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Tafsir ibn Kathir, is a classic Sunni Islam Tafsir (commentary of the Qur'an) by Imad ud Din Ibn Kathir. It is considered to be a summary of the earlier Tafsir al-Tabari. It is popular because it uses Hadith to explain each verse and chapter of the Qur'an 'Imad Ad-Din, Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir, was born in 1301 in Busra, Syria and was taught by Ibn Taymiyya, Al-Mizzi, Ibn Al Firkah, Isa bin Al-Mutim, Ahmed bin Abi-Talib, Ibn Al-Hajjar, Baha Ad-Din Al-Qasim bin Muzaffar bin Asakir, Ibn Ash-Shirazi, Ishaq bin Yahya Al-Ammuddi, Zahriyyah Shaykh, and Muhammad bin Zarrad.
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Why there is no Basmalah in the Beginning of This Surah
This honorable Surah was one of the last Surahs to be revealed to the Messenger of Allah.
Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara' said,
"The last Ayah to be revealed was, يَسْتَفْتُونَكَ قُلِ اللَّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِى الْكَلَـلَةِ (They ask you for a legal verdict. Say: "Allah directs (thus) about Al-Kalalah.'' (4:176), while the last Surah to be revealed was Bara'ah.''
The Basmalah was not mentioned in the beginning of this Surah because the Companions did not write it in the complete copy of the Qur'an (Mushaf) they collected, following the Commander of the faithful, Uthman bin Affan, may Allah be pleased with him.
The first part of this honorable Surah was revealed to the Messenger of Allah when he returned from the battle of Tabuk, during the Hajj season, which the Prophet thought about attending. But he remembered that the idolators would still attend that Hajj, as was usual in past years, and that they perform Tawaf around the House while naked. He disliked to associate with them and sent Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, to lead Hajj that year and show the people their rituals, commanding him to inform the idolators that they would not be allowed to participate in Hajj after that season. He commanded him to proclaim, بَرَاءةٌ مِّنَ اللّهِ وَرَسُولِه (Freedom from (all) obligations (is declared) from Allah and His Messenger...), to the people.
When Abu Bakr had left, the Messenger sent Ali bin Abu Talib to be the one to deliver this news to the idolators on behalf of the Messenger, for he was the Messenger's cousin. We will mention this story later.
Publicizing the Disavowal of the Idolators
بَرَاءةٌ مِّنَ اللّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ...
Freedom from obligations from Allah and His Messenger,
is a declaration of freedom from all obligations from Allah and His Messenger,
... إِلَى الَّذِينَ عَاهَدتُّم مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ﴿١﴾
فَسِيحُواْ فِي الأَرْضِ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ ...
to those of the Mushrikin, with whom you made a treaty. So travel freely (Mushrikin) for four months (as you will) throughout the land,
This Ayah refers to idolators who had indefinite treaties and those, whose treaties with Muslims ended in less than four months. The terms of these treaties were restricted to four months only. As for those whose term of peace ended at a specific date later (than the four months), then their treaties would end when their terms ended, no matter how long afterwards, for Allah said, فَأَتِمُّواْ إِلَيْهِمْ عَهْدَهُمْ إِلَى مُدَّتِهِمْ (So fulfill their treaty for them until the end of their term). (9:4)
So whoever had a covenant with Allah's Messenger then it would last until its period expired, this was reported from Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi and others.
We will also mention a Hadith on this matter. Abu Ma`shar Al-Madani said that Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi and several others said,
"The Messenger of Allah sent Abu Bakr to lead the Hajj rituals on the ninth year (of Hijrah). He also sent Ali bin Abi Talib with thirty or forty Ayat from Bara'ah (At-Tawbah), and he recited them to the people, giving the idolators four months during which they freely move about in the land. He recited these Ayat on the day of Arafah (ninth of Dhul-Hijjah). The idolators were given twenty more days (till the end) of Dhul-Hijjah, Muharram, Safar, Rabi Al-Awwal and ten days from Rabi Ath-Thani.
He proclaimed to them in their camping areas, `No Mushrik will be allowed to perform Hajj after this year, nor a naked person to perform Tawaf around the House.'''
So Allah said,
... وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّكُمْ غَيْرُ مُعْجِزِي اللّهِ وَأَنَّ اللّهَ مُخْزِي الْكَافِرِينَ ﴿٢﴾
but know that you cannot escape (from the punishment of) Allah; and Allah will disgrace the disbelievers.
وَأَذَانٌ مِّنَ اللّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ...
And a declaration from Allah and His Messenger,
and a preface warning to the people,
... إِلَى النَّاسِ ...
... يَوْمَ الْحَجِّ الأَكْبَرِ ...
on the greatest day of Hajj,
the day of Sacrifice, the best and most apparent day of the Hajj rituals, during which the largest gathering confers.
... أَنَّ اللّهَ بَرِيءٌ مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَرَسُولُهُ ...
that Allah is free from (all) obligations to the Mushrikin and so is His Messenger.
also free from all obligations to them.
Allah next invites the idolators to repent,
... فَإِن تُبْتُمْ ...
So if you repent,
from the misguidance and Shirk you indulge in,
... فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ وَإِن تَوَلَّيْتُمْ ...
it is better for you, but if you turn away,
and persist on your ways,
... فَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّكُمْ غَيْرُ مُعْجِزِي اللّهِ ...
then know that you cannot escape Allah,
Rather, Allah is capable over you, and you are all in His grasp, under His power and will,
... وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ ﴿٣﴾
And give tidings of a painful torment for those who disbelieve.
earning them disgrace and affliction in this life and the torment of chains and barbed iron bars in the Hereafter.
Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said,
"Abu Bakr sent me during that Hajj with those dispatched on the day of Sacrifice to declare in Mina that no Mushrik will be allowed to attend Hajj after that year, nor will a naked person be allowed to perform Tawaf.''
"The Prophet then sent Ali bin Abi Talib and commanded him to announce Bara'ah.''
Abu Hurayrah said,
"Ali publicized Bara'ah with us to the gathering in Mina on the day of Sacrifice, declaring that no Mushrik shall perform Hajj after that year, nor shall a naked person perform Tawaf around the House.''
Al-Bukhari also collected this Hadith. this narration of which, Abu Hurayrah said,
"On the day of Nahr, Abu Bakr sent me along with other announcers to Mina to make a public announcement that `No pagan is allowed to perform Hajj after this year, and no naked person is allowed to perform the Tawaf around the Ka`bah.'
Abu Bakr was leading the people in that Hajj season, and in the year of `The Farewell Hajj' when the Prophet performed Hajj, no Mushrik performed Hajj.'''
This is the narration that Al-Bukhari recorded in the Book on Jihad.
Muhammad bin Ishaq reported a narration from Abu Jafar Muhammad bin Ali bin Al-Hussein who said,
"When Bara'ah was revealed to Allah's Messenger, and he had sent Abu Bakr to oversee the Hajj rites for the people, he was asked, `O Messenger of Allah! Why not send this (message) to Abu Bakr?' So he said,
لَا يُؤَدِّي عَنِّي إِلَّا رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِي
It will not be accepted to have been from me if it is not from a man from my family.
Then he called for Ali and said to him,
اخْرُجْ بِهذِهِ الْقِصَّةِ مِنْ صَدْرِ بَرَاءَةَ وَأَذِّنْ فِي النَّاسِ يَوْمَ النَّحْرِ إِذَا اجْتَمَعُوا بِمِنًى، أَنَّهُ لَا يَدْخُلُ الْجَنَّةَ كَافِرٌ، وَلَا يَحُجُّ بَعْدَ الْعَامِ مُشْرِكٌ، وَلَا يَطُوفُ بِالْبَيْتِ عُرْيَانٌ، وَمَنْ كَانَ لَهُ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وسلّم عَهْدٌ فَهُوَ لَهُ إِلَى مُدَّتِه
Take this section from the beginning of Bara'ah and proclaim to the people on the day of the Sacrifice while they are gathered at Mina that no disbeliever will enter Paradise, no idolator will be permitted to perform Hajj after the year, there will be no Tawaf while naked, and whoever has a covenant with Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him), then it shall be valid until the time of its expiration.
Ali rode the camel of Allah's Messenger named Al-Adba until he caught up with Abu Bakr in route. When Abu Bakr saw him he said, `Are you here as a commander or a follower.'
Ali replied, `A follower.'
They continued on. Abu Bakr lead the people in Hajj while the Arabs were camping in their normal locations from Jahiliyyah. On the day of Sacrifice, Ali bin Abi Talib stood and proclaimed,
`O people! No disbeliever will be admitted into Paradise, no idolator will be permitted to perform Hajj next year, there shall be no Tawaf while naked, and whoever has a covenant with Allah's Messenger, then it shall be valid until its time of expiration.'
So no idolator performed Hajj after that year, Tawaf around the House while naked ceased.
Then they returned to Allah's Messenger. So this was the declaration of innocence, whoever among the idolators had no treaty, then he had a treaty of peace for one year, if he had a particular treaty, then it was valid until its date of expiration.''
Existing Peace Treaties remained valid until the End of Their Term
إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ عَاهَدتُّم مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَنقُصُوكُمْ شَيْئًا وَلَمْ يُظَاهِرُواْ عَلَيْكُمْ أَحَدًا فَأَتِمُّواْ إِلَيْهِمْ عَهْدَهُمْ إِلَى مُدَّتِهِمْ ...
Except those of the Mushrikin with whom you have a treaty, and who have not subsequently failed you in aught, nor have supported anyone against you. So fulfill their treaty for them until the end of their term.
This is an exception regulating the longest extent of time for those who have a general treaty - with out time mentioned - to four months. They would have four months to travel the lands in search of sanctuary for themselves wherever they wish. Those whose treaty mentioned a specific limited term, then the longest it would extend was to the point of its agreed upon termination date.
Hadiths in this regard preceded. So anyone who had a treaty with Allah's Messenger, it lasted until its specific termination date. However, those in this category were required to refrain from breaking the terms of the agreement with Muslims and from helping non-Muslims against Muslims. This is the type whose peace agreement with Muslims was carried out to its end.
Allah encouraged honoring such peace treaties, saying,
... إِنَّ اللّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَّقِينَ ﴿٤﴾
Surely, Allah loves those who have Taqwa.
who keep their promises.
This is the Ayah of the Sword
Allah said next,
فَإِذَا انسَلَخَ الأَشْهُرُ الْحُرُمُ ...
So when the Sacred Months have passed...,
meaning, `Upon the end of the four months during which We prohibited you from fighting the idolators, and which is the grace period We gave them, then fight and kill the idolators wherever you may find them.'
Mujahid, Amr bin Shu`ayb, Muhammad bin Ishaq, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said that;
the four months mentioned in this Ayah are the four-month grace period mentioned in the earlier Ayah, فَسِيحُواْ فِي الأَرْضِ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ (So travel freely for four months throughout the land).
Allah's statement next,
... فَاقْتُلُواْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمْ ...
then fight the Mushrikin wherever you find them,
means, on the earth in general, except for the Sacred Area, for Allah said,
وَلاَ تُقَـتِلُوهُمْ عِندَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ حَتَّى يُقَـتِلُوكُمْ فِيهِ فَإِن قَـتَلُوكُمْ فَاقْتُلُوهُمْ
And fight not with them at Al-Masjid Al-Haram, unless they fight you there. But if they attack you, then fight them. (2:191)
Allah said here,
... وَخُذُوهُمْ ...
and capture them,
executing some and keeping some as prisoners,
... وَاحْصُرُوهُمْ وَاقْعُدُواْ لَهُمْ كُلَّ مَرْصَدٍ ...
and besiege them, and lie in wait for them in each and every ambush,
do not wait until you find them. Rather, seek and besiege them in their areas and forts, gather intelligence about them in the various roads and fairways so that what is made wide looks ever smaller to them. This way, they will have no choice, but to die or embrace Islam,
... فَإِن تَابُواْ وَأَقَامُواْ الصَّلاَةَ وَآتَوُاْ الزَّكَاةَ فَخَلُّواْ سَبِيلَهُمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ ﴿٥﴾
But if they repent and perform the Salah, and give the Zakah, then leave their way free. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Abu Bakr As-Siddiq used this and other honorable Ayat as proof for fighting those who refrained from paying the Zakah.
These Ayat allowed fighting people unless, and until, they embrace Islam and implement its rulings and obligations.
Allah mentioned the most important aspects of Islam here, including what is less important. Surely, the highest elements of Islam after the Two Testimonials are the prayer, which is the right of Allah, the Exalted and Ever High, then the Zakah, which benefits the poor and needy. These are the most honorable acts that creatures perform, and this is why Allah often mentions the prayer and Zakah together.
In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,
أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أُقَاتِلَ النَّاسَ حَتَّى يَشْهَدُوا أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللهِ وَيُقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُوا الزَّكَاة
I have been commanded to fight the people until they testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establish the prayer and pay the Zakah.
This honorable Ayah (9:5) was called the Ayah of the Sword, about which Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim said,
"It abrogated every agreement of peace between the Prophet and any idolator, every treaty, and every term.''
Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas commented:
"No idolator had any more treaty or promise of safety ever since Surah Bara'ah was revealed. The four months, in addition to, all peace treaties conducted before Bara'ah was revealed and announced had ended by the tenth of the month of Rabi Al-Akhir.''
Idolators are granted Safe Passage if They seek It
Allah said to His Prophet, peace be upon him,
وَإِنْ أَحَدٌ مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ...
And if anyone of the Mushrikin,
whom you were commanded to fight and We allowed you their blood and property,'
... اسْتَجَارَكَ ...
seeks your protection,
asked you for safe passage,
... فَأَجِرْهُ حَتَّى يَسْمَعَ كَلاَمَ اللّهِ ...
then grant him protection so that he may hear the Word of Allah (the Qur'an)
then accept his request until he hears the Words of Allah, the Qur'an. Recite the Qur'an to him and mention a good part of the religion with which you establish Allah's proof against him,
... ثُمَّ أَبْلِغْهُ مَأْمَنَهُ ...
and then escort him to where he can be secure,
and safe, until he goes back to his land, his home, and area of safety,
... ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لاَّ يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿٦﴾
that is because they are men who know not.
The Ayah says, `We legislated giving such people safe passage so that they may learn about the religion of Allah, so that Allah's call will spread among His servants.
Ibn Abi Najih narrated that Mujahid said that this Ayah,
"Refers to someone who comes to you to hear what you say and what was revealed to you (O Muhammad). Therefore, he is safe until he comes to you, hears Allah's Words and then proceeds to the safe area where he came from.''
The Messenger of Allah used to thereafter grant safe passage to those who came to him for guidance or to deliver a message.
On the day of Hudaybiyyah, several emissaries from Quraysh came to him, such as Urwah bin Mas`ud, Mikraz bin Hafs, Suhayl bin `Amr and several others. They came mediating between him and the Quraysh pagans. They witnessed the great respect the Muslims had for the Prophet, which astonished them, for they never before saw such respect for anyone, kings nor czars. They went back to their people and conveyed this news to them; this, among other reasons, was one reason that most of them accepted the guidance.
When Musaylimah the Liar sent an emissary to the Messenger of Allah, he asked him, "Do you testify that Musaylimah is a messenger from Allah''
He said, "Yes.''
The Messenger of Allah said,
لَوْلَا أَنَّ الرُّسُلَ لَا تُقْتَلُ لَضَرَبْتُ عُنُقَك
I would have cut off your head, if it was not that emissaries are not killed.
That man, Ibn An-Nawwahah, was later beheaded when Abdullah bin Mas`ud was the governor of Al-Kufah. When it became known that he still testified that Musaylimah was a messenger from Allah, Ibn Mas`ud summoned him and said to him, "You are not delivering a message now!''
He commanded that Ibn An-Nawwahah be decapitated, may Allah curse him and deprive him of His mercy.
In summary, those who come from a land at war with Muslims to the area of Islam, delivering a message, for business transactions, to negotiate a peace treaty, to pay the Jizyah, to offer an end to hostilities, and so forth, and request safe passage from Muslim leaders or their deputies, should be granted safe passage, as long as they remain in Muslim areas, until they go back to their land and sanctuary.
Affirming the Disavowal of the Idolators
Allah mentions the wisdom in dissolving all obligations to the idolators and giving them a four month period of safety, after which they will meet the sharp sword wherever they are found,
كَيْفَ يَكُونُ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ عَهْدٌ ...
How can there be a covenant for the Mushrikin,
a safe resort and refuge, while they persist in Shirk with Allah, and disbelief in Him and His Messenger,
... عِندَ اللّهِ وَعِندَ رَسُولِهِ ...
with Allah and with His Messenger
... إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ عَاهَدتُّمْ عِندَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ...
except those with whom you made a covenant near Al-Masjid Al-Haram,
on the day of Hudaybiyyah.
Allah said in another Ayah (concerning the day of Hudaybiyyah),
هُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَصَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْهَدْىَ مَعْكُوفاً أَن يَبْلُغَ مَحِلَّهُ
They are the ones who disbelieved and hindered you from Al-Masjid Al-Haram and detained the sacrificial animals, from reaching their place of sacrifice. (48:25)
Allah said next,
... فَمَا اسْتَقَامُواْ لَكُمْ فَاسْتَقِيمُواْ لَهُمْ ...
So long as they are true to you, stand you true to them,
if they keep the terms of the treaties you conducted with them, including peace between you and them for ten years,
...فَاسْتَقِيمُواْ لَهُمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَّقِينَ ﴿٧﴾
then stand you true to them. Verily, Allah loves those who have Taqwa.
The Messenger of Allah and the Muslims preserved the terms of the treaty with the people of Makkah from the month of Dhul-Qa`dah in the sixth year (of Hijrah), until the Quraysh broke it and helped their allies, Banu Bakr, against Khuza`ah, the allies of Allah's Messenger.
Aided by the Quraysh, Banu Bakr killed some of Bani Khuza`ah in the Sacred Area! The Messenger of Allah led an invasion army in the month of Ramadan, of the eighth year, and Allah opened the Sacred Area for him to rule over them, all thanks are due to Allah.
