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُواْ لَوْ أَنَّ لَنَا كَرَّةً فَنَتَبَرَّأَ مِنْهُمْ كَمَا تَبَرَّءُواْ مِنَّا كَذَلِكَ يُرِيهِمُ اللَّهُ أَعْمَـلَهُمْ حَسَرَتٍ عَلَيْهِمْ وَمَا هُم بِخَـرِجِينَ مِنَ النَّارِ

When those who were followed, declare themselves innocent of those who followed (them), and they see the torment, then all their relations will be cut off from them. And those who followed will say: "If only we had one more chance to return, we would disown them as they have disowned us.''

Thus Allah will show them their deeds as regret for them. And they will never get out of the Fire. (2:166-167)

and,

فَإِذَا نُفِخَ فِى الصُّورِ فَلاَ أَنسَـبَ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ وَلاَ يَتَسَآءَلُونَ

Then, when the Trumpet is blown, there will be no kinship among them that Day, nor will they ask of one another. (23:101)

and,

إِنَّمَا اتَّخَذْتُمْ مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَوْثَـناً مَّوَدَّةَ بَيْنِكُمْ فِى الْحَيَوةِ الدُّنْيَا ثُمَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ يَكْفُرُ بَعْضُكُمْ بِبَعْضٍ وَيَلْعَنُ بَعْضُكُمْ بَعْضاً وَمَأْوَاكُمُ النَّارُ وَمَا لَكُمْ مِّن نَّـصِرِينَ

You have taken (for worship) idols instead of Allah, and the love between you is only in the life of this world, but on the Day of Resurrection, you shall disown each other, and curse each other, and your abode will be the Fire, and you shall have no helper. (29:25)

and,

وَقِيلَ ادْعُواْ شُرَكَآءَكُمْ فَدَعَوْهُمْ فَلَمْ يَسْتَجِيبُواْ لَهُمْ

And it will be said (to them): "Call upon your partners'', and they will call upon them, but they will give no answer to them. (28:64)

and,

وَيَوْمَ نَحْشُرُهُمْ جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ نَقُولُ لِلَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُواْ

And the Day whereon We shall gather them all together, then We shall say to those who committed Shirk... (10:28) until, وَضَلَّ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُواْ يَفْتَرُونَ (And their invented false deities will vanish from them). (10:30)

 

 

Previous 93-94

إِنَّ اللَّهَ فَالِقُ الْحَبِّ وَالنَّوَى

6:95 Verily! It is Allah Who causes the seed grain and the fruit stone to split and sprout.

يُخْرِجُ الْحَىَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَمُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتِ مِنَ الْحَىِّ

He brings forth the living from the dead, and it is He Who brings forth the dead from the living.

ذلِكُمُ اللَّهُ فَأَنَّى تُؤْفَكُونَ

Such is Allah, then how are you deluded away from the truth!

فَالِقُ الإِصْبَاحِ وَجَعَلَ الَّيْلَ سَكَناً وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ حُسْبَاناً

6:96 (He is the) Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for resting, and the sun and the moon for reckoning.

ذَلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ

Such is the measuring of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.

وَهُوَ الَّذِى جَعَلَ لَكُمُ النُّجُومَ لِتَهْتَدُواْ بِهَا فِى ظُلُمَـتِ الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ

6:97 It is He Who has set the stars for you, so that you may guide your course with their help through the darkness of the land and the sea.

قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الاٌّيَـتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ

We have (indeed) explained in detail Our Ayat for people who know.

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Next 98-99   

 

 Recognizing Allah Through Some of His Ayat

Allah

إِنَّ اللّهَ فَالِقُ الْحَبِّ وَالنَّوَى ...

Verily! It is Allah Who causes the seed grain and the fruit stone to split and sprout.

Allah states that He causes the seed grain and the fruit stone to split and sprout in the ground, producing various types, colors, shapes, and tastes of grains and produce.

The Ayah, فَالِقُ الْحَبِّ وَالنَّوَى (Who causes the seed grain and the fruit stone to split and sprout) is explained by the next statement,

... يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَمُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتِ مِنَ الْحَيِّ ...

He brings forth the living from the dead, and it is He Who brings forth the deed from the living.

meaning, He brings the living plant from the seed grain and the fruit stone, which is a lifeless and inanimate object.