The Messenger of Allah freed the Quraysh who embraced Islam after they were overpowered and defeated. These numbered around two thousands, and they were referred to by the name `Tulaqa' afterwards.
Those among them who remained in disbelief and ran away from Allah's Messenger were sent promises of safe refuge for four months, during which they were allowed to move about freely. They included Safwan bin Umayyah, Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl and many others. Allah later on guided them to Islam, and they became excellent believers.
Surely, Allah is worthy of all praise for all His actions and decrees.
كَيْفَ وَإِن يَظْهَرُوا عَلَيْكُمْ لاَ يَرْقُبُواْ فِيكُمْ إِلاًّ وَلاَ ذِمَّةً يُرْضُونَكُم بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَتَأْبَى قُلُوبُهُمْ وَأَكْثَرُهُمْ فَاسِقُونَ ﴿٨﴾
How when if you are overpowered by them, they regard not the ties, either of kinship, (Ill) or of covenant (Dhimmah)! With their mouths they please you, but their hearts are averse to you, and most of them are rebellious.
Allah encourages the believers to show enmity to the idolators and to dissociate from them, affirming that they do not deserve to enjoy a covenant of peace, because of their Shirk in Allah and disbelief in Allah's Messenger.
If these disbelievers have a chance to defeat Muslims, they will cause great mischief, leave nothing unharmed, disregard the ties of kinship and the sanctity of their vows.
Ali bin Abi Talhah, Ikrimah and Al-Awfi narrated that Ibn Abbas said,
"Ill means kinship, while, Dhimmah means covenant.''
Ad-Dahhak and As-Suddi said similarly.
Allah admonishes the idolators and encourages the believers to fight against them because,
اشْتَرَوْاْ بِآيَاتِ اللّهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلاً ...
They have purchased with the Ayat of Allah a little gain,
idolators exchanged following the Ayat of Allah with the lower affairs of life that they indulged in,
... فَصَدُّواْ عَن سَبِيلِهِ ...
and they hindered men from His way,
trying to prevent the believers from following the truth,
... إِنَّهُمْ سَاء مَا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ ﴿٩﴾
لاَ يَرْقُبُونَ فِي مُؤْمِنٍ إِلاًّ وَلاَ ذِمَّةً ...
evil indeed is that which they used to do, With regard to a believer, they respect not the ties, either of kinship or of covenant!
... وَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُعْتَدُونَ ﴿١٠﴾
It is they who are the transgressors.
We explained these meanings before, as well as, the meaning of,
فَإِن تَابُواْ وَأَقَامُواْ الصَّلاَةَ وَآتَوُاْ الزَّكَاةَ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَنُفَصِّلُ الآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿١١﴾
But if they repent, perform the Salah and give the Zakah, then they are your brethren in religion. (In this way) We explain the Ayat in detail for a people who know.
The Oaths of the Leaders of Disbelief mean nothing to Them
وَإِن نَّكَثُواْ أَيْمَانَهُم مِّن بَعْدِ عَهْدِهِمْ ...
But if they violate their oaths after their covenant,
Allah says, if the idolators with whom you conducted peace treaties for an appointed term break
أَيْمَانَهُم (their oaths),
meaning, terms of their treaties, and covenants.
... وَطَعَنُواْ فِي دِينِكُمْ ...
and attack your religion...
with disapproval and criticism, it is because of this that one who curses the Messenger, peace be upon him, or attacks the religion of Islam by way of criticism and disapproval, they are to be fought.
This is why Allah said afterwards,
... فَقَاتِلُواْ أَئِمَّةَ الْكُفْرِ إِنَّهُمْ لاَ أَيْمَانَ لَهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَنتَهُونَ ﴿١٢﴾
then fight (you) against the leaders of disbelief -- for surely, their oaths are nothing to them -- so that they may stop.
so that they may refrain from the disbelief, rebellion and the transgression they indulge in.
Qatadah and others said that;
the leaders of disbelief were Abu Jahl, Utbah and Shaybah, Umayyah bin Khalaf, and he went on to mention several others.
Al-A`mash narrated from Zayd bin Wahb from Hudhayfah;
"The people of this Ayah were never fought again.''
A similar statement was reported from Ali bin Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him.
However, this Ayah is general, even though the specific reason behind revealing it was the idolators of Quraysh. So this Ayah generally applies to them and others as well, Allah knows best.
Al-Walid bin Muslim said that Safwan bin `Amr narrated that Abdur-Rahman bin Jubayr bin Nufayr said that when Abu Bakr sent an army to Ash-Sham, he advised them,
"You will find some people with shaved heads. Therefore, strike the swords upon the parts that contain the devil, for by Allah, it is better to me to kill one of these people than to kill seventy other men. This is because Allah said, فَقَاتِلُواْ أَئِمَّةَ الْكُفْر (then fight (you) against the leaders of disbelief).''
Ibn Abi Hatim collected it.
Encouragement to fight the Disbelievers, and some Benefits of fighting Them
أَلاَ تُقَاتِلُونَ قَوْمًا نَّكَثُواْ أَيْمَانَهُمْ وَهَمُّواْ بِإِخْرَاجِ الرَّسُولِ ...
Will you not fight a people who have violated their oaths and intended to expel the Messenger,
These Ayat encourage, direct and recommend fighting against the idolators who break the terms of their covenants, those who tried to expel the Messenger from Makkah.
Allah said in other Ayat,
وَإِذْ يَمْكُرُ بِكَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لِيُثْبِتُوكَ أَوْ يَقْتُلُوكَ أَوْ يُخْرِجُوكَ وَيَمْكُرُونَ وَيَمْكُرُ اللَّهُ وَاللَّهُ خَيْرُ الْمَـكِرِينَ
And (remember) when the disbelievers plotted against you to imprison you, or to kill you, or to expel you; they were plotting and Allah too was plotting; and Allah is the best of those who plot. (8:30)
يُخْرِجُونَ الرَّسُولَ وَإِيَّـكُمْ أَن تُؤْمِنُواْ بِاللَّهِ رَبِّكُمْ
...and have driven out the Messenger and yourselves (from your homeland) because you believe in Allah your Lord! (60:1)
وَإِن كَادُواْ لَيَسْتَفِزُّونَكَ مِنَ الاٌّرْضِ لِيُخْرِجُوكَ مِنْهَا
And verily, they were about to frighten you so much as to drive you out from the land. (17:76)
... وَهُم بَدَؤُوكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ ...
while they did attack you first,
refers to the battle of Badr when the idolators marched to protect their caravan. When they knew that their caravan escaped safely, they still went ahead with their intent to fight Muslims out of arrogance, as we mentioned before.
It was also said that these Ayat refer to the idolators breaking the peace agreement with Muslims and aiding Bani Bakr, their allies, against Khuza`ah, the ally of the Messenger of Allah. This is why the Messenger of Allah marched to Makkah in the year of the victory, thus conquering it, all thanks and praise is due to Allah.
... أَتَخْشَوْنَهُمْ فَاللّهُ أَحَقُّ أَن تَخْشَوْهُ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤُمِنِينَ ﴿١٣﴾
Do you fear them!
Allah has more right that you should fear Him if you are believers.
Allah says here, `Do not fear idolators, but fear Me instead, for I am worthy of being feared by the servants due to My might and punishment. In My Hand lies the matter; whatever I will occurs, and whatever I do not will does not occur.'
Allah next said, while ordering the believers and explaining the wisdom of ordaining Jihad against them, all the while able to destroy their enemies with a command from Him,
قَاتِلُوهُمْ يُعَذِّبْهُمُ اللّهُ بِأَيْدِيكُمْ وَيُخْزِهِمْ وَيَنصُرْكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَيَشْفِ صُدُورَ قَوْمٍ مُّؤْمِنِينَ ﴿١٤﴾
Fight against them so that Allah will punish them by your hands, and disgrace them and give you victory over them, and heal the breasts of a believing people.
This Ayah includes all believers, even though Mujahid, Ikrimah and As-Suddi said that it refers to Khuza`ah.
Concerning the believers, Allah said;
وَيُذْهِبْ غَيْظَ قُلُوبِهِمْ ...
and remove the anger of their hearts,
... وَيَتُوبُ اللّهُ عَلَى مَن يَشَاء ...
Allah accepts the repentance of whom He wills,
from His servants,
... وَاللّهُ عَلِيمٌ ...
Allah is All-Knowing,
in what benefits His servants,
... حَكِيمٌ ﴿١٥﴾
in His actions and statements, whether narrative or legislative.
Allah does what He wills, decides what He wills, and He is the Just Who never wrongs any. Not even the weight of an atom of good or evil is ever neglected with Him, but rather, He compensates for it in this life and the Hereafter.
Among the Wisdom of Jihad is to test the Muslims
أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ ...
Do you think,
O believers that We will leave you untested with matters that make apparent those who have pure, good intent from those who have false intent
... أَن تُتْرَكُواْ ...
that you shall be left alone,
This is why Allah said next,
... وَلَمَّا يَعْلَمِ اللّهُ الَّذِينَ جَاهَدُواْ مِنكُمْ وَلَمْ يَتَّخِذُواْ مِن دُونِ اللّهِ وَلاَ رَسُولِهِ وَلاَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَلِيجَةً ...
while Allah has not yet tested those among you who have striven hard and fought and have not taken Walijah besides Allah and His Messenger, and the believers...,
meaning, supporters and confidants. Rather, they are sincere for Allah and His Messenger inwardly and outwardly.
Allah also said;
أَحَسِبَ النَّاسُ أَن يُتْرَكُوا أَن يَقُولُوا آمَنَّا وَهُمْ لَا يُفْتَنُونَ
وَلَقَدْ فَتَنَّا الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ فَلَيَعْلَمَنَّ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا وَلَيَعْلَمَنَّ الْكَاذِبِينَ
Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: "We believe,'' and will not be tested.
And We indeed tested those who were before them. And Allah will certainly make known those who are true, and will certainly make known those who are liars... (29:1-3)
أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَن تَدْخُلُواْ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَعْلَمِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ جَـهَدُواْ مِنكُمْ وَيَعْلَمَ الصَّـبِرِينَ
Do you think that you will enter Paradise before Allah tests those of you who fought (in His cause) and (also) tests those who are patient. (3:142)
مَّا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيَذَرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَى مَآ أَنتُمْ عَلَيْهِ حَتَّى يَمِيزَ الْخَبِيثَ مِنَ الطَّيِّبِ
Allah will not leave the believers in the state in which you are now, until He distinguishes the wicked from the good. (3:179)
In summary, since Allah legislated Jihad for His servants, He explained that the wisdom behind doing so includes testing His servants, distinguishing between those who obey Him and those who disobey Him.
... وَاللّهُ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ ﴿١٦﴾
Allah is well-acquainted with what you do.
Allah, the Exalted, is the All-Knower of what occurred, what will occur, and the true essence of what might occur had He decided it. Therefore, Allah knows everything before it occurs and how it will occur, there is no deity worthy of worship except Him, nor a Lord except Him. Truly, there is none who can avert Allah's judgment and decision.
It is not for Idolators to maintain the Masjids of Allah
مَا كَانَ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ أَن يَعْمُرُواْ مَسَاجِدَ الله شَاهِدِينَ عَلَى أَنفُسِهِمْ بِالْكُفْرِ ...
It is not for the Mushrikin, to maintain the Masjids of Allah, while they witness against themselves of disbelief.
Allah says that it is not fitting that those who associate others with Allah in worship should maintain the Masjids of Allah that were built in His Name alone without partners.
Those who read the Ayah, "Masjid Allah'', said that;
it refers to Al-Masjid Al-Haram, the most honored Masjid on the earth, which was built, from the first day, for the purpose of worshipping Allah alone without partners. It was built by Khalil Ar-Rahman (the Prophet Ibrahim) peace be upon him.
The idolators do this while they themselves testify to their disbelief with their statements and actions.
"If you ask a Christian, `What is your religion', He will tell you he is a Christian. If you ask a Jew about his religion, he will say he is a Jew, and the same for a Sabi' and a Mushrik!'''
... أُوْلَئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ ...
The works of such are in vain,
because of their Shirk,
... وَفِي النَّارِ هُمْ خَالِدُونَ ﴿١٧﴾
and in Fire shall they abide.
Allah said in another Ayah,
وَمَا لَهُمْ أَلاَّ يُعَذِّبَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَهُمْ يَصُدُّونَ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَمَا كَانُواْ أَوْلِيَآءَهُ إِنْ أَوْلِيَآؤُهُ إِلاَّ الْمُتَّقُونَ وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ
And why should not Allah punish them while they hinder (men) from Al-Masjid Al-Haram, and they are not its guardians! None can be its guardians except those with Taqwa, but most of them know not. (8:34)
Believers are the True Maintainers of the Masjids
إِنَّمَا يَعْمُرُ مَسَاجِدَ اللّهِ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ ...
The Masjids of Allah shall be maintained only by those who believe in Allah and the Last Day.
Therefore, Allah testifies to the faith of those who maintain the Masjids.
Abdur-Razzaq narrated that `Amr bin Maymun Al-Awdi said,
"I met the Companions of the Prophet and they were saying, `The Masjids are the Houses of Allah on the earth. It is a promise from Allah that He is generous to those who visit Him in the Masjids.''
Allah said next,
... وَأَقَامَ الصَّلاَةَ ...
perform the Salah,
one of the major acts of worship practiced by the body,
... وَآتَى الزَّكَاةَ ...
and give the Zakah,
which is the best act that benefits other people,
... وَلَمْ يَخْشَ إِلاَّ اللّهَ ...
and fear none but Allah,
they fear only Allah, the Exalted, and none else,
... فَعَسَى أُوْلَـئِكَ أَن يَكُونُواْ مِنَ الْمُهْتَدِينَ ﴿١٨﴾
It is they who are on true guidance.
Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn Abbas said about Allah's statement, إِنَّمَا يَعْمُرُ مَسَاجِدَ اللّهِ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ (The Masjids of Allah shall be maintained only by those who believe in Allah and the Last Day),
"He who singles out Allah (in worship), has faith in the Last Day.''
And he said;
"He who believes in what Allah has revealed,
وَأَقَامَ الصَّلاَةَ (perform the Salah), establishes the five daily prayers,
وَلَمْ يَخْشَ إِلاَّ اللّهَ (and fear none but Allah), worships Allah alone,
فَعَسَى أُوْلَـئِكَ أَن يَكُونُواْ مِنَ الْمُهْتَدِينَ
it may be they who are on true guidance.
Allah says, `It is they who are the successful ones in truth.'
Similarly, Allah said to His Prophet,
عَسَى أَن يَبْعَثَكَ رَبُّكَ مَقَاماً مَّحْمُودًا
It may be that your Lord will raise you to Maqam Mahmud, (17:79)
Allah says here,
`Your Lord (O Muhammad) shall grant you a station of praise, that is, the intercession (on the Day of Resurrection).'
Every `might' in the Qur'an means `shall'.''
Providing Pilgrims with Water and maintaining the Sacred Masjid are not equal to Faith and Jihad
أَجَعَلْتُمْ سِقَايَةَ الْحَاجِّ وَعِمَارَةَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ كَمَنْ آمَنَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَجَاهَدَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ ...
Do you consider the providing of drinking water to the pilgrims and the maintenance of Al-Masjid Al-Haram as equal to the worth of those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and strive hard and fight in the cause of Allah!
In his Tafsir, Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn Abbas explained this Ayah:
"The idolators said, `Maintaining Al-Masjid Al-Haram and providing water for pilgrims are better than embracing the faith and performing Jihad.'
They used to boast and show off among the people because they claimed, they were the people and maintainers of Al-Masjid Al-Haram. Allah mentioned their arrogance and rejection (of the faith), saying to `the people of Al-Haram', who were idolators,
قَدْ كَانَتْ ءَايَـتِى تُتْلَى عَلَيْكُمْ فَكُنتُمْ عَلَى أَعْقَـبِكُمْ تَنكِصُونَ
مُسْتَكْبِرِينَ بِهِ سَـمِراً تَهْجُرُونَ
Indeed My Ayat used to be recited to you, but you used to turn back on your heels (denying them, and refusing to listen to them with hatred). In pride, talking evil about it (the Qur'an) by night. (23:66-67)
They used to boast about being those who maintained the Sacred Sanctuary, بِهِ سَـمِراً (talking about it by night).
They used to talk about this by night while shunning the Qur'an and the Prophet.
Allah declared that faith and Jihad with the Prophet are better than the idolators' maintaining Al-Masjid Al-Haram and providing water for pilgrims. These actions -- maintaining and serving Allah's House -- will not benefit them with Allah because they associate others with Him.
Allah the Exalted said,
... لاَ يَسْتَوُونَ عِندَ اللّهِ وَاللّهُ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ ﴿١٩﴾
They are not equal before Allah. And Allah guides not those people who are the wrongdoers.
those who claimed they are the maintainers of the House. Allah described them with injustice, on account of their Shirk, and thus, their maintaining the Masjid will not avail them.''
Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said,
"This Ayah was revealed about Al-Abbas bin Abdul-Muttalib, for when he was captured in the battle of Badr, he said, `If you rushed before us to embrace Islam, perform Hijrah and Jihad, we were maintaining Al-Masjid Al-Haram, providing water for the pilgrims and setting the indebted free.'
Allah, the Exalted and Ever High, said,
أَجَعَلْتُمْ سِقَايَةَ الْحَاجِّ وَعِمَارَةَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ كَمَنْ آمَنَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَجَاهَدَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ لاَ يَسْتَوُونَ عِندَ اللّهِ وَاللّهُ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ
Do you consider the providing of drinking water to the pilgrims and the maintenance of Al-Masjid Al-Haram as equal to the worth of those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and strive hard and fight in the cause of Allah! They are not equal before Allah. And Allah guides not those people who are the wrongdoers.
Allah says, `All these actions were performed while committing Shirk, and I do not accept the (good deeds) that are performed while in a state of Shirk.'''
Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim said,
"Muslims came to Al-Abbas and his friends who were captured during the battle of Badr and admonished them for their Shirk. Al-Abbas said, `By Allah! We used to maintain Al-Masjid Al-Haram, release the indebted, serve the House (or cover it, or maintain it) and provide water for pilgrims.' Allah revealed this verse, أَجَعَلْتُمْ سِقَايَةَ الْحَاجِّ (Do you consider the providing of drinking water to the pilgrims...'''
There is a Hadith (from the Prophet) about the Tafsir of this Ayah that we should mention.
Abdur-Razzaq recorded that An-Nu`man bin Bashir said that;
a man said, "I do not care if I do not perform an action after embracing Islam other than providing drinking water for pilgrims (who visit the Ka`bah at Makkah).''
Another man said, "I do not care if I do not perform an action after embracing Islam other than maintaining Al-Masjid Al-Haram.''
A third man said, "Jihad in the cause of Allah is more righteous than what you have said.''
Umar admonished them, "Do not raise your voices next to the Minbar of the Messenger of Allah,''
and as it was a Friday, he said, "but after we pray the Friday prayer, we will go to the Prophet and ask him.''
This verse was revealed, أَجَعَلْتُمْ سِقَايَةَ الْحَاجِّ وَعِمَارَةَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ (Do you consider the providing of drinking water to the pilgrims and the maintenance of Al-Masjid Al-Haram), until, لاَ يَسْتَوُونَ عِندَ اللّهِ (They are not equal before Allah).
Then Allah said;
الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَهَاجَرُواْ وَجَاهَدُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ أَعْظَمُ دَرَجَةً عِندَ اللّهِ وَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْفَائِزُونَ ﴿٢٠﴾
Those who believed and emigrated and strove hard and fought in Allah's cause with their wealth and their lives, are far higher in degree with Allah. They are the successful.
يُبَشِّرُهُمْ رَبُّهُم بِرَحْمَةٍ مِّنْهُ وَرِضْوَانٍ وَجَنَّاتٍ لَّهُمْ فِيهَا نَعِيمٌ مُّقِيمٌ ﴿٢١﴾
Their Lord gives them glad tidings of mercy from Him, and His being pleased (with them), and of Gardens (Paradise) for them wherein are everlasting delights.
خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا إِنَّ اللّهَ عِندَهُ أَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ ﴿٢٢﴾
They will dwell therein forever. Verily, with Allah is a great reward.
The Prohibition of taking the Idolators as Supporters, even with Relatives
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ آبَاءكُمْ وَإِخْوَانَكُمْ أَوْلِيَاء إَنِ اسْتَحَبُّواْ الْكُفْرَ عَلَى الإِيمَانِ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُم مِّنكُمْ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ ﴿٢٣﴾
O you who believe! Take not as supporters your fathers and your brothers if they prefer disbelief to belief. And whoever of you befriends them, then he is one of the wrongdoers.
Allah commands shunning the disbelievers, even if they are one's parents or children, and prohibits taking them as supporters if they choose disbelief instead of faith.
لاَّ تَجِدُ قَوْماً يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ يُوَآدُّونَ مَنْ حَآدَّ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلَوْ كَانُواْ ءَابَآءَهُمْ أَوْ أَبْنَآءَهُمْ أَوْ إِخْوَنَهُمْ أَوْ عَشِيرَتَهُمْ أُوْلَـئِكَ كَتَبَ فِى قُلُوبِهِمُ الإِيمَـنَ وَأَيَّدَهُمْ بِرُوحٍ مِّنْهُ وَيُدْخِلُهُمْ جَنَّـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ
You will not find any people who believe in Allah and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allah and His Messenger, even though they were their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their kindred (people). For such He has written (predetermined) faith in their hearts, and strengthened them with a Ruh (proof, light and true guidance) from Himself. And He will admit them to Gardens (Paradise) under which rivers flow. (58:22)
Al-Hafiz Al-Bayhaqi recorded that Abdullah bin Shawdhab said,
"The father of Abu Ubaydah bin Al-Jarrah was repeatedly praising the idols to his son on the day of Badr, and Abu Ubaydah kept avoiding him. When Al-Jarrah persisted, his son Abu Ubaydah headed towards him and killed him. Allah revealed this Ayah in his case,
لاَّ تَجِدُ قَوْماً يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ يُوَآدُّونَ مَنْ حَآدَّ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ
You will not find any people who believe in Allah and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allah and His Messenger.'' (58:22)
Allah commanded His Messenger to warn those who prefer their family, relatives or tribe to Allah, His Messenger and Jihad in His cause,
قُلْ إِن كَانَ آبَاؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَآؤُكُمْ وَإِخْوَانُكُمْ وَأَزْوَاجُكُمْ وَعَشِيرَتُكُمْ وَأَمْوَالٌ اقْتَرَفْتُمُوهَا ...
Say: If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your kindred, the wealth that you have gained, (amassed and collected),
... وَتِجَارَةٌ تَخْشَوْنَ كَسَادَهَا وَمَسَاكِنُ تَرْضَوْنَهَا ...
the commerce in which you fear a decline, and the dwellings in which you delight,
and prefer and love because they are comfortable and good. If all these things,
... أَحَبَّ إِلَيْكُم مِّنَ اللّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَجِهَادٍ فِي سَبِيلِهِ فَتَرَبَّصُواْ ...
are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger, and striving hard and fighting in His cause, then wait...
for what will befall you of Allah's punishment and torment,
... حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ اللّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ وَاللّهُ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ ﴿٢٤﴾
until Allah brings about His decision. And Allah guides not the people who are rebellious.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Zuhrah bin Ma`bad said that his grandfather said,
"We were with the Messenger of Allah, while he was holding the hand of Umar bin Al-Khattab. Umar said, `By Allah! You, O Messenger of Allah, are dearer to me than everything, except for myself.'
The Messenger of Allah said,
لَا يُؤْمِنُ أَحَدُكُمْ حَتَّى أَكُونَ أَحَبَّ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ نَفْسِه
None among you will attain faith until I become dearer to him than even himself.
Umar said, `Verily, now, you are dearer to me than myself, by Allah!'
The Messenger of Allah said, الْآنَ يَا عُمَر (Now, O `Umar)!''
Al-Bukhari also collected this Hadith.
Imam Ahmad and Abu Dawud (this is the version of Abu Dawud) recorded that Ibn Umar said,
"I heard the Messenger of Allah saying,
إِذَا تَبَايَعْتُمْ بِالْعِينَةِ وَأَخَذْتُمْ بِأَذْنَابِ الْبَقَرِ وَرَضِيتُمْ بِالزَّرْعِ، وَتَرَكْتُمُ الْجِهَادَ سَلَّطَ اللهُ عَلَيْكُمْ ذُلًّا لَا يَنْزِعُهُ حَتَّى تَرْجِعُوا إِلَى دِينِكُم
If you transact in `Iynah (a type of Riba), follow the tails of cows (tilling the land), become content with agriculture and abandoned Jihad, Allah will send on you disgrace that He will not remove until, you return to your religion.''
The Outcome of Victory by Way of the Unseen Aid
لَقَدْ نَصَرَكُمُ اللّهُ فِي مَوَاطِنَ كَثِيرَةٍ وَيَوْمَ حُنَيْنٍ إِذْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ كَثْرَتُكُمْ فَلَمْ تُغْنِ عَنكُمْ شَيْئًا وَضَاقَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الأَرْضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتْ ثُمَّ وَلَّيْتُم مُّدْبِرِينَ ﴿٢٥﴾
Truly, Allah has given you victory on many battlefields, and on the day of Hunayn (battle) when you rejoiced at your great number, but it availed you naught and the earth, vast as it is, was straitened for you, then you turned back in flight.
Ibn Jurayj reported from Mujahid that;
this was the first Ayah of Bara'ah in which Allah, the Exalted, reminds the believers how He favored and blessed them by giving them victory in many battles with His Messenger. Allah mentioned that victory comes from Him, by His aid and decree, not because of their numbers or adequate supplies, whether the triumphs are few or many.
On the day of Hunayn, the Muslims were proud because of their large number, which did not avail them in the least; they retreated and fled from battle. Only a few of them remained with the Messenger of Allah Allah then sent down His aid and support to His Messenger and the believers who remained with him, so that they were aware that victory is from Allah alone and through His aid, even if the victorious were few. Many a small group overcame a larger opposition by Allah's leave, and Allah is ever with those who are patient.
We will explain this subject in detail below,
The Battle of Hunayn
The battle of Hunayn occurred after the victory of Makkah, in the month of Shawwal of the eighth year of Hijrah.
After the Prophet conquered Makkah and things settled, most of its people embraced Islam and he set them free. News came to the Messenger of Allah that the tribe of Hawazin were gathering their forces to fight him, under the command of Malik bin Awf An-Nadri, as well as, the entire tribe of Thaqif, the tribes of Banu Jusham, Banu Sa`d bin Bakr, a few people of Awza` from Banu Hilal and some people from Bani Amr bin Amir and Awf bin Amir.
They brought their women, children, sheep and camels along, in addition to their armed forces and adequate supplies. The Messenger of Allah marched to meet them with the army that he brought to conquer Makkah, ten thousand from the Muhajirin, the Ansar and various Arab tribes. Along with them came the Tulaqa numbering two thousand men.
The Messenger took them along to meet the enemy. The two armies met in Hunayn, a valley between Makkah and At-Ta'if.
The battle started in the early part of the morning, when the Huwazin forces, who were lying in ambush, descended on the valley when the Muslims entered. Muslims were suddenly struck by the ambush, the arrows descended on them and the swords struck them. The Huwazin commander ordered them to descend and attack the Muslims as one block, and when they did that, the Muslims retreated in haste, just as Allah described them.
The Messenger of Allah remained firm in his position while riding his mule, Ash-Shahba'. He was leading his mule towards the enemy, while his uncle Al-Abbas was holding its right-hand rope and (his cousin) Abu Sufyan bin Al-Harith bin Abdul-Muttalib was holding the left rope. They tried to hold the mule back so it would not run faster toward the enemy. Meanwhile, the Messenger of Allah was declaring his name aloud and saying,
إِلَيَّ عِبَادَ اللهِ إِلَيَ أَنَا رَسُولُ الله
O servants of Allah! Come back to me! I am the Messenger of Allah!
He repeated these words,
أَنَا النَّبِيُّ لَاكَذِبْ. أَنَا ابْنُ عَبْدِالْمُطَّلِب
I am the Prophet, not lying! I am the son of Abdul-Muttalib!
There remained between a hundred and eighty Companions with the Prophet. These included
There were many other Companions, may Allah be pleased with them.
The Prophet commanded his uncle Al-Abbas, whose voice was rather loud, to call at the top of his voice, "O Companions of the Samurah (tree)' referring to the Muhajirin and Ansar who gave their pledge under the tree during the pledge of Ridwan, not to run away and retreat.
He also called, "O Companions of Surah Al-Baqarah.''
Upon hearing that, those heralded started saying,
"Here we are!
Here we are!''
Muslims started returning in the direction of the Messenger of Allah. If the camel of one of them did not obey him (as the people were rushing to the other direction in flight) he would wear his shield and descend from his camel and rush to the side of the Messenger of Allah on foot.
When a large crowd gathered around the Messenger of Allah, he commanded them to fight in sincerity and took a handful of sand and threw it in the faces of the disbelievers, after supplicating to Allah,
أللّهُمَّ أَنْجِزْ لِي مَا وَعَدْتَنِي
O Allah! Fulfill Your promise to me!
Then he threw that handful of sand which entered the eyes and mouth of all the disbelievers, thus distracting them from fighting, and they retreated in defeat.
The Muslims pursued the enemy, killing and capturing them. The rest of the Muslim army (returning to battle gradually) rejoined their positions and found many captured disbelieving soldiers kept tied before the Messenger of Allah.
In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Shubah said that Abu Ishaq said that;
Al-Bara bin Azib said to a man who asked him, "O Abu Amarah! Did you run away during Hunayn and leave the Messenger of Allah?''
Al-Bara' said, "But the Messenger of Allah did not run away. Hawazin was a tribe proficient with their arrows. When we met them we attacked their forces and they ran away in defeat. The Muslims started to worry about collecting the spoils of war and the Hawazin started shooting arrows at us, then the Muslims fled. I saw the Messenger of Allah proclaiming, -- while Abu Sufyan was holding the bridle of his white mule,
أَنَا النَّبِيُّ لَاكَذِبْ أَنَا ابْنُ عَبْدِالْمُطَّلِب
I am the Prophet, not lying, I am the son of Abdul- Muttalib!"
This shows the great courage on behalf of the Prophet in the midst of confusion, when his army ran away and left him behind. Yet, the Messenger remained on his mule, which is a slow animal, not suitable for fast battle moves or even escape. Yet, the Messenger of Allah was encouraging his mule to move forward towards the enemy announcing who he was, so that those among them who did not know who he was came to know him.
May Allah's peace and blessings be on the Messenger until the Day of Resurrection. This indicates the tremendous trust in Allah and reliance upon Him, as well as, sure knowledge that He will give him victory, complete what He has sent him for and give prominence to his religion above all other religions.
ثُمَّ أَنَزلَ اللّهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ ...
Then Allah did send down His Sakinah on His Messenger,
He sent down tranquility and reassurance to His Messenger,
... وَعَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ...
and on the believers,
who remained with him,
... وَأَنزَلَ جُنُودًا لَّمْ تَرَوْهَا ...
and sent down forces which you saw not, (this refers to angels).
... وَعذَّبَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَذَلِكَ جَزَاء الْكَافِرِينَ ﴿٢٦﴾
and punished the disbelievers. Such is the recompense of disbelievers.
Imam Abu Jafar bin Jarir (At-Tabari) said that Al-Qasim narrated to them, that Al-Hasan bin Arafah said that Al-Mu`tamir bin Sulayman said from `Awf bin Abi Jamilah Al-Arabi who said that he heard Abdur-Rahman, the freed slave of Ibn Barthan saying,
"A man who participated in Hunayn with the idolators narrated to me, `When we met the Messenger of Allah and his Companions on the day of Hunayn, they did not remain in battle more than the time it takes to milk a sheep! When we defeated them, we pursued them until we ended at the rider of the white mule, the Messenger of Allah. At that time, men with white handsome faces intercepted us and said: `Disgraced be the faces! Go back. So we ran away, but they followed us. That was the end for us.'''
ثُمَّ يَتُوبُ اللّهُ مِن بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ عَلَى مَن يَشَاء وَاللّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ ﴿٢٧﴾
Then after that Allah will accept the repentance of whom He wills. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Allah forgave the rest of Huwazin when they embraced Islam and went to the Prophet, before he arrived at Makkah in the Jiranah area. This occurred twenty days after the battle of Hunayn.
The Messenger gave them the choice between taking those who were prisoner or the war spoils they lost, and they chose the former.
The Prophet released six thousand prisoners to them, but divided the war spoils between the victors, such as some of the Tulaqa, so that their hearts would be inclined towards Islam. He gave each of them a hundred camels, and the same to Malik bin Awf An-Nasri whom he appointed chief of his people (Huwazin) as he was before.
Malik bin Awf said a poem in which he praised the Messenger of Allah for his generosity and extraordinary courage.
Idolators are no longer allowed into Al-Masjid Al-Haram
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِنَّمَا الْمُشْرِكُونَ نَجَسٌ فَلاَ يَقْرَبُواْ الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ بَعْدَ عَامِهِمْ هَـذَا ...
O you who believe! Verily, the Mushrikin are impure. So let them not come near Al-Masjid Al-Haram after this year;
Allah commands His believing servants, who are pure in religion and person, to expel the idolators who are filthy in the religious sense, from Al-Masjid Al-Haram.
After the revelation of this Ayah, idolators were no longer allowed to go near the Masjid.
This Ayah was revealed in the ninth year of Hijrah. The Messenger of Allah sent Ali in the company of Abu Bakr that year to publicize to the idolators that no Mushrik will be allowed to perform Hajj after that year, nor a naked person allowed to perform Tawaf around the House.
Allah completed this decree, made it a legislative ruling, as well as, a fact of reality.
Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Jabir bin Abdullah commented on the Ayah, يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِنَّمَا الْمُشْرِكُونَ نَجَسٌ فَلاَ يَقْرَبُواْ الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ بَعْدَ عَامِهِمْ هَـذَا (O you who believe! Verily, the Mushrikin are impure. So let them not come near Al-Masjid Al-Haram after this year),
"Unless it was a servant or one of the people of Dhimmah.''
Imam Abu Amr Al-Awza'i said,
"Umar bin Abdul-Aziz wrote (to his governors) to prevent Jews and Christians from entering the Masjids of Muslims, and he followed his order with Allah's statement, إِنَّمَا الْمُشْرِكُونَ نَجَسٌ (Verily, the Mushrikin are impure).
"All of the Sacred Area (the Haram) is considered a Masjid, for Allah said, فَلاَ يَقْرَبُواْ الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ بَعْدَ عَامِهِمْ هَـذَا (So let them not come near Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at Makkah) after this year).''
This Ayah indicates that idolators are impure and that the believers are pure. In the Sahih is the following,
الْمُؤْمِنُ لَا يَنْجُس
The believer does not become impure.
... وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ عَيْلَةً فَسَوْفَ يُغْنِيكُمُ اللّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ ...
and if you fear poverty, Allah will enrich you, out of His bounty.
Muhammad bin Ishaq commented,
"The people said, `Our markets will be closed, our commerce disrupted, and what we earned will vanish.'
So Allah revealed this verse, وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ عَيْلَةً فَسَوْفَ يُغْنِيكُمُ اللّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ (and if you fear poverty, Allah will enrich you, out of His bounty), from other resources, إِن شَاء (if He wills), until, وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ (... and feel themselves subdued).
This Ayah means, `this will be your compensation for the closed markets that you feared would result.'