Allah said,

وَآيَةٌ لَّهُمُ الْأَرْضُ الْمَيْتَةُ أَحْيَيْنَاهَا وَأَخْرَجْنَا مِنْهَا حَبًّا فَمِنْهُ يَأْكُلُونَ

And a sign for them is the dead land. We gave it life, and We brought forth from it grains, so that they eat thereof. (36:33) until, وَمِنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ وَمِمَّا لَا يَعْلَمُونَ (as well as of their own (human) kind (male and female), and of that which they know not. (36:36)

Allah's statement, وَمُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتِ مِنَ الْحَيِّ  (and it is He Who brings forth the dead from the living).

There are similar expressions in meaning such as, He brings the egg from the chicken, and the opposite.

Others said that it means, He brings the wicked offspring from the righteous parent and the opposite, and there are other possible meanings for the Ayah.

Allah said,

... ذَلِكُمُ اللّهُ ...

Such is Allah,

meaning, He Who does all this, is Allah, the One and Only without partners,

... فَأَنَّى تُؤْفَكُونَ ﴿٩٥﴾

then how are you deluded away from the truth.

meaning, look how you are deluded from Truth to the falsehood of worshipping others besides Allah.

Allah's statement,

فَالِقُ الإِصْبَاحِ وَجَعَلَ اللَّيْلَ سَكَنًا ...

(He is the) Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for resting,

means, He is the Creator of light and darkness.

Allah said in the beginning of the Surah, وَجَعَلَ الظُّلُمَاتِ وَالنُّورَ (And originated the darkness and the light).

Indeed, Allah causes the darkness of the night to disappear and brings forth the day, thus bringing brightness to the world and light to the horizon, while dissipating darkness and ending the night with its depth of darkness and starting the day with its brightness and light.

Allah said,

يُغْشِى الَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ يَطْلُبُهُ حَثِيثًا

He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly. (7:54)

In this Ayah, Allah reminds of His ability to create diversified things in opposites, testifying to His perfect greatness and supreme power. Allah states that He is the Cleaver of the daybreak and mentioned its opposite, when He said, وَجَعَلَ اللَّيْلَ سَكَنًا (He has appointed the night for resting), meaning, created darkness, in order for the creation to become halt and rest during it.

Allah said in other Ayat

وَالضُّحَى

وَالَّيْلِ إِذَا سَجَى

By the forenoon. And by the night when it is still. (93:1-2)

وَالَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَى

وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا تَجَلَّى 

By the night as it envelops. And by the day as it appears in brightness. (92:1,2)

and,

وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا جَلَّـهَا

وَالَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَـهَا

And by the day as it shows up (the sun's) brightness. And by the night as it conceals it. (91:3-4)

Allah's statement,

... وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ حُسْبَانًا ...

...And the sun and the moon for reckoning.

means, the sun and the moon have specific orbits, according to a term appointed with magnificent precision that never changes or alters. Both the sun and the moon have distinct positions that they assume in summer and winter, effecting changes in the length of night and day.

Allah said in other Ayat,

هُوَ الَّذِى جَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ ضِيَآءً وَالْقَمَرَ نُوراً وَقَدَّرَهُ مَنَازِلَ

It is He Who made the sun a shining thing and the Moon as a light and measured out stages for it. (10:5)

لاَ الشَّمْسُ يَنبَغِى لَهَآ أَن تدْرِكَ القَمَرَ وَلاَ الَّيْلُ سَابِقُ النَّهَارِ وَكُلٌّ فِى فَلَكٍ يَسْبَحُونَ

It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor does the night outstrip the day. They all float, each in an orbit. (36:40)

And,

وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ وَالنُّجُومَ مُسَخَّرَتٍ بِأَمْرِهِ

The sun and the moon; and the stars are subjected by His command. (16:12)

Allah's statement,

... ذَلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ ﴿٩٦﴾

Such is the measuring of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.

means, all of this occurs according to the decree and due measurement of the Almighty Who is never resisted or contradicted. He is the Knower of all things and nothing ever escapes His knowledge, not even the weight of an atom on earth or in heavens.