Therefore, Allah compensated them for the losses they incurred because they severed ties with idolators, by the Jizyah they earned from the People of the Book.''
Similar statements were reported from Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak and others.
... إِنَّ اللّهَ عَلِيمٌ ...
Surely, Allah is All-Knowing, (in what benefits you),
... حَكِيمٌ ﴿٢٨﴾
in His orders and prohibitions, for He is All-Perfect in His actions and statements, All-Just in His creations and decisions, Blessed and Hallowed be He. This is why Allah compensated Muslims for their losses by the amount of Jizyah that they took from the people of Dhimmah.
The Order to fight People of the Scriptures until They give the Jizyah
قَاتِلُواْ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَلاَ بِالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَلاَ يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلاَ يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَابَ ...
Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth among the People of the Scripture, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.
Therefore, when People of the Scriptures disbelieved in Muhammad, they had no beneficial faith in any Messenger or what the Messengers brought. Rather, they followed their religions because this conformed with their ideas, lusts and the ways of their forefathers, not because they are Allah's Law and religion. Had they been true believers in their religions, that faith would have directed them to believe in Muhammad, because all Prophets gave the good news of Muhammad's advent and commanded them to obey and follow him. Yet when he was sent, they disbelieved in him, even though he is the mightiest of all Messengers. Therefore, they do not follow the religion of earlier Prophets because these religions came from Allah, but because these suit their desires and lusts. Therefore, their claimed faith in an earlier Prophet will not benefit them because they disbelieved in the master, the mightiest, the last and most perfect of all Prophets . Hence Allah's statement,
قَاتِلُواْ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَلاَ بِالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَلاَ يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلاَ يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَابَ ...
Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth among the People of the Scripture,
This honorable Ayah was revealed with the order to fight the People of the Book, after the pagans were defeated, the people entered Allah's religion in large numbers, and the Arabian Peninsula was secured under the Muslims' control. Allah commanded His Messenger to fight the People of the Scriptures, Jews and Christians, on the ninth year of Hijrah, and he prepared his army to fight the Romans and called the people to Jihad announcing his intent and destination.
The Messenger sent his intent to various Arab areas around Al-Madinah to gather forces, and he collected an army of thirty thousand. Some people from Al-Madinah and some hypocrites, in and around it, lagged behind, for that year was a year of drought and intense heat.
The Messenger of Allah marched, heading towards Ash-Sham to fight the Romans until he reached Tabuk, where he set camp for about twenty days next to its water resources. He then prayed to Allah for a decision and went back to Al-Madinah because it was a hard year and the people were weak, as we will mention, Allah willing.
Paying Jizyah is a Sign of Kufr and Disgrace
... حَتَّى يُعْطُواْ الْجِزْيَةَ ...
until they pay the Jizyah,
if they do not choose to embrace Islam,
... عَن يَدٍ ...
with willing submission,
in defeat and subservience,
... وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ ﴿٢٩﴾
and feel themselves subdued.
disgraced, humiliated and belittled. Therefore, Muslims are not allowed to honor the people of Dhimmah or elevate them above Muslims, for they are miserable, disgraced and humiliated.
Muslim recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said,
لَا تَبْدَءُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى بِالسَّلَامِ، وَإِذَا لَقِيتُمْ أَحَدَهُمْ فِي طَرِيقٍ فَاضْطَرُّوهُ إِلَى أَضْيَقِه
Do not initiate the Salam to the Jews and Christians, and if you meet any of them in a road, force them to its narrowest alley.
This is why the Leader of the faithful Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, demanded his well-known conditions be met by the Christians, these conditions that ensured their continued humiliation, degradation and disgrace.
The scholars of Hadith narrated from Abdur-Rahman bin Ghanm Al-Ashari that he said,
"I recorded for Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, the terms of the treaty of peace he conducted with the Christians of Ash-Sham:
`In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
This is a document to the servant of Allah Umar, the Leader of the faithful, from the Christians of such and such city.
When I gave this document to Umar, he added to it,
Fighting the Jews and Christians is legislated because They are Idolators and Disbelievers
وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ عُزَيْرٌ ابْنُ اللّهِ وَقَالَتْ النَّصَارَى الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ اللّهِ ...
And the Jews say: "Uzayr (Ezra) is the son of Allah,''
and the Christians say: "The Messiah is the son of Allah.''
Allah the Exalted encourages the believers to fight the polytheists, disbelieving Jews and Christians, who uttered this terrible statement and utter lies against Allah, the Exalted.
As for the Jews, they claimed that `Uzayr was the son of God, Allah is free of what they attribute to Him. As for the misguidance of Christians over `Isa, it is obvious. This is why Allah declared both groups to be liars,
... ذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُم بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ ...
That is their saying with their mouths,
but they have no proof that supports their claim, other than lies and fabrications,
... يُضَاهِؤُونَ ...
... قَوْلَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِن قَبْلُ ...
the saying of those who disbelieved aforetime.
They imitate the previous nations who fell into misguidance just as Jews and Christians did,
... قَاتَلَهُمُ اللّهُ ...
may Allah fight them,
Ibn Abbas said,
"May Allah curse them.''
... أَنَّى يُؤْفَكُونَ ﴿٣٠﴾
how they are deluded away from the truth!
how they deviate from truth, when it is apparent, exchanging it for misguidance.
Allah said next,
اتَّخَذُواْ أَحْبَارَهُمْ وَرُهْبَانَهُمْ أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللّهِ وَالْمَسِيحَ ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ ...
They took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allah, and the Messiah, son of Maryam.
Imam Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Jarir At-Tabari recorded a Hadith via several chains of narration, from Adi bin Hatim, may Allah be pleased with him, who became Christian during the time of Jahiliyyah. When the call of the Messenger of Allah reached his area, Adi ran away to Ash-Sham, and his sister and several of his people were captured.
The Messenger of Allah freed his sister and gave her gifts. So she went to her brother and encouraged him to become Muslim and to go to the Messenger of Allah. Adi, who was one of the chiefs of his people (the tribe of Tai') and whose father, Hatim At-Ta'i, was known for his generosity, went to Al-Madinah. When the people announced his arrival, Adi went to the Messenger of Allah wearing a silver cross around his neck. The Messenger of Allah recited this Ayah;
اتَّخَذُواْ أَحْبَارَهُمْ وَرُهْبَانَهُمْ أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللّهِ ...
They took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allah.
Adi commented, "I said, `They did not worship them.'''
The Prophet said,
بَلَى إِنَّهُمْ حَرَّمُوا عَلَيْهِمُ الْحَلَالَ وَأَحَلُّوا لَهُمُ الْحَرَامَ فَاتَّبَعُوهُمْ فَذَلِكَ عِبَادَتُهُمْ إِيَّاهُم
Yes they did. They (rabbis and monks) prohibited the allowed for them (Christians and Jews) and allowed the prohibited, and they obeyed them. This is how they worshipped them.
The Messenger of Allah said to Adi,
يَا عَدِيُّ مَا تَقُولُ؟
O Adi what do you say?
أَيُفِرُّكَ أَنْ يُقَالَ: اللهُ أَكْبَرَ؟
Did you run away (to Ash-Sham) so that 'Allahu Akbar' (Allah is the Great) is not pronounced?
فَهَلْ تَعْلَمُ شَيْئًا أَكْبَرَ مِنَ الله؟
Do you know of anything greater than Allah?
What made you run away?
أَيُفِرُّكَ أَنْ يُقَالَ: لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ ؟
Did you run away so that `La ilaha illallah' is not pronounced?
فَهَلْ تَعْلَمُ مَنْ إِلهٌ إِلَّا اللهُ ؟
Do you know of any deity worthy of worship except Allah?
The Messenger invited Adi to embrace Islam, and he embraced Islam and pronounced the Testimony of Truth. The face of the Messenger of Allah beamed with pleasure and he said to Adi,
إِنَّ الْيَهُودَ مَغْضُوبٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَالنَّصَارَى ضَالُّون
Verily, the Jews have earned the anger (of Allah) and the Christians are misguided.
Hudhayfah bin Al-Yaman, Abdullah bin Abbas and several others said about the explanation of, اتَّخَذُواْ أَحْبَارَهُمْ وَرُهْبَانَهُمْ أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللّهِ (They took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allah...),
that the Christians and Jews obeyed their monks and rabbis in whatever they allowed or prohibited for them.
This is why Allah said,
... وَمَا أُمِرُواْ إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُواْ إِلَـهًا وَاحِدًا ...
while they were commanded to worship none but One God,
Who, whatever He renders prohibited is the prohibited, whatever He allowed is the allowed, whatever He legislates, is to be the law followed, and whatever He decides is to be adhered to;
... لاَّ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ سُبْحَانَهُ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ ﴿٣١﴾
None has the right to be worshipped but He. Hallowed be He above what they associate (with Him).
Meaning, exalted, sanctified, hallowed above partners, equals, aids, rivals or children, there is no deity or Lord worthy of worship except Him.
People of the Scriptures try to extinguish the Light of Islam
يُرِيدُونَ أَن يُطْفِؤُواْ نُورَ اللّهِ بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ ...
They (the disbelieving idolators and People of the Scriptures) want to extinguish the Light of Allah with their mouths,
They try through argument and lies to extinguish the guidance and religion of truth that the Messenger of Allah was sent with.
Their example is the example of he who wants to extinguish the light of the sun or the moon by blowing at them! Indeed, such a person will never accomplish what he sought. Likewise, the light of what the Messenger was sent with will certainly shine and spread.
Allah replied to the idolators' desire and hope,
... وَيَأْبَى اللّهُ إِلاَّ أَن يُتِمَّ نُورَهُ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْكَافِرُونَ ﴿٣٢﴾
but Allah will not allow except that His Light should be perfected even though the disbelievers (Kafirun) hate (it).
Linguistically a Kafir is the person who covers something.
For instance, night is called Kafiran (covering) because it covers things (with darkness).
The farmer is called Kafiran, because he covers seeds in the ground.
Allah said in an Ayah,
أَعْجَبَ الْكُفَّارَ نَبَاتُهُ
thereof the growth is pleasing to the (Kuffar) tillers. (57:20)
Islam is the Religion That will dominate over all Other Religions
Allah said next,
هُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَى وَدِينِ الْحَقِّ ...
It is He Who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth.
`Guidance' refers to the true narrations, beneficial faith and true religion that the Messenger came with.
`religion of truth' refers to the righteous, legal deeds that bring about benefit in this life and the Hereafter.
... لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ ﴿٣٣﴾
to make it (Islam) superior over all religions, even though the idolators hate (it).
It is recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said,
إِنَّ اللهَ زَوَى لِي الْأَرْضَ مَشَارِقَهَا وَمَغَارِبَهَا، وَسَيَبْلُغُ مُلْكُ أُمَّتِي مَا زُوِيَ لِييِمنْهَا
Allah made the eastern and western parts of the earth draw near for me (to see), and the rule of my Ummah will extend as far as I saw.
Imam Ahmad recorded from Tamim Ad-Dari that he said,
"I heard the Messenger of Allah saying,
لَيَبْلُغَنَّ هَذَا الْأَمْرُ مَا بَلَغَ اللَّيْلُ وَالنَّهَارُ، وَلَا يَتْرُكُ اللهُ بَيْتَ مَدَرٍ وَلَا وَبَرٍ إِلَّا أَدْخَلَهُ هَذَا الدِّينَ، يُعِزُّ عَزِيزًا وَيُذِلُّ ذَلِيلًا، عِزًّا يُعِزُّ اللهُ بِهِ الْإِسْلَامَ وَذُلًّا يُذِلُّ اللهُ بِهِ الْكُفْر
This matter (Islam) will keep spreading as far as the night and day reach, until Allah will not leave a house made of mud or hair, but will make this religion enter it, while bringing might to a mighty person (a Muslim) and humiliation to a disgraced person (who rejects Islam). Might with which Allah elevates Islam (and its people) and disgrace with which Allah humiliates disbelief (and its people).
Tamim Ad-Dari (who was a Christian before Islam) used to say,
"I have come to know the meaning of this Hadith in my own people.
Warning against Corrupt Scholars and Misguided Worshippers
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الأَحْبَارِ وَالرُّهْبَانِ ...
O you who believe! Verily, there are many of the Ahbar (rabbis) and the Ruhban (monks) who,
As-Suddi said that;
the Ahbar are Jewish rabbis, while the Ruhban are Christian monks.
This statement is true, for Ahbar are Jewish rabbis, just as Allah said,
لَوْلاَ يَنْهَـهُمُ الرَّبَّـنِيُّونَ وَالاٌّحْبَارُ عَن قَوْلِهِمُ الإِثْمَ وَأَكْلِهِمُ السُّحْتَ
Why do not the Ahbar (rabbis) and the religious learned men forbid them from uttering sinful words and eating unlawful things. (5:63)
The Ruhban are Christian monks or worshippers, while the `Qissisun' are their scholars.
Allah said in another Ayah,
ذلِكَ بِأَنَّ مِنْهُمْ قِسِّيسِينَ وَرُهْبَاناً
This is because among them, there are Qissisin and Ruhban... (5:82)
This Ayah warns against corrupt scholars and misguided worshippers.
Sufyan bin Uyaynah said,
"Those among our scholars who become corrupt are similar to the Jews, while those among our worshippers who become misguided are like Christians.''
An authentic Hadith declares,
لَتَرْكَبُنَّ سُنَنَ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ حَذْوَ القُذَّةِ بِالْقُذَّة
You will follow the ways of those who were before you, step by step.
They asked, "Jews and Christians?''
He said, فَمَن (Who else)!
In another narration, they asked, "Persia and Rome?''
فَمَنِ النَّاسِ إِلَّا هَؤُلَاءِ ؟
And who else if it was not them?
These texts warn against imitating them in action and statement, for they, as Allah stated,
... لَيَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَالَ النَّاسِ بِالْبَاطِلِ وَيَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللّهِ ...
devour the wealth of mankind in falsehood, and hinder (them) from the way of Allah.
They sell the religion in return for worldly gains, using their positions and status among people to illegally devour their property.
For instance, the Jews were respected by the people of Jahiliyyah and collected gifts, taxes and presents from them.
When Allah sent His Messenger, the Jews persisted in their misguidance, disbelief and rebellion, hoping to keep their status and position. However, Allah extinguished all this and took it away from them with the light of Prophethood and instead gave them disgrace and degradation, and they incurred the anger of Allah, the Exalted.
Allah said next,
... وَيَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللّهِ ...
and hinder (them) from the way of Allah.
Therefore, they illegally devour people's property and hinder them from following the truth.
They also confuse truth with falsehood and pretend before their ignorant followers that they call to righteousness.
The true reality is that they call to the Fire and will not find any helpers on the Day of Resurrection.
Torment of Those Who hoard Gold and Silver
... وَالَّذِينَ يَكْنِزُونَ الذَّهَبَ وَالْفِضَّةَ وَلاَ يُنفِقُونَهَا فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ فَبَشِّرْهُم بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ ﴿٣٤﴾
And those who hoard (Kanz) gold and silver and spend them not in the way of Allah, announce unto them a painful torment.
This is the third category of leaders, for people rely on their scholars, worshippers and the wealthy among them. When these categories of people become corrupt, the society in general becomes corrupt.
Ibn Al-Mubarak once said,
"What corrupted the religion, except kings and wicked Ahbar and Ruhban.''
As for Kanz, it refers to the wealth on which Zakah has not been paid, according to Malik, who narrated this from Abdullah bin Dinar from Ibn Umar that.
Al-Bukhari recorded that Az-Zuhri said that Khalid bin Aslam said that Abdullah bin Umar said,
"This was before Zakah was ordained. When Zakah was ordained, Allah made it a cleanser for wealth.''
Umar bin Abdul-`Aziz and Irak bin Malik said that this Ayah was abrogated by Allah's statement,
خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً
Take Sadaqah (alms) from their wealth. (9:103)
There are many Hadiths that admonish hoarding gold and silver. We will mention here some of these Hadiths.
Abdur-Razzaq recorded a Hadith from Ali about Allah's statement, وَالَّذِينَ يَكْنِزُونَ الذَّهَبَ وَالْفِضَّة (And those who hoard up gold and silver...) Ali said that the Prophet said,
تَبًّا لِلذَّهَبٍ تَبًّا لِلْفِضَّة
Woe to gold! Woe to silver.
He repeated this statement thrice, and this Hadith was hard on the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, who said, "What type of wealth should we use!''
Umar said, "I will find out for you,'' and he asked, "O Allah's Messenger! Your statement was hard for your Companions. They asked, `What wealth should we use?'''
The Prophet answered,
لِسَانًا ذَاكِرًا وَقَلْبًا شَاكِرًا وَزَوْجَةً تُعِينُ أَحَدَكُمْ عَلَى دِينِه
A remembering tongue, an appreciative heart and a wife that helps one of you implement his religion.
يَوْمَ يُحْمَى عَلَيْهَا فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ فَتُكْوَى بِهَا جِبَاهُهُمْ وَجُنوبُهُمْ وَظُهُورُهُمْ هَـذَا مَا كَنَزْتُمْ لأَنفُسِكُمْ فَذُوقُواْ مَا كُنتُمْ تَكْنِزُونَ ﴿٣٥﴾
On the Day when that will be heated in the fire of Hell and with it will be branded their foreheads, their flanks, and their backs, (and it will be said unto them) "This is the treasure which you hoarded for yourselves. Now taste of what you used to hoard.''
These words will be said to them as a way of admonishing, criticizing and mocking them.
Allah also said;
ثُمَّ صُبُّواْ فَوْقَ رَأْسِهِ مِنْ عَذَابِ الْحَمِيمِ
ذُقْ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْكَرِيمُ
Then pour over his head the torment of boiling water. "Taste you (this)! Verily, you were (pretending to be) the mighty, the generous!'' (44:48-49)
There is a saying that goes,
"He who covets a thing and prefers it to Allah's obedience, will be punished with it.''
Because hoarding money was better to these people than Allah's pleasure, they were punished with it.
For instance, Abu Lahab, may Allah curse him, was especially active in defying the Messenger of Allah, and his wife was helping him in this regard. Therefore, on the Day of Resurrection, she will help in punishing him, for there will be a twisted rope of palm fiber on her neck. She will be gathering wood from the Fire and throwing it on him so that his torment is made harder by the hand of someone whom he used to care for in this life.
Likewise, money was precious to those who hoarded it in this life. Therefore, money will produce the worst harm for them in the Hereafter, when it will be heated in the Fire of Jahannam, whose heat is quiet sufficient, and their forehead, sides and back will be branded with it.
Imam Abu Jafar Ibn Jarir recorded that Thawban said that the Messenger of Allah used to declare,
مَنْ تَركَ بَعْدَهُ كَنْزًا مُثِّلَ لَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ شُجَاعًا أَقَرَعَ لَهُ زَبِيبَتَانِ يَتْبَعُهُ وَيَقُولُ: وَيْلَكَ مَا أَنْتَ؟ فَيَقُولُ: أَنَا كَنْزُكَ الَّذِي تَرَكْتَهُ بَعْدكَ وَلَا يَزَالُ يَتْبَعُهُ حَتَّى يُلْقِمَهُ يَدَهُ فَيَقْضِمَهَا ثُمَّ يَتْبَعُهَا سَائِرَ جَسَدِه
Whoever leaves a treasure behind (on which he did not pay the Zakah), then on the Day of Resurrection his wealth will be made like a bald-headed poisonous male snake with two black spots over the eyes. The snake will follow him, and he will say, `Woe to you! Who are you!' The snake will say, `I am your treasure that you left behind,' and will keep following him until the man gives it his hand; the snake will devour it and then devour his whole body.
Ibn Hibban also collected this Hadith in his Sahih.
Part of this Hadith was also collected in the Two Sahihs from Abu Hurayrah.
In his Sahih, Muslim recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said,
مَا مِنْ رَجُلٍ لَا يُؤَدِّي زَكَاةَ مَالِهِ إِلَّا جُعِلَ لَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ صَفَائِحُ مِنْ نَارٍ، فَيُكْوَى بِهَا جَنْبُهُ وَجَبْهَتُهُ وَظَهْرُهُ فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ، حَتَّى يُقْضَى بَيْنَ الْعِبَادِ ثُمَّ يُرَى سَبِيلُهُ إِمَّا إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَإِمَّا إِلَى النَّار
Every man who does not pay the Zakah due on his money, then on the Day of Resurrection, his side, forehead and back will be branded with rods made of fire on a Day the length of which is fifty thousand years, until when the servants will be judged; that man will be shown his destination, either to Paradise or the Fire.
In the Tafsir of this Ayah, Al-Bukhari recorded that Zayd bin Wahb said,
"I passed by Abu Dharr in the area of Rabadhah and asked him, `What made you reside in this area?'
He said, `We were in Ash-Sham when I recited this Ayah,
وَالَّذِينَ يَكْنِزُونَ الذَّهَبَ وَالْفِضَّةَ وَلاَ يُنفِقُونَهَا فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ فَبَشِّرْهُم بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ
And those who hoard up gold and silver and spend them not in the way of Allah, announce unto them a painful torment.
Mu`awiyah said, `This Ayah is not about us, it is only about the People of the Book.'
So I (Abu Dharr) said, `Rather, it is about us and them.''
The Year consists of Twelve Months
إِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُورِ عِندَ اللّهِ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْرًا فِي كِتَابِ اللّهِ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَات وَالأَرْضَ ...
Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year), so was it ordained by Allah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth;
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Bakrah said that the Prophet said in a speech during his Hajj,
أَلَا إِنَّ الزَّمَانَ قَدِ اسْتَدَارَ كَهَيْئَتِهِ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ اللهُ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ، السَّنَةُ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْرًا مِنْهَا أَرْبَعُةٌ حُرُمٌ، ثَلَاثَةٌ مُتَوَالِيَاتٌ: ذُو الْقَعْدَةِ وَذُو الْحِجَّةِ وَالْمُحَرَّمُ وَرَجَبُ مُضَرَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ جُمَادَى وَشَعْبَان
The division of time has turned to its original form which was current when Allah created the heavens and the earth. The year is of twelve months, out of which four months are sacred: Three are in succession Dhul-Qa`dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab of (the tribe of) Mudar which comes between Jumada (Ath-Thaniyah) and Sha`ban.''
The Prophet then asked,
أَيُّ يَوْمٍ هَذَا ؟
What is the day today?
We said, "Allah and His Messenger know better.
He kept quiet until we thought that he might give that day another name.
أَلَيْسَ يَوْمَ النَّحْرِ؟
He said: Isn't it the day of Nahr?
We replied, "Yes.''
أَيُّ شَهْرٍ هَذَا ؟
He further asked, Which month is this?
We again said, "Allah and His Messenger know better,'' and he kept quiet and made us think that he might give it another name.
أَلَيْسَ ذَا الحِجَّة ِ؟
Then he said, (Isn't it the month of Dhul-Hijjah?
We replied, "Yes.''
أَيُّ بَلَدٍ هَذَا ؟
He asked, What town is this?
We said, "Allah and His Messenger know better,'' and he kept quiet until we thought that he might change its name.
أَلَيْسَتِ الْبَلْدَةَ ؟
He asked, Isn't this the (Sacred) Town?
We said, "Yes.''
فَإِنَّ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَأَمْوَالَكُمْ وَأَحْسِبُهُ قَالَ وَأَعْرَاضَكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ حَرَامٌ كَحُرْمَةِ يَوْمِكُمْ هَذَا فِي شَهْرِكُمْ هَذَا، فِي بَلَدِكُمْ هَذَا.
Verily! Your blood, property and honor are sacred to one another like the sanctity of this day of yours, in this month of yours and in this city of yours.
وَسَتَلْقَوْنَ رَبَّكُمْ فَيَسْأَلُكُمْ عَنْ أَعْمَالِكُمْ،
Verily, you will meet your Lord and He will question you about your actions.
أَلَا لَا تَرْجِعُوا بَعْدِي ضُلَّالًا يَضْرِبُ بَعْضُكُمْ رِقَابَ بَعْضٍ أَلَا
Behold! Do not revert to misguidance after me by striking the necks of one another.
هَلْ بَلَّغْتُ ؟
Have I conveyed?
أَلَا لِيُبَلِّغِ الشَّاهِدُ مِنْكُمُ الْغَائِبَ فَلَعَلَّ مَنْ يُبَلِّغُهُ يَكُونُ أَوْعَى لَهُ مِنْ بَعْضِ مَنْ سَمِعَه
It is incumbent upon those who are present to inform those who are absent, because those who are absent might comprehend (what I have said) better than some who are present.
Al-Bukhari and Muslim collected this Hadith.
In a small book collected by Shaykh Alam ad-Din As-Sakhawi, entitled, Al-Mashhur fi Asma' Al-Ayam wash-Shuhur, he mentioned that;
The author said, "...and
The Sacred Months
... مِنْهَا أَرْبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ ...
of them four are sacred.
The Arabs used to consider these months sacred during the time of Jahiliyyah, except for a group of them called Al-Basl, who held eight months of the year to be sacred as way of exaggeration in religion.
The Prophet said,
ثَلَاثَةٌ مُتَوَالِيَاتٌ: ذُو الْقَعْدَةِ وَذُو الْحِجَّةِ وَالْمُحَرَّمُ وَرَجَبُ مُضَرَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ جُمَادَى وَشَعْبَان
Three are in succession; Dhul-Qa`dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab (of (the tribe of) Mudar which comes between Jumada (Ath-Thani)) and Shaban.
The Prophet said "Rajab of Mudar'' to attest to the custom of Mudar, in saying that Rajab is the month that is between Jumada and Shaban, not as the tribe of Rabiah thought, that it is between Shaban and Shawwal, which is Ramadan in the present calendar.
The four Sacred Months were made four, three in succession and one alone, so that the Hajj and Umrah are performed with ease.
Allah said next,
... ذَلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ ...
That is the right religion,
that is the Straight Law, requiring implementing Allah's order concerning the months that He made sacred and their true count as it was originally written by Allah.
... فَلاَ تَظْلِمُواْ فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ ...
so wrong not yourselves therein,
during these Sacred Months, for sin in them is worse than sin in other months.
Likewise, sins in the Sacred City are written multiplied,
وَمَن يُرِدْ فِيهِ بِإِلْحَادٍ بِظُلْمٍ نُّذِقْهُ مِنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ
...and whoever inclines to evil actions therein (in Makkah) or to do wrong, him We shall cause to taste from a painful torment. (22:25)
Similarly, sin in general is worse during the Sacred Months.
Ali bin Abi Talhah narrated that Ibn Abbas said, Allah's statement, إِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُورِ عِندَ اللّهِ (Verily, the number of months with Allah...), is connected to فَلاَ تَظْلِمُواْ فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ (so wrong not yourselves therein),
"In all (twelve) months. Allah then chose four out of these months and made them sacred, emphasizing their sanctity, making sinning in them greater, in addition to, multiplying rewards of righteous deeds during them.''
Qatadah said about Allah's statement, فَلاَ تَظْلِمُواْ فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ (so wrong not yourselves therein),
"Injustice during the Sacred Months is worse and graver than injustice in other months. Verily, injustice is always wrong, but Allah makes things graver than others as He will.''
He also said,
"Allah has chosen some of His creation above others. He chose Messengers from angels and from men. He also chose His Speech above all speech, the Masajid above other areas of the earth, Ramadan and the Sacred Months above all months, Friday above the other days and Laylatul-Qadr (The Night of Decree) above all nights.
Therefore, sanctify what Allah has sanctified, for doing so is the practice of people of understanding and comprehension.''
Fighting in the Sacred Months
... وَقَاتِلُواْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ كَآفَّةً ...
and fight against the idolators collectively, (all of you),
... كَمَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ كَآفَّةً ...
as they fight against you collectively, (all of them),
... وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ ﴿٣٦﴾
But know that Allah is with those who have Taqwa,
and know that initiating battle during the Sacred Months is forbidden.
Allah said in other Ayat,
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تُحِلُّواْ شَعَآئِرَ اللَّهِ وَلاَ الشَّهْرَ الْحَرَامَ
O you who believe! Violate not the sanctity of the symbols of Allah, nor of the sacred month. (5:2)
الشَّهْرُ الْحَرَامُ بِالشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْحُرُمَـتُ قِصَاصٌ فَمَنِ اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكُمْ فَاعْتَدُواْ عَلَيْهِ بِمِثْلِ مَا اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكُمْ
The Sacred Month is for the Sacred Month, and for the prohibited things, there is the law of equality (Qisas). Then whoever transgresses the prohibition against you, you transgress likewise against him. (2:194)
فَإِذَا انسَلَخَ الأَشْهُرُ الْحُرُمُ فَاقْتُلُواْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
Then when the Sacred Months have passed, kill the idolators... (9:5)
As for Allah's statement,
... وَقَاتِلُواْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ كَآفَّةً كَمَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ كَآفَّةً ...
And fight against the idolators collectively as they fight against you collectively,
it includes permission for the believers to fight the idolators in the Sacred Month, if the idolators initiate hostilities therein.
Allah said in other Ayat,
الشَّهْرُ الْحَرَامُ بِالشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْحُرُمَـتُ قِصَاصٌ
The Sacred Month is for the Sacred Month, and for the prohibited things, there is the law of equality (Qisas). (2:194)
وَلاَ تُقَـتِلُوهُمْ عِندَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ حَتَّى يُقَـتِلُوكُمْ فِيهِ فَإِن قَـتَلُوكُمْ فَاقْتُلُوهُمْ
And fight not with them at Al-Masjid Al-Haram, unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them. (2:191)
As for the Messenger of Allah laying siege to At-Ta'if until the Sacred Month started, it was a continuation of the battle against Hawazin and their allies from Thaqif. They started the fighting and gathered their men for the purpose of conducting war. The Messenger of Allah marched to meet them and when they took refuge in At-Ta'if, the Prophet laid siege to them so that they descend from their forts, but they inflicted casualties on Muslims. The siege continued for about forty days, during which a Sacred Month began, and the siege continued for several days in that month. The Messenger broke the siege and went back (to Makkah). So fighting that carries over into it (the Sacred Month) is not the same as initiating warfare during it, Allah knows best.
Admonishing the Preference of Opinion in a Religious Matter
إِنَّمَا النَّسِيءُ زِيَادَةٌ فِي الْكُفْرِ يُضَلُّ بِهِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ يُحِلِّونَهُ عَامًا وَيُحَرِّمُونَهُ عَامًا لِّيُوَاطِؤُواْ عِدَّةَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللّهُ فَيُحِلُّواْ مَا حَرَّمَ اللّهُ زُيِّنَ لَهُمْ سُوءُ أَعْمَالِهِمْ وَاللّهُ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ ﴿٣٧﴾
The postponing (of a Sacred Month) is indeed an addition to disbelief: thereby the disbelievers are led astray, for they make it lawful one year and forbid it another year in order to adjust the number of months forbidden by Allah, and make such forbidden ones lawful. The evil of their deeds is made fair-seeming to them. And Allah guides not the people who disbelieve.
Allah admonishes the idolators for choosing their wicked opinions over Allah's Law. They changed Allah's legislation based upon their vain desires, allowing what Allah prohibited and prohibiting what Allah allowed. They thought that three consecutive sacred months were rather long for them to remain without fighting, for they were full of anger and rage. This is why before Islam they innovated a change in the Sacred Month of Muharram, delaying it to the month of Safar! Therefore, they allowed fighting in the Sacred Month and made the non-sacred month sacred, to make the Sacred Months in a year four, as Allah decided!
Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn Abbas commented on Allah's statement, إِنَّمَا النَّسِيءُ زِيَادَةٌ فِي الْكُفْرِ (The postponing (of a Sacred Month) is indeed an addition to disbelief),
"Junadah bin Awf bin Umayyah Al-Kinani, known as Abu Thumamah, used to attend the Hajj season every year and declare, `Abu Thumamah is never rejected nor refuted!,' and he used to treat Safar as sacred for people one year (and un-sanctify Muharram) and treat Muharram as sacred another year (and un-sanctify Safar in that year). This is why Allah said, إِنَّمَا النَّسِيءُ زِيَادَةٌ فِي الْكُفْرِ (The postponing (of a Sacred Month) is indeed an addition to disbelief). Allah says, `They allow Muharram one year and make it sacred another year.'''
Al-Awfi narrated a similar statement from Ibn Abbas.
Layth bin Abi Sulaym narrated that Mujahid said,
"There was a man from Bani Kinanah who would attend the Hajj season every year riding his donkey. He would proclaim, `O people! I am never rejected, denied or refuted in what I say. We made this coming Muharram sacred, and Safar not!' The following year he would come again and declare the same words then say, `We made this coming Safar sacred and delayed Muharram (revoked its sanctity).' This is the meaning of Allah's statement, لِّيُوَاطِؤُواْ عِدَّةَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللّهُ (in order to adjust the number of months forbidden by Allah), to four months. Allah says, `They allow what Allah disallowed by delaying the Sacred Month.'''
The idolators used to allow Muharram one year and sanctify Safar in its place. They would continue the months of the year according to their normal count and names. The next year they would sanctify Muharram and continue the year, Safar, Rabi`, until the end of the year.
... يُحِلِّونَهُ عَامًا وَيُحَرِّمُونَهُ عَامًا لِّيُوَاطِؤُواْ عِدَّةَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللّهُ فَيُحِلُّواْ مَا حَرَّمَ اللّهُ...
They make it lawful one year and forbid it another year in order to adjust the number of months forbidden by Allah, and make such forbidden ones lawful.
Therefore, they would still sanctify four months every year, but would one year sanctify the third from the three consecutive Sacred Months, Muharram, and postpone and delay it another year to Safar.
In his book of Sirah, Imam Muhammad bin Ishaq presented a very useful beneficial discussion on this matter. He said;
"The first to start the practice of overlooking the sanctity of months for the Arabs, thus allowing what Allah sanctified of them and sanctifying what Allah allowed of them, was "Al-Qalammas''. He was Hudhayfah bin Abd Fuqaym bin Adi bin Amr bin Thalabah bin Al-Harith bin Malik bin Kinanah bin Khuzaymah bin Mudrikah bin Ilyas bin Mudar bin Nizar bin Madd bin Adnan.
His son Abbad maintained this practice, then after him his son Qala bin Abbad did the same, Then his son Umayyah bin Qala, then his son Awf bin Umayyah, then his son Abu Thumamah Junadah bin Awf. He was the last one of his sons (to continue this practice) before Islam.
The Arabs used to gather around him when Hajj finished, and he would stand and give them a speech in which he sanctifies Rajab, Dhul-Qadah and Dhul-Hijjah. He would defer the sanctity of Muharram to Safar one year and uphold its sanctity another year, so as to appear upholding the number (of Sacred Months) Allah made sacred. Therefore, he would allow what Allah prohibited and prohibit what Allah allowed.''
Allah knows best.
Admonishing clinging to Life rather than rushing to perform Jihad
Allah admonishes those who lagged behind the Messenger of Allah in the battle of Tabuk, at a time when fruits were ripe and shades tempting in the intense and terrible heat,
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ مَا لَكُمْ إِذَا قِيلَ لَكُمُ انفِرُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ ...
O you who believe! What is the matter with you, that when you are asked to march forth in the cause of Allah,
if you are called to perform Jihad in the cause of Allah,
... اثَّاقَلْتُمْ إِلَى الأَرْضِ ...
you cling heavily to the earth,
reclining to remain in peace, shade and ripe fruits.
... أَرَضِيتُم بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا مِنَ الآخِرَةِ ...