Allah often mentions the creation of the night, the day, the sun and the moon and then ends His Speech by mentioning His attributes of power and knowledge, as in this Ayah above (6:96), and in His statement,

وَءَايَةٌ لَّهُمُ الَّيْلُ نَسْلَخُ مِنْهُ النَّهَارَ فَإِذَا هُم مُّظْلِمُونَ

وَالشَّمْسُ تَجْرِى لِمُسْتَقَرٍّ لَّهَـا ذَلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ

And a sign for them is the night, We withdraw there from the day, and behold, they are in darkness. And the sun runs on its fixed course for a term. That is the decree of the Almighty, the All-Knowing. (36:37-38)

In the beginning of Surah Ha-Mim As-Sajdah, after mentioning the creation of the heavens and earth and all that is in them, Allah said:

وَزَيَّنَّا السَّمَآءَ الدُّنْيَا بِمَصَـبِيحَ وَحِفْظاً ذَلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ

And We adorned the nearest (lowest) heaven with lamps (stars) to be an adornment as well as to guard. Such is the decree of Him, the Almighty, the All-Knower. (41:12)

Allah said next,

وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ النُّجُومَ لِتَهْتَدُواْ بِهَا فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ...

It is He Who has set the stars for you, so that you may guide your course with their help through the darkness of the land and the sea.

Some of the Salaf said;

Whoever believes in other than three things about these stars, then he has made a mistake, and lied against Allah. Indeed Allah made them as decorations for the heavens, and to shoot at the Shayatin, and for directions in the dark recesses of the land and sea.

Then, Allah said,

... قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الآيَاتِ ...

We have explained in detail Our Ayat,

meaning, We made them clear and plain,

... لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿٩٧﴾

for people who know.

who have sound minds and are able to recognize the truth and avoid falsehood.

 

 

Previous 95-97

وَهُوَ الَّذِى أَنشَأَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَحِدَةٍ فَمُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمُسْتَوْدَعٌ

6:98 It is He Who has created you from a single person, and has given you a place of residing and a place of storage.

قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الاٌّيَـتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَفْقَهُونَ

Indeed, We have explained in detail Our revelations for people who understand.

وَهُوَ الَّذِى أَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً فَأَخْرَجْنَا بِهِ نَبَاتَ كُلِّ شَىْءٍ فَأَخْرَجْنَا مِنْهُ خَضِراً نُّخْرِجُ مِنْهُ حَبّاً مُّتَرَاكِباً

6:99 It is He Who sends down water from the sky, and with it We bring forth vegetation of all kinds, and out of it We bring forth green stalks, from which We bring forth thick clustered grain.

وَمِنَ النَّخْلِ مِن طَلْعِهَا قِنْوَنٌ دَانِيَةٌ وَجَنَّـتٍ مِّنْ أَعْنَـبٍ وَالزَّيْتُونَ وَالرُّمَّانَ مُشْتَبِهاً وَغَيْرَ مُتَشَـبِهٍ

And out of the date-palm and its sprouts come forth clusters of dates hanging low and near, and gardens of grapes, olives and pomegranates, each similar, yet different.

انْظُرُواْ إِلِى ثَمَرِهِ إِذَآ أَثْمَرَ وَيَنْعِهِ إِنَّ فِى ذلِكُمْ لاٌّيَـتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Look at their fruits when they begin to bear, and Yan`ih. Verily! In these things there are signs for people who believe.

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Allah said,

وَهُوَ الَّذِيَ أَنشَأَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ ...

It is He Who has created you from a single person,

in reference to Adam, peace be upon him.

In another Ayah, Allah said;

يَـأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُواْ رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِى خَلَقَكُمْ مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالاً كَثِيراً وَنِسَآءً

O mankind! Have Taqwa of your Lord, Who created you from a single person, and from him He created his mate, and from them both He created many men and women. (4:1)

Allah said,

... فَمُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمُسْتَوْدَعٌ ...

Mustaqar and Mustawda`

Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn Abbas, Abu Abdur-Rahman As-Sulami, Qays bin Abu Hazim, Mujahid, Ata, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ata' Al-Khurasani and others said that,

فَمُسْتَقَرٌّ  (Mustaqar), `in the wombs'.

They, or most of them, also said that, وَمُسْتَوْدَعٌ  (And Mustawda), means, `in your father's loins'.