Are you pleased with the life of this world rather than the Hereafter,
why do you do this, is it because you prefer this life instead of the Hereafter Allah.
next diminishes the eagerness for this worldly life and increases it for the Hereafter,
... فَمَا مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فِي الآخِرَةِ إِلاَّ قَلِيلٌ ﴿٣٨﴾
But little is the enjoyment of the life of this world compared to the Hereafter.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Mustawrid, a member of Bani Fihr, said that the Messenger of Allah said,
مَا الدُّنْيَا فِي الْآخِرَةِ إِلَّا كَمَا يَجْعَلُ أَحَدُكُمْ إِصْبَعَهُ هَذِهِ فِي الْيَمِّ،فَلْيَنْظُرْ بِمَ تَرْجِعُ ؟
The life of this world, compared to the Hereafter, is just like when one of you dips his finger in the sea, let him contemplate how much of it his finger would carry?
The Prophet pointed with his index finger. Muslim collected this Hadith.
Ath-Thawri narrated that Al-A`mash said about the Ayah, فَمَا مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فِي الآخِرَةِ إِلاَّ قَلِيلٌ (But little is the enjoyment of the life of this world compared to the Hereafter).
"What compares to the provision a traveler takes.''
Abdul-Aziz bin Abi Hazim narrated that his father said,
"When Abdul-Aziz bin Marwan was dying he said, `Bring the shroud I will be covered with so that I inspect it.'
When it was placed before him, he looked at it and said, `Is this what I will end up with from this life!'
He then turned his back and cried, while saying, `Woe to you, O life! Your abundance is truly little, your little is short lived, we were deceived by you.'''
Allah warns those who do not join Jihad,
إِلاَّ تَنفِرُواْ يُعَذِّبْكُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا ...
If you march not forth, He will punish you with a painful torment,
Ibn Abbas said,
"Allah's Messenger called some Arabs to mobilize, but they lagged behind and Allah withheld rain from coming down on them, and this was their torment.''
... وَيَسْتَبْدِلْ قَوْمًا غَيْرَكُمْ ...
and will replace you by another people,
who will give aid to His Prophet and establish his religion. Allah said in another Ayah,
الْفُقَرَآءُ وَإِن تَتَوَلَّوْاْ يَسْتَبْدِلْ قَوْماً غَيْرَكُمْ ثُمَّ لاَ يَكُونُواْ
And if you turn away (from the obedience to Allah), He will exchange you for some other people and they will not be your likes. (47:38)
... وَلاَ تَضُرُّوهُ شَيْئًا ...
and you cannot harm Him at all,
you can never harm Allah when you lag behind and stay away from joining Jihad,
... وَاللّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ﴿٣٩﴾
and Allah is able to do all things.
He is able to destroy the enemies without your help.
Allah supports His Prophet
إِلاَّ تَنصُرُوهُ فَقَدْ نَصَرَهُ اللّهُ ...
If you help him (Muhammad) not (it does not matter), for Allah did indeed help him,
if you do not support His Prophet, then it does not matter, for Allah will help, support, suffice and protect him, just as He did,
... إِذْ أَخْرَجَهُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ ثَانِيَ اثْنَيْنِ ...
when the disbelievers drove him out, the second of the two;
During the year of the Hijrah, the idolators tried to kill, imprison or expel the Prophet, who escaped with his friend and Companion, Abu Bakr bin Abi Quhafah, to the cave of Thawr. They remained in the cave for three days so that the pagans who were sent in their pursuit, returned (to Makkah), and they proceed to Al-Madinah.
... إِذْ هُمَا فِي الْغَارِ إِذْ يَقُولُ لِصَاحِبِهِ لاَ تَحْزَنْ إِنَّ اللّهَ مَعَنَا ...
when they were both in the cave, he said to his companion: "Be not sad (or afraid), surely, Allah is with us.''
While in the cave, Abu Bakr was afraid the pagans might discover them for fear that some harm might touch the Messenger.
The Prophet kept reassuring him and strengthening his resolve, saying,
يَا أَبَا بَكْرٍ، مَا ظَنُكَ بِاثْنَينِ اللهُ ثَالِثُهُمَا
O Abu Bakr! What do you think about two, with Allah as their third!
Imam Ahmad recorded from Anas that Abu Bakr said to him,
"I said to the Prophet when we were in the cave, `If any of them looks down at his feet, he will see us.'
يَا أَبَا بَكْرٍ، مَا ظَنُكَ بِاثْنَينِ اللهُ ثَالِثُهُمَا
O Abu Bakr! What do you think about two with Allah as their third!''
This is recorded in the Two Sahihs. This is why Allah said,
... فَأَنزَلَ اللّهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَيْهِ ...
Then Allah sent down His Sakinah upon him,
sent His aid and triumph to His Messenger,
or they say it refers to Abu Bakr,
... وَأَيَّدَهُ بِجُنُودٍ لَّمْ تَرَوْهَا ...
and strengthened him with forces which you saw not, (the angels),
... وَجَعَلَ كَلِمَةَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ السُّفْلَى وَكَلِمَةُ اللّهِ هِيَ الْعُلْيَا ...
and made the word of those who disbelieved the lowermost, while the Word of Allah that became the uppermost;)
Ibn Abbas commented,
"'The word of those who disbelieved', is Shirk, while, `The Word of Allah' is `La ilaha illallah.''
It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abu Musa Al-Ashari said,
"The Messenger of Allah was asked about a man who fights because of courage, or out of rage for his honor, or to show off. Whom among them is in the cause of Allah?'
The Prophet said,
مَنْ قَاتَلَ لِتَكُونَ كَلِمَةُ اللهِ هِيَ الْعُلْيَا فَهُوَ فِي سَبِيلِ الله
He who fights so that Allah's Word is superior, then he fights in Allah's cause.''
Allah said next,
... وَاللّهُ عَزِيزٌ ...
and Allah is All-Mighty,
in His revenge and taking retribution, He is the Most Formidable and those who seek refuge with Him and take shelter by adhering to what He instructs are never made to suffer injustice,
... حَكِيمٌ ﴿٤٠﴾
in His statements and actions.
Jihad is required in all Conditions
انْفِرُواْ خِفَافًا وَثِقَالاً ...
March forth, whether you are light or heavy,
Sufyan Ath-Thawri narrated from his father from Abu Ad-Duha, Muslim bin Subayh, who said,
"This Ayah, انْفِرُواْ خِفَافًا وَثِقَالاً (March forth, whether you are light or heavy), was the first part to be revealed from Surah Bara'ah.''
Mutamir bin Sulayman narrated that his father said,
"Hadrami claimed that he was told that some people used to declare that they will not gain sin (if they lag behind the forces of Jihad) because they are ill or old. This Ayah was revealed, انْفِرُواْ خِفَافًا وَثِقَالاً (March forth, whether you are light or heavy).''
Allah commanded mass mobilization together with the Messenger of Allah for the battle of Tabuk, to fight the disbelieving, People of the Book, the Romans, Allah's enemies. Allah ordained that the believers all march forth with the Messenger regardless whether they felt active, lazy, at ease or had difficult circumstances, انْفِرُواْ خِفَافًا وَثِقَالاً (March forth, whether you are light or heavy).
Ali bin Zayd narrated that Anas said that Abu Talhah commented (on this Ayah),
"Whether you are old or young, Allah did not leave an excuse for anyone.''
Abu Talhah marched to Ash-Sham and fought until he was killed.
In another narration, Abu Talhah recited Surah Bara'ah until he reached this Ayah,
انْفِرُواْ خِفَافًا وَثِقَالاً وَجَاهِدُواْ بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَأَنفُسِكُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ ...
March forth, whether you are light or heavy, and strive hard with your wealth and your lives in the cause of Allah.
He then said, "I see that Allah had called us to mobilize whether we are old or young. O my children! Prepare my supplies.''
His children said, `May Allah grant you His mercy! You conducted Jihad along with the Messenger of Allah until he died, then with Abu Bakr until he died, then with Umar until he died. Let us perform Jihad in your place.''
Abu Talhah refused and he went to the sea (under the command of Muawiyah) where he died. They could not find an island to bury him on until nine days later, during which his body did not deteriorate or change and they buried him on the island.
" انْفِرُواْ خِفَافًا وَثِقَالاً (March forth, whether you are light or heavy), whether you are rich, poor, strong, or weak.
A man came forward, and he was fat, complained, and asked for permission to stay behind (from Jihad), but the Prophet refused. Then this Ayah, انْفِرُواْ خِفَافًا وَثِقَالاً (March forth, whether you are light or heavy) was revealed, and it became hard on the people. So Allah abrogated it with this Ayah,
لَّيْسَ عَلَى الضُّعَفَاء وَلاَ عَلَى الْمَرْضَى وَلاَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ لاَ يَجِدُونَ مَا يُنفِقُونَ حَرَجٌ إِذَا نَصَحُواْ لِلّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ...
There is no blame on those who are weak or ill or who find no resources to spend, if they are sincere and true (in duty) to Allah and His Messenger..." (9:91)
Ibn Jarir said that Hibban bin Zayd Ash-Sharabi narrated to him,
"We mobilized our forces with Safwan bin Amr, who was the governor of Hims towards the city of Ephsos appointed to the Jerajima Christian expatriates (in Syria). I saw among the army an old, yet active man, whose eyebrows had sunk over his eyes (from old age), from the residents of Damascus, riding on his animal. I said to him, `O uncle! Allah has given you an excuse (to lag behind).'
He said, `O my nephew! Allah has mobilized us whether we are light or heavy.
Verily, those whom Allah loves, He tests them. Then to Allah is their return and eternal dwelling. Allah tests from His servants whoever thanks (Him) and observes patience and remembrance of Him, all the while worshipping Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, and worshipping none else.'''
Next, Allah encourages spending in His cause and striving with one's life in His pleasure and the pleasure of His Messenger,
... وَجَاهِدُواْ بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَأَنفُسِكُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿٤١﴾
and strive hard with your wealth and your lives in the cause of Allah. This is better for you, if you but knew.
Allah says, this is better for you in this life and the Hereafter. You might spend small amounts, but Allah will reward you the property of your enemy in this life, as well as, the honor that He will keep for you in the Hereafter.
The Prophet said,
تَكَفَّلَ اللهُ لِلْمُجَاهِدِ فِي سَبِيلِهِ إِنْ تَوَفَّاهُ أَنْ يُدْخِلَهُ الْجَنَّةَ، أَوْ يَرُدَّهُ إِلَى مَنْزِلِهِ بِمَا نَالَ مِنْ أَجْرٍ أَوْ غَنِيمَة
Allah promised the Mujahid in His cause that if He brings death to him, He will enter him into Paradise. Or, He will return him to his house with whatever reward and war spoils he earns.
So Allah said;
كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِتَالُ وَهُوَ كُرْهٌ لَّكُمْ وَعَسَى أَن تَكْرَهُواْ شَيْئًا وَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ وَعَسَى أَن تُحِبُّواْ شَيْئًا وَهُوَ شَرٌّ لَّكُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ
Jihad is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know. (2:216)
Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah said to a man,
but the man said, "I dislike doing so.''
The Messenger said,
أَسْلِمْ وَإِنْ كُنْتَ كَارِهًا
Embrace Islam even if you dislike it.''
Why Hypocrites would not join in Jihad
Allah admonishes those who lagged behind and did not join the Prophet for the battle of Tabuk, those who asked the Prophet for permission to remain behind, falsely pretending to have legitimate reasons to do so,
لَوْ كَانَ عَرَضًا قَرِيبًا ...
Had it been a near gain,
According to Ibn Abbas, booty right in front of them,
... وَسَفَرًا قَاصِدًا ...
and an easy journey,
travel for only a short distance,
... لاَّتَّبَعُوكَ ...
they would have followed you.
... وَلَـكِن بَعُدَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الشُّقَّةُ ...
but, the distance was long for them), to Ash-Sham,
... وَسَيَحْلِفُونَ بِاللّهِ ...
and they would swear by Allah,
when you return to them,
... لَوِ اسْتَطَعْنَا لَخَرَجْنَا مَعَكُمْ ...
If we only could, we would certainly have come forth with you,
had not there been a valid excuse, we would have gone out with you,
... يُهْلِكُونَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَاللّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِنَّهُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ ﴿٤٢﴾
They destroy themselves, and Allah knows that they are liars.
Moderately criticizing the Prophet for allowing the Hypocrites to stay behind
عَفَا اللّهُ عَنكَ لِمَ أَذِنتَ لَهُمْ ...
May Allah forgive you. Why did you grant them leave,
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Awn said,
"Have you heard criticism softer than this, starting with forgiveness before criticism,"
Muwarriq Al-Ijli and others said similarly.
"Allah criticized him as you read here, then later revealed to him the permission to allow them to lag behind if he wants, in Surah An-Nur,
فَإِذَا اسْتَـْذَنُوكَ لِبَعْضِ شَأْنِهِمْ فَأْذَن لِّمَن شِئْتَ مِنْهُمْ
So if they ask your permission for some affairs of theirs, give permission to whom you will of them.'' (24:62)
Ata' Al-Khurasani said similarly.
"This Ayah was revealed about some people who said,
`Ask permission from the Messenger of Allah (to stay behind), and whether he agrees, or disagrees, remain behind!'''
... حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُواْ ...
...until those who told the truth were manifest to you,
in reference to valid excuses,
... وَتَعْلَمَ الْكَاذِبِينَ ﴿٤٣﴾
and you had known the liars.
Allah says, `Why did you not refuse to give them permission to remain behind when they asked you, so that you know those who truly obey you and the liars, who were intent on remaining behind even if you do not give them permission to do so.
Allah asserts that none who believe in Allah and His Messenger seek his permission to remain behind from fighting,
لاَ يَسْتَأْذِنُكَ ...
would not ask your leave,
to stay behind from Jihad,
... الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ أَن يُجَاهِدُواْ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ ...
Those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, to be exempted from fighting with their properties and their lives.
because they consider Jihad an act of worship. This is why when Allah called them to perform Jihad, they obeyed and hasten to act in His obedience,
... وَاللّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالْمُتَّقِينَ ﴿٤٤﴾
إِنَّمَا يَسْتَأْذِنُكَ ...
and Allah is the All-Knower of those who have Taqwa.
Those who ask your leave,
to remain behind, without a valid excuse,
... الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ ...
those who believe not in Allah and the Last Day,
they do not hope for Allah's reward in the Hereafter for their good actions,
... وَارْتَابَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ ...
and whose hearts are in doubt,
about the validity of what you brought them,
... فَهُمْ فِي رَيْبِهِمْ يَتَرَدَّدُونَ ﴿٤٥﴾
so in their doubts they waver.
They waver in doubt, taking one step forward and one step back. They do not have a firm stance in anything, for they are unsure and destroyed, neither belonging to these nor to those.
Verily, those whom Allah misguides, will never find a way for themselves to guidance.
وَلَوْ أَرَادُواْ الْخُرُوجَ ...
And if they had intended to march out,
with you to participate in Jihad,
... لأَعَدُّواْ لَهُ عُدَّةً ...
certainly, they would have made some preparation for it,
they would have prepared for such task,
... وَلَـكِن كَرِهَ اللّهُ انبِعَاثَهُمْ ...
but Allah was averse to their being sent forth,
Allah hated that they should go with you,
... فَثَبَّطَهُمْ ...
so He made them lag behind, and stay away (from Jihad),
... وَقِيلَ اقْعُدُواْ مَعَ الْقَاعِدِينَ ﴿٤٦﴾
and it was said (to them): "Sit you among those who sit (at home).''
as a part of what was decreed for them (not that He legislated that they stay behind).
Allah then explained why He disliked that they march with the believers, saying,
لَوْ خَرَجُواْ فِيكُم مَّا زَادُوكُمْ إِلاَّ خَبَالاً ...
Had they marched out with you, they would have added to you nothing except disorder,
because they are cowards and failures,
... ولأَوْضَعُواْ خِلاَلَكُمْ يَبْغُونَكُمُ الْفِتْنَةَ ...
and they would have hurried about in your midst sowing sedition among you,
They would have rushed to spread false stories, hatred and discord among you,
... وَفِيكُمْ سَمَّاعُونَ لَهُمْ ...
and there are some among you who would have listened to them.
who would have obeyed them, given preference to their speech and words and asked them for advice, unaware of the true reality of these hypocrites. This might have caused corruption and great evil between the believers.
Muhammad bin Ishaq said,
"Those who sought permission (from the Messenger to lag behind) included some of the chiefs, such as Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul and Al-Jadd bin Qays, who were masters of their people. Allah also made them lag behind because He knew that if they went along with the Messenger they would sow sedition in his army.''
There were some in the Prophet's army who liked these chiefs and were ready to obey them, because they considered them honorable, وَفِيكُمْ سَمَّاعُونَ لَهُمْ (and there are some among you who would have listened to them).
Allah next reminds of His perfect knowledge, saying,
... وَاللّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّالِمِينَ ﴿٤٧﴾
And Allah is the All-Knower of the wrongdoers.
Allah says that He knows what occurred, what will occur and if anything would have occurred, how it would occur, such as, لَوْ خَرَجُواْ فِيكُم مَّا زَادُوكُمْ إِلاَّ خَبَالاً (Had they marched out with you, they would have added to you nothing except disorder), indicating what they would have done had they marched, even though they did not.
Allah said in similar Ayat,
وَلَوْ رُدُّواْ لَعَـدُواْ لِمَا نُهُواْ عَنْهُ وَإِنَّهُمْ لَكَـذِبُونَ
But if they were returned (to the world), they would certainly revert to that which they were forbidden. And indeed they are liars. (6:28)
وَلَوْ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ فِيهِمْ خَيْرًا لأَسْمَعَهُمْ وَلَوْ أَسْمَعَهُمْ لَتَوَلَّواْ وَّهُم مُّعْرِضُونَ
Had Allah known of any good in them, He would indeed have made them listen; and even if He had made them listen, they would but have turned away with aversion (to the truth). (8:23)
وَلَوْ أَنَّا كَتَبْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ أَنِ اقْتُلُواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ أَوِ اخْرُجُواْ مِن دِيَـرِكُمْ مَّا فَعَلُوهُ إِلاَّ قَلِيلٌ مِّنْهُمْ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ فَعَلُواْ مَا يُوعَظُونَ بِهِ لَكَانَ خَيْراً لَّهُمْ وَأَشَدَّ تَثْبِيتاً
وَإِذاً لاّتَيْنَـهُمْ مِّن لَّدُنَّـآ أَجْراً عَظِيماً
وَلَهَدَيْنَـهُمْ صِرَطاً مُّسْتَقِيماً
And if We had ordered them (saying), "Kill yourselves (the innocent ones kill the guilty ones) or leave your homes,'' very few of them would have done it; but if they had done what they were told, it would have been better for them, and would have strengthened their conviction.
And indeed We would then have bestowed upon them a great reward from Ourselves.
And indeed We would have guided them to the straight way. (4:66-68)
Allah encourages His Prophet against hypocrites
لَقَدِ ابْتَغَوُاْ الْفِتْنَةَ مِن قَبْلُ وَقَلَّبُواْ لَكَ الأُمُورَ ...
Verily, they had plotted sedition before, and had upset matters for you,
`For a long time,'
Allah says, hypocrites thought and plotted against you and your Companions, as well as, failing and attempting to extinguish your religion.'
This occurred soon after the Prophet migrated to Al-Madinah, when pagan Arabs joined force and the Jews and hypocrites of Al-Madinah waged war against the Messenger. When Allah gave victory to the Prophet in Badr and raised high his word,
Abdullah bin Ubayy and his fellows said,
"This (Islam) is a matter that has prevailed.''
They embraced Islam outwardly, and whenever Allah elevated Islam and its people in might, hypocrites increased in rage and disappointment,
... حَتَّى جَاء الْحَقُّ وَظَهَرَ أَمْرُ اللّهِ وَهُمْ كَارِهُونَ ﴿٤٨﴾
until the truth (victory) came and the decree of Allah became manifest though they hated it.
وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَقُولُ ...
And among them is he who says:
Allah says, some hypocrites say to you, O Muhammad,
... ائْذَن لِّي ...
Grant me leave, (to stay behind),
... وَلاَ تَفْتِنِّي ...
and put me not into trial,
if I go with you and see the women of the Romans.
Allah, the Exalted, replied,
... أَلاَ فِي الْفِتْنَةِ سَقَطُواْ ...
Surely, they have fallen into trial,
because of the statement they uttered.
Muhammad bin Ishaq reported from Az-Zuhri, Yazid bin Ruwman, Abdullah bin Abi Bakr, Asim bin Qatadah and several others that they said,
"The Messenger of Allah said to Al-Jadd bin Qays from Bani Salimah,
هَلْ لَكَ يَا جَدُّ الْعَامَ فِي جَلَادِ بَنِي الْأَصْفَرِ؟
`Would you like to fight the yellow ones (Romans) this year?
He said, `O Allah's Messenger! Give me permission (to remain behind) and do not cause Fitnah for me. By Allah! My people know that there is not a man who is more fond of women than I. I fear that if I see the women of the yellow ones, I would not be patient.'
The Messenger of Allah turned away from him and said,
قَدْ أَذِنْتُ لَك
I give you permission.
In Al-Jadd's case, this Ayah was revealed, وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَقُولُ ائْذَن لِّي وَلاَ تَفْتِنِّي (And among them is he who says: "Grant me leave and put me not into trial).''
Therefore, Allah says that the Fitnah that he fell into because of not joining the Messenger of Allah (in Jihad) and preferring his safety to the safety of the Messenger is worse than the Fitnah that he falsely claimed to fear.''
It was reported from Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and several others that;
this Ayah was revealed in the case of Al-Jadd bin Qays, who was among the chiefs of Bani Salimah.
It is also recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah asked,
مَنْ سَيِّدُكُمْ يَا بَنِي سَلَمَةَ ؟
Who is your chief, O Bani Salamah?
They said, "Al-Jadd bin Qays, although we consider him a miser.''
The Messenger of Allah said,
وَأَيُّ دَاءٍ أَدْوَأُ مِنَ الْبُخْلِ وَلَكِنْ سَيِّدُكُمْ الْفَتَى الْجَعْدُ الْأَبْيَضُ بِشْرُ بْنُ الْبَرَاءِ بْنِ مَعْرُور
There is not a disease worse than stinginess! Therefore, your chief is the white young man with curly hair, Bishr bin Al-Bara' bin Ma'rur.
Allah said next,
... وَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ لَمُحِيطَةٌ بِالْكَافِرِينَ ﴿٤٩﴾
And verily, Hell is surrounding the disbelievers.
and they will never be able to avoid, avert, or escape from it.
Allah emphasizes the enmity that the hypocrites have for the Prophet
إِن تُصِبْكَ حَسَنَةٌ تَسُؤْهُمْ ...
If good befalls you, it grieves them,
If a blessing, such as victory and triumph over the enemies, is given to the Prophet, thus pleasing him and his Companions, it grieves the hypocrites,
... وَإِن تُصِبْكَ مُصِيبَةٌ يَقُولُواْ قَدْ أَخَذْنَا أَمْرَنَا مِن قَبْلُ ...
but if a calamity overtakes you, they say: "We took our precaution beforehand,
they say, we took precautions when we did not join him,
... وَيَتَوَلَّواْ وَّهُمْ فَرِحُونَ ﴿٥٠﴾
and they turn away rejoicing.
Allah directed His Prophet to reply to the perfect enmity they have towards him,
Say, (to them),
... لَّن يُصِيبَنَا إِلاَّ مَا كَتَبَ اللّهُ لَنَا ...
Nothing shall ever happen to us except what Allah has ordained for us.
for we are under His control and decree,
... هُوَ مَوْلاَنَا ...
He is our Mawla,
Master and protector,
... وَعَلَى اللّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿٥١﴾
And in Allah let the believers put their trust.
and we trust in Him. Verily, He is sufficient for us and what an excellent guardian.
Say, (O Muhammad to them),
... هَلْ تَرَبَّصُونَ بِنَا ...
Do you wait for us, (anything),
... إِلاَّ إِحْدَى الْحُسْنَيَيْنِ ...
except one of the two best things,
According to the meaning given by Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah, and others.
martyrdom or victory over you,
... وَنَحْنُ نَتَرَبَّصُ بِكُمْ ...
while we await for you,
that this will touch you,
... أَن يُصِيبَكُمُ اللّهُ بِعَذَابٍ مِّنْ عِندِهِ أَوْ بِأَيْدِينَا ...
either that Allah will afflict you with a punishment from Himself or at our hands,
either capture or killing,
... فَتَرَبَّصُواْ إِنَّا مَعَكُم مُّتَرَبِّصُونَ ﴿٥٢﴾
So wait, we too are waiting with you.
Allah said next,
قُلْ أَنفِقُواْ طَوْعًا أَوْ كَرْهًا ..
Say: Spend willingly or unwillingly,
for whatever you spend either way,
.... لَّن يُتَقَبَّلَ مِنكُمْ إِنَّكُمْ كُنتُمْ قَوْمًا فَاسِقِينَ ﴿٥٣﴾
it will not be accepted from you. Verily, you are ever a people who are rebellious.
وَمَا مَنَعَهُمْ أَن تُقْبَلَ مِنْهُمْ نَفَقَاتُهُمْ ...
And nothing prevents their contributions from being accepted from them,
Allah mentions the reason behind not accepting their charity from them,
... إِلاَّ أَنَّهُمْ كَفَرُواْ بِاللّهِ وَبِرَسُولِهِ ...
except that they disbelieved in Allah and in His Messenger.
and the deeds are accepted if they are preceded with faith,
... وَلاَ يَأْتُونَ الصَّلاَةَ إِلاَّ وَهُمْ كُسَالَى ...
and that they came not to the Salah except in a lazy state.
Therefore, they neither have good intention nor eagerness to perform the acts (of faith),
... وَلاَ يُنفِقُونَ إِلاَّ وَهُمْ كَارِهُونَ ﴿٥٤﴾
and that they offer not contributions but unwillingly.
The Truthful, to whom the Truth was revealed, Muhammad, peace be upon him, said that;
Allah does not stop giving rewards until you (believers) stop performing good deeds, and that Allah is Tayyib (Good and Pure) and only accepts what is Tayyib. This is why Allah does not accept charity or good deeds from the people described in these Ayat, because He only accepts it from those who have Taqwa.
Allah says to His Messenger,
فَلاَ تُعْجِبْكَ أَمْوَالُهُمْ وَلاَ أَوْلاَدُهُمْ ...
So let not their wealth nor their children amaze you...
In similar Ayat, Allah said,
وَلاَ تَمُدَّنَّ عَيْنَيْكَ إِلَى مَا مَتَّعْنَا بِهِ أَزْوَجاً مِّنْهُمْ زَهْرَةَ الْحَيَوةِ الدُّنْيَا لِنَفْتِنَهُمْ فِيهِ وَرِزْقُ رَبِّكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَبْقَى
And strain not your eyes in longing for the things We have given for enjoyment to various groups of them, the splendor of the life of this world, that We may test them thereby. But the provision (good reward in the Hereafter) of your Lord is better and more lasting. (20:131)
أَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّمَا نُمِدُّهُمْ بِهِ مِن مَّالٍ وَبَنِينَ
نُسَارِعُ لَهُمْ فِى الْخَيْرَتِ بَل لاَّ يَشْعُرُونَ
Do they think that in wealth and children with which We enlarge them. We hasten unto them with good things. Nay, but they perceive not. (23:55-56)
Allah said next,
... إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللّهُ لِيُعَذِّبَهُم بِهَا فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ...
in reality Allah's plan is to punish them with these things in the life of this world,
According to the meaning given by Al-Hasan Al-Basri.
by taking the Zakah due on their money from them and spending it in Allah's cause,
... وَتَزْهَقَ أَنفُسُهُمْ وَهُمْ كَافِرُونَ ﴿٥٥﴾
and that their souls shall depart while they are disbelievers.
means, so that when Allah brings death to them, they will still be disbelievers, to make matters worse for them and the torment more severe.
We seek refuge from such an end, which includes being led astray gradually by these things which they have.
Exposing Hypocrites' Fright and Fear
Allah describes to His Prophet the fright, fear, anxiety and nervousness of the hypocrites,
وَيَحْلِفُونَ بِاللّهِ إِنَّهُمْ لَمِنكُمْ ...
They swear by Allah that they are truly of you,
swearing a sure oath,
... وَمَا هُم مِّنكُمْ ...
while they are not of you,
... وَلَـكِنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ يَفْرَقُونَ ﴿٥٦﴾
but they are a people who are afraid,
and this is what made them swear.
لَوْ يَجِدُونَ مَلْجَأً ...
Should they find a refuge,
such as a fort in which they hide and fortify themselves,
... أَوْ مَغَارَاتٍ ...
or caves, (in some mountains),
... أَوْ مُدَّخَلاً ...
or a place of concealment,
According to the explanation given by Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and Qatadah,
a tunnel or a hole in the ground,
... لَّوَلَّوْاْ إِلَيْهِ وَهُمْ يَجْمَحُونَ ﴿٥٧﴾
they would turn straightway thereto with a swift rush.
away from you because they associate with you unwillingly, not because they are fond of you. They prefer that they do not have to mix with you, but necessity has its rules! It is because of this that they feel grief, sadness and sorrow, seeing Islam and its people enjoying ever more might, triumph and glory. Therefore, whatever pleases Muslims brings them grief, and this is why they prefer to disassociate themselves from the believers. Hence Allah's statement,
لَوْ يَجِدُونَ مَلْجَأً أَوْ مَغَارَاتٍ أَوْ مُدَّخَلاً لَّوَلَّوْاْ إِلَيْهِ وَهُمْ يَجْمَحُونَ
Should they find a refuge, or caves, or a place of concealment, they would turn straightway thereto with a swift rush.
Hypocrites question the Integrity of the Messenger when distributing Alms
Allah said next,
And of them, (among the hypocrites),
... مَّن يَلْمِزُكَ ...
who accuse you,
or question your integrity,
... فِي ...
concerning, (division of),
... الصَّدَقَاتِ ...
when you divide them. They question your fairness, even though it is they who deserve that their integrity be questioned. The hypocrites do not do this in defense of the religion, but to gain more for themselves.
This is why,
... فَإِنْ أُعْطُواْ مِنْهَا ...
If they are given part thereof,
meaning, from the Zakah,
... رَضُواْ وَإِن لَّمْ يُعْطَوْاْ مِنهَا إِذَا هُمْ يَسْخَطُونَ ﴿٥٨﴾
They are pleased, but if they are not given thereof, behold! They are enraged!
angry for themselves.
Qatadah commented on Allah's statement, وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَلْمِزُكَ فِي الصَّدَقَاتِ. (And of them are some who accuse you concerning the alms),
"Allah says, `Some of them question your integrity in the matter of distribution of the alms.'
We were told that a Bedouin man, who had recently embraced Islam, came to the Prophet, when he was dividing some gold and silver, and said to him, `O Muhammad! Even though Allah commanded you to divide in fairness, you have not done so.'
The Prophet of Allah said,
وَيْلَكَ فَمَنْ ذَا الَّذِي يَعْدِلُ عَلَيْكَ بَعْدِي ؟
Woe to you! Who would be fair to you after me then?
The Prophet of Allah said next,
احْذَرُوا هَذَا وَأَشْبَاهَهُ
فَإِنَّ فِي أُمَّتِي أَشْبَاهُ هَذَا يَقْرَءُونَ الْقُرآنَ لَا يُجَاوِزُ تَرَاقِيهِمْ
فَإِذَا خَرَجُوا فَاْقْتُلُوهُمْ، ثُمَّ إِذَا خَرَجُوا فَاقْتُلُوهُمْ، ثُمَّ إِذَا خَرَجُوا فَاقْتُلُوهُم
Beware of this man and his likes!
There are similar persons in my Ummah who recite the Qur'an, but the Qur'an will not go beyond their throat.
If they rise (against Muslims rulers) then kill them, if they rise, kill them, then if they rise kill them.
We were also told that the Prophet of Allah used to say,
وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ مَا أُعْطِيكُمْ شَيْئًا وَلَا أَمْنَعُكُمُوهُ إِنَّمَا أَنَا خَازِن
By He in Whose Hand is my life! I do not give or withhold anything; I am only a keeper.''
This statement from Qatadah is similar to the Hadith that the Two Sheikhs narrated from Abu Sa`id about the story of Dhul-Khuwaysirah, whose name was Hurqus. Hurqus protested against the Prophet's division of the war spoils of Hunayn, saying,
"Be fair, for you have not been fair!''
The Prophet said,
لَقَدْ خِبْتُ وَخَسِرْتُ إِنْ لَمْ أَكُنْ أَعْدِل
I would have become a loser and a failure if I was not fair!
The Messenger said after that man left,
إِنَّهُ يَخْرُجُ مِنْ ضِئْضِىءِ هَذَا قَوْمٌ يَحْقِرُ أَحَدُكُمْ صَلَاتَهُ مَعَ صَلَاتِهِمْ وَصِيَامَهُ مَعَ صِيَامِهِمْ، يَمْرُقُونَ مِنَ الدِّينِ مُرُوقَ السَّهْمِ مِنَ الرَّمِيَّةِ، فَأَيْنَمَا لَقِيتُمُوهُمْ فَاقْتُلُوهُمْ؛ فَإِنَّهْم شَرُّ قَتْلَى تَحْتَ أَدِيمِ السَّمَاء
Among the offspring of this man will be some with whose prayer, when one of you sees it, would belittle his prayer, and his fast as compared to their fast. They will be renegades from the religion, just like an arrow goes through the game's body. Wherever you find them, kill them, for verily, they are the worst dead people under the cover of the sky.
Allah said next, while directing such people to what is more beneficial for them than their behavior,
وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ رَضُوْاْ مَا آتَاهُمُ اللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَقَالُواْ حَسْبُنَا اللّهُ سَيُؤْتِينَا اللّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ وَرَسُولُهُ إِنَّا إِلَى اللّهِ رَاغِبُونَ ﴿٥٩﴾
Would that they were content with what Allah and His Messenger gave them and had said: "Allah is sufficient for us. Allah will give us of His bounty, and so will His Messenger (from alms). We implore Allah (to enrich us).''
This honorable Ayah contains a gracious type of conduct and an honorable secret.
Allah listed; contentment with what He and His Messenger give, trusting in Allah alone -- by saying; وَقَالُواْ حَسْبُنَا اللّهُ (and they had said: Allah is sufficient for us), and hoping in Allah alone, and He made these the indications of obedience to the Messenger, adhering to his commands, avoiding his prohibitions, believing his narrations and following his footsteps.
Expenditures of Zakah (Alms)
إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاء وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ ...
As-Sadaqat (i.e., Zakah) are only for the Fuqara, and Al-Masakin and those employed to collect (the funds); and to attract the hearts of those who have been inclined (towards Islam); and to free the captives; and for those in debt; and for Allah's cause, and for Ibn As-Sabil;
After Allah mentioned the protest that the ignorant hypocrites mentioned to the Prophet about the distribution of alms. He stated that it is He who divided the alms, explained its rulings and decided in its division; He did not delegate this decision to anyone else.
Allah mentioned the expenditures of Zakah in this Ayah, starting with the Fuqara (the poor) because they have more need than the other categories, since their need is pressing and precarious.
It was reported that Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Ibn Zayd and several others said that;
the Faqir is a graceful person who does not ask anyone for anything, while the Miskin is the one who follows after people, begging.
"The Faqir is the ill person, while the Miskin is physically fit.''
We will now mention the Hadiths about each of these eight categories
The Fuqara (Poor)
Ibn Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,
لَا تَحِلُّ الصَّدَقَةُ لِغَنِيَ وَلَا لِذِي مِرَّةٍ سَوِي
The alms should not be given to the wealthy and the physically fit.