Ibn Mas`ud and several others said that,

Mustaqar, means residence in this life, while, Mustawda, means the place of storage after death (the grave).

Allah's statement,

... قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَفْقَهُونَ ﴿٩٨﴾

Indeed, We have explained in detail Our revelations for people who understand.

refers to those who comprehend and understand Allah's Words and its meanings.

Allah said next,

وَهُوَ الَّذِيَ أَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاء مَاء ...

It is He Who sends down water (rain) from the sky,

in due measure, as a blessing and provision for the servants, relief and means of survival for the creatures and mercy from Allah for His creation.

Allah's statement,

... فَأَخْرَجْنَا بِهِ نَبَاتَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ ...

And with it We bring forth vegetation of all kinds,

is similar to,

وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَآءِ كُلَّ شَىْءٍ حَىٍّ

And We have made from water every living thing. (21:30)

... فَأَخْرَجْنَا مِنْهُ خَضِرًا ...

and out of it We bring forth green stalks,

green produce and trees, on which We grow seeds and fruits.

... نُّخْرِجُ مِنْهُ حَبًّا مُّتَرَاكِبًا ...

from which We bring forth thick clustered grain.

lined on top of each other in clusters, like an ear or spike of grain.

... وَمِنَ النَّخْلِ مِن طَلْعِهَا قِنْوَانٌ ...

And out of the date-palm and its sprouts come forth clusters,

of dates,

... دَانِيَةٌ ...

hanging low.

Within reach and easy to pick.

Ali bin Abi Talhah Al-Walibi said that Ibn Abbas said that,

قِنْوَانٌ دَانِيَةٌ (clusters hanging low) refers to short date trees whose branches hang low, close to the ground.

This was recorded by Ibn Jarir.

Allah's statement

... وَجَنَّاتٍ مِّنْ أَعْنَابٍ ...

and gardens of grapes,

means, We bring forth gardens of grapes.

Grapes and dates are the most precious fruits to the people of Al-Hijaz (Western Arabia), and perhaps both are the best fruits in this world. Allah has reminded His servants of His favor in making these two fruits for them, when He said,

وَمِن ثَمَرَتِ النَّخِيلِ وَالاٌّعْنَـبِ تَتَّخِذُونَ مِنْهُ سَكَرًا وَرِزْقًا حَسَنًا

And from the fruits of date-palms and grapes, you derive strong drink and a goodly provision. (16:67),

before intoxicating drinks were prohibited, and;

وَجَعَلْنَا فِيهَا جَنَّـتٍ مِّن نَّخِيلٍ وَأَعْنَـبٍ

And We have made therein gardens of date-palms and grapes. (36:34)

Allah said,

... وَالزَّيْتُونَ وَالرُّمَّانَ مُشْتَبِهًا وَغَيْرَ مُتَشَابِهٍ ...

olives and pomegranates, each similar yet different.

According to the explanation of Qatadah and several others,

The leaves are similar in shape and appearance, yet different in the shape, and taste. And the kind of fruit each plant produces is different.

Allah's statement,

... انظُرُواْ إِلِى ثَمَرِهِ إِذَا أَثْمَرَ وَيَنْعِهِ ...

Look at their fruits when they begin to bear, and Yan`ih.

According to Al-Bara bin Azib, Ibn Abbas, Ad-Dahhak, Ata Al-Khurasani, As-Suddi, Qatadah and others,

means, when the fruits become ripe.

This Ayah means, contemplate the ability of the Creator of these fruits, Who brought them into existence after they were dry wood, and they later became grapes and dates; and similar is the case with the various colors, shapes, tastes and fragrance of whatever Allah created. Allah said,

وَفِى الاٌّرْضِ قِطَعٌ مُّتَجَـوِرَتٌ وَجَنَّـتٌ مِّنْ أَعْنَـبٍ وَزَرْعٌ وَنَخِيلٌ صِنْوَنٌ وَغَيْرُ صِنْوَنٍ يُسْقَى بِمَآءٍ وَحِدٍ وَنُفَضِّلُ بَعْضَهَا عَلَى بَعْضٍ فِى الاٍّكُلِ

And in the earth are neighboring tracts, and gardens of vines, and green crops, and date-palms, growing out, two or three from a single stem root, or otherwise, watered with the same water, yet some of them We make better than others to eat. (13:4)

This is why Allah said here,

... إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكُمْ ...