Ahmad, Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi collected this Hadith.
The Masakin (Needy)
Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah said,
لَيْسَ الْمِسْكِينُ بِهَذَا الطَّوَّافِ الَّذِي يَطُوفُ عَلَى النَّاسِ فَتَرُدُّهُ اللُّقْمَةُ وَاللُّقْمَتَانِ، وَالتَّمْرَةُ وَالتَّمْرَتَان
The needy person is not the one who goes round the people and asks them for a mouthful or two (of meals) or a date or two.
They asked, "Then who is the needy person, O Allah's Messenger!''
الَّذِي لَا يَجِدُ غِنًى يُغْنِيهِ، وَلَا يُفْطَنُ لَهُ فَيُتَصَدَّقَ عَلَيْهِ، وَلَا يَسْأَلُ النَّاسَ شَيْئًا
The one who does not have enough to satisfy his needs and whose condition is not known to others, that others may give him something in charity, and who does not beg of people.
The Two Sheikhs collected this Hadith
Those employed to collect Alms
Those employed to collect alms deserve a part of the alms, unless they are relatives of the Messenger of Allah, who are not allowed to accept any Sadaqah.
Muslim recorded that Abdul-Muttalib bin Rabi`ah bin Al-Harith and Al-Fadl bin Al-Abbas went to the Messenger of Allah asking him to employ them to collect the alms. The Messenger replied,
إِنَّ الصَّدَقَةَ لَا تَحِلُّ لِمُحَمَّدٍ وَلَا لِآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ، إِنَّمَا هِيَ أَوْسَاخُ النَّاس
Verily, the alms are not allowed for Muhammad nor the relatives of Muhammad, for it is only the dirt that the people discard.
There are several types of Al-Mu'allafatu Qulubuhum.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Safwan bin Umayyah said,
"The Messenger of Allah gave me (from the spoils of) Hunayn while he was the most hateful person to me. He kept giving me until he became the most beloved person to me.''
Muslim and At-Tirmidhi collected this Hadith, as well.
إِنِّي لَأُعْطِي الرَّجُلَ وَغَيْرُهُ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنْهُ خَشْيَةَ أَنْ يُكِبَّهُ اللهُ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّم
I give a man (from the alms) while another man is dearer to me than him, for fear that Allah might throw him on his face in the fire of Jahannam.
It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abu Sa`id said that;
Ali sent the Messenger of Allah a gold nugget still in its dirt from Yemen. The Prophet divided it between four men: Al-Aqra bin Habis, Uyaynah bin Badr, Alqamah bin Ulathah and Zayd Al-Khayr, saying,
To draw their hearts closer.
Some people are given because some of his peers might embrace Islam, while others are given to collect alms from surrounding areas, or to defend Muslim outposts.
Allah knows best.
Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Umar bin Abdul-Aziz, Sa`id bin Jubayr, An-Nakha`i, Az-Zuhri and Ibn Zayd said;
Riqab means those slaves who make an agreement with the master to pay a certain ransom for their freedom.''
Similar was reported from Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari.
Ibn Abbas and Al-Hasan said,
"It is allowed to use Zakah funds to buy the freedom of slaves,''
indicating that `Riqab' has more general meanings than merely giving money to slaves to buy their freedom or one's buying a slave and freeing him on an individual basis.
A Hadith states that;
for every limb (of the servant) freed, Allah frees a limb of the one who freed him from slavery, even a sexual organ for a sexual organ, for the reward is equitable to the deed,
وَمَا تُجْزَوْنَ إِلاَّ مَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ
And you will be requited nothing except for what you used to do. (37:39)
Virtue of freeing Slaves
In the Musnad, there is a Hadith from Al-Bara bin Azib that a man asked,
"O Allah's Messenger! Direct me to an action that draws me closer to Paradise and away from the Fire.''
The Messenger of Allah said,
أَعْتِقِ النَّسَمَةَ وَفُكَّ الرَّقَبَة
Emancipate the person and free the neck (slave).
The man asked, "O Allah's Messenger! Are they not one and the same?''
لَا، عِتْقُ النَّسَمَةِ أَنْ تُفْرِدَ بِعِتْقِهَا، وَفَكُّ الرَّقَبَةِ أَنْ تُعِينَ فِي ثَمَنِهَا
No, you emancipate a person by freeing him on your own, but you untie a neck (slave) by helping in its price.
Al-Gharimun (the Indebted)
There are several types of indebted persons. They include;
These types have a right to a part of alms (designated for Al-Gharimun).
Qabisah bin Mukhariq Al-Hilali said,
"I carried a debt (resolving a dispute between people) and went to the Messenger of Allah asking him to help pay it.
The Messenger said,
أَقِمْ حَتَّى تَأْتِيَنَا الصَّدَقَةُ فَنَأْمُرَ لَكَ بِهَا
Be patient until some alms are brought to us so that we give it to you.
He then said,
يَا قَبِيصَةُ إِنَّ الْمَسْأَلَةَ لَا تَحِلُّ إِلَّا لِأَحَدِ ثَلَاثَةٍ:
O Qabisah! Begging is only allowed for three:
أَوْ قَالَ: سِدَادًا مِنْ عَيْشٍ فَمَا سِوَاهُنَّ مِنَ الْمَسْأَلَةِ سُحْتٌ يَأْكُلُهَا صَاحِبُهَا سُحْتًا
Other than these cases, begging is an unlawful amount that one illegally devours.
Muslim collected this Hadith.
Abu Sa`id said,
"During the time of the Messenger of Allah, a man was struck by disaster because of fruits that he bought, causing him extensive debts. The Prophet said,
Give him charity.
The people did that but the amount collected did not cover his debts. The Prophet said to the man's debtors,
خُذُوا مَا وَجَدْتُمْ وَلَيْسَ لَكُمْ إِلَّا ذَلِك
Take what was collected, you will have nothing beyond that.''
Muslim collected this Hadith.
In the Cause of Allah
In the cause of Allah is exclusive for the benefit of the fighters in Jihad, who do not receive compensation from the Muslim Treasury.
Ibn As-Sabil (Wayfarer)
Ibn As-Sabil is a term used for the needy traveler in a land, where he does not have what helps him continue his trip. This type has a share in the Zakah for what suffices him to reach his destination, even if he had money there.
The same is true for whoever intends to travel from his area but does not have enough money. This type also has a share in the Zakah money to suffice for his trip and back.
This is proven in the Ayah as well as the following Hadith.
Imams Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah recorded that Ma`mar said that Zayd bin Aslam said that Ata bin Yasar said that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah said,
لَا تَحِلُّ الصَّدَقَةُ لِغَنِيَ إِلَّا لِخَمْسَةٍ:
Sadaqah is not rightful for a wealthy person except in five cases:
... فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ اللّهِ ...
a duty imposed by Allah,
means, a decision, decree and division ordained by Allah,
... وَاللّهُ عَلِيمٌ ...
And Allah is All-Knower,
knowledgeable of all things outwardly and inwardly and what benefits His servants,
... حَكِيمٌ ﴿٦٠﴾
in all what he declares, does, legislates and decides, there is no true deity or lord except Him.
Hypocrites annoy the Prophet
وَمِنْهُمُ الَّذِينَ يُؤْذُونَ النَّبِيَّ وَيِقُولُونَ ...
And among them are men who annoy the Prophet and say:
Allah says, some hypocrites bother the Messenger of Allah by questioning his character, saying,
... هُوَ أُذُنٌ ...
he is (lending his) ear,
to those who say anything about us; he believes whoever talks to him. Therefore, if we went to him and swore, he would believe us.
Similar was reported from Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and Qatadah.
... قُلْ أُذُنُ خَيْرٍ لَّكُمْ ...
Say: "He listens to what is best for you,''
he knows who's saying the truth and who is lying,
... يُؤْمِنُ بِاللّهِ وَيُؤْمِنُ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ...
he believes in Allah; has faith in the believers,
he believes the believers,
... وَرَحْمَةٌ لِّلَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ مِنكُمْ ...
and is a mercy to those of you who believe,''
and a proof against the disbelievers,
... وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْذُونَ رَسُولَ اللّهِ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ ﴿٦١﴾
But those who annoy Allah's Messenger, will have a painful torment.
Hypocrites revert to Lies to please People
يَحْلِفُونَ بِاللّهِ لَكُمْ لِيُرْضُوكُمْ وَاللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَحَقُّ أَن يُرْضُوهُ إِن كَانُواْ مُؤْمِنِينَ ﴿٦٢﴾
They swear by Allah to you (Muslims) in order to please you, but it is more fitting that they should please Allah and His Messenger, if they are believers.
Qatadah said about Allah's statement, يَحْلِفُونَ بِاللّهِ لَكُمْ لِيُرْضُوكُمْ (They swear by Allah to you (Muslims) in order to please you),
"A hypocrite man said, `By Allah! They (hypocrites) are our chiefs and masters. If what Muhammad says is true, they are worse than donkeys.'
A Muslim man heard him and declared, `By Allah! What Muhammad says is true and you are worse than a donkey!'
The Muslim man conveyed what happened to the Prophet who summoned the hypocrite and asked him,
مَا حَمَلَكَ عَلَى الَّذِي قُلْتَ ؟
What made you say what you said?
That man invoked curses on himself and swore by Allah that he never said that.
Meanwhile, the Muslim man said, `O Allah! Assert the truth of the truthful and expose the lies of the liar.'
Allah revealed this Verse.'''
أَلَمْ يَعْلَمُواْ أَنَّهُ مَن يُحَادِدِ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ...
Know they not that whoever opposes and shows hostility to Allah and His Messenger,
means, have they not come to know and realize that those who defy, oppose, wage war and reject Allah, thus becoming on one side while Allah and His Messenger on another side,
... فَأَنَّ لَهُ نَارَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدًا فِيهَا ...
certainly for him will be the fire of Hell to abide therein,
in a humiliating torment,
... ذَلِكَ الْخِزْيُ الْعَظِيمُ ﴿٦٣﴾
That is the extreme disgrace.
that is the greatest disgrace and the tremendous misery.
The Hypocrites fear Public Exposure of Their Secrets
يَحْذَرُ الْمُنَافِقُونَ أَن تُنَزَّلَ عَلَيْهِمْ سُورَةٌ تُنَبِّئُهُمْ بِمَا فِي قُلُوبِهِم ...
The hypocrites fear lest a Surah should be revealed about them, showing them what is in their hearts.
"The hypocrites would say something to each other then declare, `We wish that Allah does not expose this secret of ours,''
There is a similar Ayah to this one, that is, Allah's statement,
وَإِذَا جَآءُوكَ حَيَّوْكَ بِمَا لَمْ يُحَيِّكَ بِهِ اللَّهُ وَيَقُولُونَ فِى أَنفُسِهِمْ لَوْلاَ يُعَذِّبُنَا اللَّهُ بِمَا نَقُولُ حَسْبُهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ يَصْلَوْنَهَا فَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ
And when they come to you, they greet you with a greeting wherewith Allah greets you not, and say within themselves: "Why should Allah punish us not for what we say!''
Hell will be sufficient for them; they will burn therein. And worst indeed is that destination! (58:8)
Allah said in this Ayah,
... قُلِ اسْتَهْزِؤُواْ إِنَّ اللّهَ مُخْرِجٌ مَّا تَحْذَرُونَ ﴿٦٤﴾
Say: "(Go ahead and) mock! But certainly Allah will bring to light all that you fear.''
He will expose and explain your reality to His Messenger through revelation.
Allah said in other Ayat,
أَمْ حَسِبَ الَّذِينَ فِى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَّرَضٌ أَن لَّن يُخْرِجَ اللَّهُ أَضْغَـنَهُمْ
وَلَوْ نَشَآءُ لأَرَيْنَـكَهُمْ فَلَعَرَفْتَهُم بِسِيمَـهُمْ وَلَتَعْرِفَنَّهُمْ فِى لَحْنِ الْقَوْلِ
Or do those in whose hearts is a disease, think that Allah will not expose their ill-wills?
Had We so willed, We could have shown them clearly to you, so that you would know them by their marks; but you will know them by the tone of their speech! (47:29-30)
This is why, according to Qatadah, this Surah is called `Al-Fadihah' (the Exposing), because it exposed the hypocrites.
The Hypocrites rely on False, Misguided Excuses
وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُمْ لَيَقُولُنَّ إِنَّمَا كُنَّا نَخُوضُ وَنَلْعَبُ قُلْ أَبِاللّهِ وَآيَاتِهِ وَرَسُولِهِ كُنتُمْ تَسْتَهْزِؤُونَ ﴿٦٥﴾
If you ask them (about this), they declare: "We were only talking idly and joking.''
Say: "Was it at Allah, and His Ayat and His Messenger that you were mocking!''
Abdullah bin Umar said,
"During the battle of Tabuk, a man was sitting in a gathering and said, `I have never seen like these reciters of ours! They have the hungriest stomachs, the most lying tongues and are the most cowardice in battle.'
A man in the Masjid said, `You lie. You are a hypocrite, and I will surely inform the Messenger of Allah.'
This statement was conveyed to the Messenger of Allah and also a part of the Qur'an was revealed about it.'''
Abdullah bin Umar said,
"I have seen that man afterwards holding onto the shoulders of the Messenger's camel while stones were falling on him, declaring, `O Allah's Messenger! We were only engaged in idle talk and jesting,' while the Messenger of Allah was reciting,
أَبِاللّهِ وَآيَاتِهِ وَرَسُولِهِ كُنتُمْ تَسْتَهْزِؤُونَ
'Was it at Allah, and His Ayat and His Messenger that you were mocking.'''
لاَ تَعْتَذِرُواْ قَدْ كَفَرْتُم بَعْدَ إِيمَانِكُمْ ...
Make no excuse; you disbelieved after you had believed.
on account of your statement and mocking,
... إِن نَّعْفُ عَن طَآئِفَةٍ مِّنكُمْ نُعَذِّبْ طَآئِفَةً ...
If We pardon some of you, We will punish others among you,
for not all of you will be forgiven, some will have to taste the torment,
... بِأَنَّهُمْ كَانُواْ مُجْرِمِينَ ﴿٦٦﴾
because they were criminals,
they were criminals because of this terrible, sinful statement.
Other Characteristics of Hypocrites
الْمُنَافِقُونَ وَالْمُنَافِقَاتُ بَعْضُهُم مِّن بَعْضٍ ...
The hypocrites, men and women, are one from another;
Allah admonishes the hypocrites who, unlike the believers, who enjoin righteousness and forbid evil,
... يَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمُنكَرِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَقْبِضُونَ أَيْدِيَهُمْ ...
they enjoin evil, and forbid the good, and they close their hands,
from spending in Allah's cause,
... نَسُواْ اللّهَ ...
They have forgotten Allah,
they have forgotten the remembrance of Allah,
... فَنَسِيَهُمْ ...
so He has forgotten them.
by treating them as if He has forgotten them. Allah also,
وَقِيلَ الْيَوْمَ نَنسَاكُمْ كَمَا نَسِيتُمْ لِقَآءَ يَوْمِكُمْ هَـذَا
And it will be said: "This Day We will forget you as you forgot the meeting of this Day of yours. (45:34)
... إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ ﴿٦٧﴾
Verily, the hypocrites are the rebellious!
the rebellious from the way of truth who embrace the wicked way,
وَعَدَ الله الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَالْمُنَافِقَاتِ وَالْكُفَّارَ نَارَ جَهَنَّمَ ...
Allah has promised the hypocrites -- men and women -- and the disbelievers, the fire of Hell,
on account of their evildoing mentioned here,
... خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ...
therein shall they abide.
for eternity, they and the disbelievers,
... هِيَ حَسْبُهُمْ ...
It will suffice them.
as a torment,
... وَلَعَنَهُمُ اللّهُ ...
Allah has cursed them,
He expelled and banished them (from His mercy),
... وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُّقِيمٌ ﴿٦٨﴾
and for them is the lasting torment.
كَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ كَانُواْ أَشَدَّ مِنكُمْ قُوَّةً وَأَكْثَرَ أَمْوَالاً وَأَوْلاَدًا فَاسْتَمْتَعُواْ بِخَلاقِهِمْ فَاسْتَمْتَعْتُم بِخَلاَقِكُمْ كَمَا اسْتَمْتَعَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ ...
Like those before you: they were mightier than you in power, and more abundant in wealth and children. They had enjoyed their portion (a while), so enjoy your portion (a while) as those before you enjoyed,
Allah says, these people were touched by torment in this life and the Hereafter, just as those before them.
... بِخَلاَقِهِمْ ...
According to Al-Hasan Al-Basri,
means, (they mocked) their religion.
... وَخُضْتُمْ كَالَّذِي خَاضُواْ ...
and you indulged in play and pastime as they indulged in play and pastime,
indulged in lies and falsehood,
... أُوْلَـئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ ...
Such are they whose deeds are in vain,
their deeds are annulled; they will not acquire any rewards for them because they are invalid,
... فِي الُّدنْيَا وَالآخِرَةِ وَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ ﴿٦٩﴾
in this world and in the Hereafter. Such are they who are the losers.
because they will not acquire any rewards for their actions.
Ibn Abbas commented,
"How similar is this night to the last night, كَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ (Like those before you...). These are the Children of Israel, with whom we were compared.
The Prophet said,
وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَتَتَّبِعُنَّهُمْ حَتَّى لَوْ دَخَلَ الرَّجُلُ مِنْهُمْ جُحْرَ ضَبَ لَدَخَلْتُمُوه
By He in Whose Hand is my life! You will imitate them, and even if a man of them entered the den of a lizard, you will enter it likewise!''
Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah said,
وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَتَتَّبِعُنَّ سَنَنَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ شِبْرًا بِشِبْرٍ وَذِرَاعًا بِذِرَاعٍ، وَبَاعًا بِبَاعٍ حَتَّى لَوْ دَخَلُوا جُحْرَ ضَبَ لَدَخَلْتُمُوه