In these things there are... (O people),

... لآيَاتٍ ...

signs...

and proofs that testify to the perfect ability, wisdom and mercy of He Who created these things,

... لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿٩٩﴾

for people who believe.

in Allah and obey His Messengers.

 

 

Previous 98-99

وَجَعَلُواْ للَّهِ شُرَكَآءَ الْجِنَّ وَخَلَقَهُمْ وَخَرَقُواْ لَهُ بَنِينَ وَبَنَاتٍ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ

6:100 Yet, they join the Jinns as partners in worship with Allah, though He has created them, and they attribute, falsely without knowledge - sons and daughters to Him.

سُبْحَـنَهُ وَتَعَـلَى عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ

Be He Glorified and Exalted above what that they attribute to Him.

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 Rebuking the Idolators

Allah says;

وَجَعَلُواْ لِلّهِ شُرَكَاء الْجِنَّ وَخَلَقَهُمْ ...

Yet, they join the Jinns as partners in worship with Allah, though He has created them,

This Ayah refutes the idolators who worshipped others besides Allah and associated the Jinns with Him in worship. Glory be to Allah above this Shirk and Kufr. If someone asks, how did the idolators worship the Jinns, although they only were idol worshippers The answer is that in fact, they worshipped the idols by obeying the Jinns who commanded them to do so.

Allah said in other Ayat,

إِن يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ إِلاَّ إِنَـثاً وَإِن يَدْعُونَ إِلاَّ شَيْطَـناً مَّرِيداً

لَّعَنَهُ اللَّهُ وَقَالَ لاّتَّخِذَنَّ مِنْ عِبَادِكَ نَصِيباً مَّفْرُوضاً

وَلأضِلَّنَّهُمْ وَلأُمَنِّيَنَّهُمْ وَلاّمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُبَتِّكُنَّ ءَاذَانَ الاٌّنْعَـمِ وَلاّمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُغَيِّرُنَّ خَلْقَ اللَّهِ وَمَن يَتَّخِذِ الشَّيْطَـنَ وَلِيّاً مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ فَقَدْ خَسِرَ خُسْرَاناً مُّبِيناً

يَعِدُهُمْ وَيُمَنِّيهِمْ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمْ الشَّيْطَـنُ إِلاَّ غُرُوراً

They invoke nothing but female deities besides Him, and they invoke nothing but Shaytan, a persistent rebel! Allah cursed him. And he (Shaytan) said: "I will take an appointed portion of your servants. Verily, I will mislead them, and surely, I will arouse in them false desires; and certainly, I will order them to slit the ears of cattle, and indeed I will order them to change the nature created by Allah.''

And whoever takes Shaytan as a protector instead of Allah, has surely suffered a manifest loss. He (Shaytan) makes promises to them, and arouses in them false desires; and Shaytan's promises are nothing but deceptions. (4:117-120)

and,

أَفَتَتَّخِذُونَهُ وَذُرِّيَّتَهُ أَوْلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِى

Will you then take him (Iblis) and his offspring as protectors and helpers rather than Me! (18:50)

Ibrahim said to his father,

يأَبَتِ لاَ تَعْبُدِ الشَّيْطَـنَ إِنَّ الشَّيْطَـنَ كَانَ لِلرَّحْمَـنِ عَصِيّاً

"O my father! Worship not Shaytan. Verily! Shaytan has been a rebel against the Most Beneficent (Allah).'' (19:44)

Allah said,

أَلَمْ أَعْهَدْ إِلَيْكُمْ يبَنِى ءَادَمَ أَن لاَّ تَعْبُدُواْ الشَّيطَـنَ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ

وَأَنِ اعْبُدُونِى هَـذَا صِرَطٌ مُّسْتَقِيمٌ

Did I not ordain for you, O Children of Adam, that you should not worship Shaytan. Verily, he is a plain enemy to you. And that you should worship Me. That is a straight path. (36:60-61)

On the Day of Resurrection, the angels will proclaim,

سُبْحَـنَكَ أَنتَ وَلِيُّنَا مِن دُونِهِمْ بَلْ كَانُواْ يَعْبُدُونَ الْجِنَّ أَكْـثَرُهُم بِهِم مُّؤْمِنُونَ

Glorified be You! You are our Protector instead of them. Nay, but they used to worship the Jinn; most of them were believers in them. (34:41)

This is why Allah said here, وَجَعَلُواْ لِلّهِ شُرَكَاء الْجِنَّ وَخَلَقَهُمْ  (Yet, they join the Jinns as partners in worship with Allah, though He has created them). Alone without partners.

Consequently, how is it that another deity is being worshipped along with Him As Ibrahim said,

قَالَ أَتَعْبُدُونَ مَا تَنْحِتُونَ

وَاللَّهُ خَلَقَكُمْ وَمَا تَعْمَلُونَ

"Worship you that which you (yourselves) carve While Allah has created you and what you make!'' (37:95-96)

Allah alone is the Creator without partners. Therefore, He Alone deserves to be worshipped without partners.

Allah said next,

... وَخَرَقُواْ لَهُ بَنِينَ وَبَنَاتٍ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ...

And they Kharaqu (attribute falsely) without knowledge, sons and daughters to Him.

Allah mentions the misguidance of those who were led astray and claimed a son or offspring for Him, as the Jews did with Uzayr, the Christians with Isa and the Arab pagans with the angels whom they claimed were Allah's daughters. Allah is far holier than what the unjust, polytheist people associate with Him.

According to the scholars of the Salaf,

the word, Kharaqu, means `falsely attributed, invented, claimed and lied'.

Allah's statement next,

... سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ ﴿١٠٠﴾

Be He Glorified and Exalted above (all) that they attribute to Him.

means, He is holier than, hallowed, and Exalted above the sons, rivals, equals and partners that these ignorant, misled people attribute to Him.

 

 

Previous 100

بَدِيعُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ

6:101 He is the Badi` (Originator) of the heavens and the earth.

أَنَّى يَكُونُ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَمْ تَكُنْ لَّهُ صَـحِبَةٌ وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَىْءٍ وهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

How can He have children when He has no wife He created all things and He is the All-Knower of everything.

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 Meaning of Badi`

Allah said;

بَدِيعُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ ...

He is the Badi` of the heavens and the earth,

Meaning He originated, created, invented and brought them into existence without precedence, as Mujahid and As-Suddi said.

This is why the word for innovation - Bid`ah - comes from it, because it is something that did not have a precedence.

... أَنَّى يَكُونُ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَمْ تَكُن لَّهُ صَاحِبَةٌ ...

How can He have children when He has no wife!

for the child is the offspring of two compatible spouses. Allah does not have an equal, none of His creatures are similar to Him, for He alone created the entire creation.

Allah said;

وَقَالُواْ اتَّخَذَ الرَّحْمَـنُ وَلَداً

لَقَدْ جِئْتُمْ شَيْئاً إِدّاً

And they say: "The Most Beneficent (Allah) has begotten a son.'' Indeed you have brought forth (said) a terrible evil thing. (19:88-89) until, وَكُلُّهُمْ آتِيهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فَرْدًا  (And everyone of them will come to Him alone on the Day of Resurrection. (19:95)

... وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ وهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ ﴿١٠١﴾

He created all things and He is the All-Knower of everything.

He has created everything and He is All-Knower of all things. How can He have a wife from His creation who is suitable for His majesty, when there is none like Him! How can He have a child then! Verily, Allah is Glorified above having a son.

 

 

Previous 101

ذلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ لا إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ خَـلِقُ كُلِّ شَىْءٍ فَاعْبُدُوهُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ وَكِيلٌ

6:102 Such is Allah, your Lord! None has the right to be worshipped but He, the Creator of all things. So worship Him (alone), and He is the Guardian over all things.

لاَّ تُدْرِكُهُ الاٌّبْصَـرُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الاٌّبْصَـرَ

6:103 No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision.

وَهُوَ اللَّطِيفُ الْخَبِيرُ

He is the Most Subtle, Well-Acquainted (with all things).

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 Allah is Your Lord

Allah said,

ذَلِكُمُ اللّهُ رَبُّكُمْ ...

Such is Allah, your Lord!

Who created everything and has neither a son nor a wife.

... لا إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ فَاعْبُدُوهُ ...

None has the right to be worshipped but He, the Creator of all things. So worship Him.

Alone without partners, and attest to His Oneness, affirming that there is no deity worthy of worship except Him. Allah has neither descendants, nor ascendants, wife, equal or rival.

... وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَكِيلٌ ﴿١٠٢﴾

And He is the Guardian over all things.

meaning, Trustee, Watcher and Disposer of affairs for all things in existence, giving them provisions and protection by day and night.

Seeing Allah in the Hereafter Allah said,

لاَّ تُدْرِكُهُ الأَبْصَارُ ...

No vision can grasp Him,

in this life.

The vision will be able to look at Allah in the Hereafter, as affirmed and attested to by the numerous Hadiths from the Prophet through authentic chains of narration in the collections of the Sahihs, Musnad and Sunan collections.

As for this life, Masruq narrated that Aishah said,

"Whoever claims that Muhammad has seen his Lord, will have uttered a lie against Allah, for Allah the Most Honored, says, لاَّ تُدْرِكُهُ الأَبْصَارُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الأَبْصَارَ (No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision.)''

In the Sahih (Muslim) it is recorded that Abu Musa Al-Ashari narrated from the Prophet,

إِنَّ اللهَ لَا يَنَامُ وَلَا يَنْبَغِي لَهُ أَنْ يَنَامَ، يَخْفِضُ الْقِسْطَ وَيَرْفَعُهُ، يُرْفَعُ إِلَيْهِ عَمَلُ النَّهَارِ قَبْلَ اللَّيْلِ، وَعَمَلُ اللَّيْلِ قَبْلَ النَّهَارِ، حِجَابُهُ النُّورُ أَوِ النَّارُ لَوْ كَشَفَهُ لَأَحْرَقَتْ سَبُحَاتُ وَجْهِهِ مَا انْتَهَى إِلَيْهِ بَصَرُهُ مِنْ خَلْقِه

Verily, Allah does not sleep and it does not befit His majesty that He should sleep. He lowers the scale (of everything) and raises it. The deeds of the day are ascended to Him before the night, and the deeds of the night before the day. His Veil is the Light -- or Fire -- and if He removes it (the veil), the Light of His Face will burn every created thing that His sight reaches.

In the previous (revealed) Books there is this statement,

"When Musa requested to see Him, Allah said to Musa:

`O Musa! Verily, no living thing sees Me, but it dies and no dried things sees me, but it rolls up.'''

Allah said,

فَلَمَّا تَجَلَّى رَبُّهُ لِلْجَبَلِ جَعَلَهُ دَكًّا وَخَرَّ موسَى صَعِقًا فَلَمَّآ أَفَاقَ قَالَ سُبْحَـنَكَ تُبْتُ إِلَيْكَ وَأَنَاْ أَوَّلُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

So when his Lord appeared to the mountain, He made it collapse to dust, and Musa fell down unconscious. Then when he recovered his senses he said: "Glory be to You, I turn to You in repentance and I am the first of the believers.'' (7:143)

These Ayat, Hadiths and statements do not negate the fact that Allah will be seen on the Day of Resurrection by His believing servants, in the manner that He decides, all the while preserving His might and grace as they are.

The Mother of the Faithful, Aishah, used to affirm that;

Allah will be seen in the Hereafter, but denied that it could occur in this life, mentioning this Ayah as evidence, لاَّ تُدْرِكُهُ الأَبْصَارُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الأَبْصَارَ (No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision). Her denial was a denial of the ability to encompass Him, meaning to perfectly see His grace and magnificence as He is, for that is not possible for any human, angel or anything created.

Allah's statement,

... وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الأَبْصَارَ ...

but His grasp is over all vision.

means, He encompasses all vision and He has full knowledge of them, for He created them all.

In another Ayah, Allah said;

أَلاَ يَعْلَمُ مَنْ خَلَقَ وَهُوَ اللَّطِيفُ الْخَبِيرُ

Should not He Who has created know! And He is the Most Subtle, Well Acquainted (with all things). (67:14)

It is also possible that `all vision' refers to those who have the vision.

As-Suddi said that Allah's statement, لاَّ تُدْرِكُهُ الأَبْصَارُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الأَبْصَارَ (No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision.) means,

"Nothing sees Him (in this life), but He sees all creation.''

... وَهُوَ اللَّطِيفُ الْخَ&#